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It has been truly said that "all history is essentially local." 
Within the comparatively narrow limits of a county, events of 
seemingly little importance are constantly transpiring, which, 
growing venerable through age and great through their more or 
less direct results, become invested with a peculiar interest, and 
are rightfully worthy of perpetual remembrance. A small com- 
munity has its place in history as well as a large one. Every 
intelligent and public-spirited citizen feels a degree of pride in 
the achievements, the industrial growth, the religious, social and 
intellectual progress of his county. Thus it is that in almost 
every section of the Union efforts are being put forth to perpetu- 
ate local history. 

We are confident that the History of De Kalb County will be 
kindly and cordially received by its subscribers. Time and money 
have been lavishly expended to make it a complete and reliable 
history, and any inaccuracies it may contain are due to the ina- 
bility of the compilers to obtain the necessary information. It 
has been our intention to give at least the name, if not a more 
extended notice, of every pioneer, living or dead; and if there are 
any omissions they aie chargeable to the slight importance placed 
on the preservation of records in the early days of the county's 
history, and failure on the part of those having the knowledge to 
impart it to the compiler. In the spelling of proper names we 
have found in this, as in other counties, that members of a family 
disagree; and where such is the case, who shall decide? Also, 
members of a family often differ in regard to dates and places. 
In county and township records, too, a surprising number of con- 
tradictions are found. 

In the absence of any suitable history of the State of Indiana, 
we conceived it a favor to our readers to compile a condensed his- 


tory which is inserted in this volume before the county portion. 
This State history, short as it is, will be found the best published, 
as the material has been drawn by competent hands from un- 
questionable sources. 

In conclusion, our thanks are due to the editors of the Republi- 
can, Courier, Press, Record and Review for many favors; to county 
officers for innumerable courtesies; to public societies and churches 
and their officers for data furnished ; and to the citizens generally for 
their ready co-operation and interest taken in our work. We hope 
that our readers will consider the peculiar difficulties surrounding 
such an enterprise, and that after a careful perusal they will decide 
that it is not a book to be read and then laid on the shelf to moulder, 
neglected, in the dust, like a work of transient interest, but that it 
will grow in interest and importance as the years go by. As other 
sources of information diminish, let it stand as a monument to 
tell to coming generations the noble part their forefathers took in 
the settlement of the grand old State of Indiana and the beauti- 
ful county of De Kalb. 


Chicago, September, 1885. 




Pre-Hietoric Races— First Immigration— Second Immigration— The Tartars— Relics of the 
Mound Builders— The Indians— Manners and Customs 17-36 


Earliest Explorers— Ouabache— Vincennes— National Policies— The Great French Scheme— 
Pontiac's War— British Policy— American Policy- Indian Savagery 37-51 


Against KaskaBkia— Vincennes— Ingenious Ruse Against the Indians— Subsequent Career 
ofHamilton-Gibault— Vigo 52-67 


Ordinance of 1787— Liquor and Gaming Laws 67-74 


Expedition ol Harmar, Scott and Wilkinson- Expeditions of St. Clair and Wayne— Gen- 
eral Wayne's Great Victory 75-81 


Organization of Indiana Territory— First Territorial Legislature— The Western Sun— Indi- 
ana in 1810 82-86 


Treaties of Peace— Harrison's Campaign— Battle of Tippecanoe 87-100 


Declaration of War— Siege of Fort Wayne— Expedition Against the Indians— Close of the 
War 101-108 


The Most Noted Indian— A Shawnee Warrior— Desire to Confederate all the iTribes— Con 
ference with Governor HarriBon— His Arrangement with the Prophet, but Final Disap- 
pointment 111-116 

CIVIL MATTERS OF 1812-1815. 

Message of John Gibson— Message of Governor Posey— Hospitality Toward the Indians- 
Population of 1815-General View— Close of Territorial History 116-120 


Constitutional Convention— First General Assembly— Governor's Message— Rush of Immi- 
grants to the New State— General Prosperity 121-125 


Removal of Indians West of the Mississippi— Unwilling to Leave Their Hunting Grounds— 
An Attempt to Defy the Decrees of Government— The Militia Called Out— Capture of 
Black Hawk 126-130 


Emigration under Command of Colonel Pepper and General Tipton— Indian Titles— 6,000,- 
000 Acres Ceded to the United Stater 131-132 



First Land Sale— Settlers vs. Land Speculators— An Indian Scare— Harmony Com- 
munity .133-135 


Cause of the War— Troops Called Out— Incidents of the War— Bravery of the Soldiers— The 
TroopBfrom Indiana— Cost of the War 136-143 


Fifteenth Amendment— Indiana Patriots Anions the First to Respond to the Call for Troops 
■ --" 'o the Front— 10,000 Men from Indi — 
Days' Volunteers-The President's Call of July, 1864— Call of December, 1864— Ind 

-Indiana's "War Governor" to the Front— 10,000 Men from Indiana— Three Months' Reg- 
-Three Years' Regiments— Minute Men— Six Months' Regiments— One Hundred 

pendent Cavalry Company— Colored Troops — Light Artillery— Batties in which Indiana 
Soldiers Fought— After the War 

" "ecember, 1S64— In 
ies in which India 



Early Taxes— State Bank— Wealth and Progress— Internal Improvements— Canals— Turn- 
pikes— Railroads 194-205 


Developments of Mineral Resources— Rich Iron Mines— Coal— Lime 205-209 


State Board of Agriculture— Exposition— Indiana Horticultural Society— Indiana Ponio- 
logical Society 209-215 


Public Schools— Indiana State University— Purdue University— Indiana State Normal 
School— Northern Indiana Normal school and Business Institute, Valparaiso— Denom- 
inational and Private Institutions 215-232 


Institute for the Education of the Blind— Institute for the Deaf and Dumb— Hospital for the 
Insane— The State Prison South— The State Prison North— Female Prison and Reforma- 
tory—Indiana House of Refuge 232-244 




Changes of Fifty Years— Life in the Crowded East— Courage of the Pioneers— Their 
Labors and Rewards— A pen picture 245-249 



Geography and Topography— Geological Structure of De Kalb County— Zoology 250-266 


Pioneer History and Reminiscences. * 

Early Settlement— Pioneers Before 1836— Locating the County Seat— Early Commis- 
sioners' Meetings— Early Incidents— Indian Scares— The Nearest Mill— Provisions 
Scarce— The Log Cabin— Hand Labor- Handspike Farming— Windrow Planting— First 
Preacher— First 'Religion* Meetings— Early Preacher* and Religious Progress— A Back- 
woods Judge— More of the Pioneers— The Flood- Navigating the Desert with a Pockst 
Compass— Gunpowder Tea— A Bridal Tour— All Wellbut Fourteen!— Sufferings of Mr. 
Oeburn— Family Mills— Primitive School-houses— ARascally Parody 267-290 


Pioneer Histort— Continued. 

■ Wesley Park's Narrative— Milk Diet— Hotel Crowded— New Arrivals— County Organ- 
ized—Jail in the Loft of Park's Cabin— A Court Scene— Trying Times— White and 
Palmer— Some Indian Customs— Better Times — lohn Houitou's Narrative— Escape 
from Freezing— Unwelcome Visitors— They Uelp Themselves— A Bloody Resolve— The 
Curse of America— Trip to the Prairies-Female Ox-driver— John Fee and his Bfg Track 
—Incidents, by M. M.— A Spirited Pet- Bear Hunt— A Change in Plan— Bear Hant Re- 
snmed-A Diversion 291-309 




Political Complexion of De Kalb County— First County Election and Officers Chosen- 
Presidential Campaign of 1840, Harrison and Van Buren— Polk and Clay in 1644— Taylor 
and Cass in 184S— Pierce and Scott in 1853— New Constitution— Rise of the Republican 
Party— Buchanan and Fremont in 1856— Crista 1860, Lincoln and Douglas— Close Vote 
in 1863— Lincoln and McClellan in 1864 -Grant and Seymour in 1868— Biennial Elections 
Adopted— Grant and Gre.O.-y in l-:7'i Have* and Tilden in 187ti-Garneld and Hancock 
in 1880— Cleveland and Blaine in 1881— Summary of Elections from 1839 to 1884— Official 
List for De Kalb County — Clerks — Recorders— Auditors— Treasurers — Sheriffs— Commis- 
sioners— Other Officers 310-332 


The War foe the Union. 

Devotion to Country— Gyddess of War— First Enlistments— De Kalb County Guards- 
Munitions of War— De Kalb County not in the Background— But One Voice— Loyal 
Meetings— Meeting at Spencerville— Drafting— Roll or Honor— Ninth Regiment- 
Eleventh—'! ■ ■'■nth— Seventeenth— Nineteenth— Twentieth— Twenly-iirst— 
fourth- Forty-eighth— Forty -ninth —Seventy -fourth— Eightv-seventh— Eighty-eighth— 
Ninety-first— One Hundred and Eighteenth— One Hundred and Nineteenth- One Hun- 
dred and Twenty-seventh— One Hundred and Twentyninth-One Hundred and For- 
tieth—One Hundred and Forty-second 333-400 


The Press. 

Auburn Observer— Democratic Messenger— D i Kalb Democrat— Auburn Republican— 
De Kalb County Times— Waterloo Press— Sketch of F. W. Willis— The New Era— Ob- 
server and Reporter— De Kalb Democrat— The Democrat — The Air Line — Anburn 
Courier— Sketch of J. A. Barns — Butler Herald— Banner of Liberty— Auburn Times- 
Butler News— De Kalb County Republican— Sketch of C. P. Houser— Sketch of M. H. 
Hoisington— Garrett News— Garrett Herald— Sketch of Otho J. Powell— Butler Record 
—Sketch of W. F. Garrison— Butler Review— Sketch of Edmund Calkins— Sketch of J. 
J. Higgins 401-411 

Bar and Courts. 


Pioneer Association. 

De Kalb County Backward in this Matter— Society Organized in 1878— First Meeting- 
September Meeting, 1873— First Officers and Constitution— Second Annual Meeting- 
Fourth Annual Meeting — Address of Secretary Dills— Early Pioneer Families, arranged 
by Townships— Early Incidents and Allusions— Contrasts— Fifth Annual Meeting— Ad- 
dress of James E. Rose — A Pioneer School-house, and How it Was Built — Text-books— 
Apparatus— Religions Meetings— Pioneer Ministers— Merchants— "Old Jack"— Pioneer 
Customs— Travel and Communication— Tribute to the Old Settlers— Semi-Centennial 
Celebration of the Settlement of the County— Poem by Rev. A. H. Widney, "The Woods 
of the St. Joseph"— Meeting at Waterloo, in 18S4 417-445 


Agriculture— Railroads— Wagon-Ro ads. 

Advantages of a Rural Life— Fertility of Soil in De Kalb County— Variety of Crops- 
Crop Statistics— Live Stock— Agricultural Society— Before the War— Reorganization- 
Annual Fairs from 1871 to 1834 — Railroads— Lake Shore & Michigan Southern— Grand 
Rapids & Indiana— Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific— Baltimore & Ohio— Wagon Roads- 
Difficulties in Early Travel— Distant Markets— First Roads-First Bridges 446-462 



Soldiers' Reunions— At Anbnrn— Reunion of Company D, Eighty-eighth Regiment- 
Reunion of 1879— The Sham Battle— Reunion of 1880— Tri-State Reunion— Reunion 
at Garrett— At Auburn in 1883— At Waterloo in 1884— A New Way of Getting a Drink— 
They Backed Down— Disastrous Storm— Fall of the Snyder Block at Auburn— J ail- 
Court- house — Spelling Match — Wild Game— Fox Hunts — Sink-hole — Daring Burglary — 

An Expensive Coon List of Early Weddings— Manufactures— Statistics 463-487 


Butler Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— Organization— First Settlers— First Churches- 
Early Justices, Constables and Trustees— Abraham Fair, a Pioneer— Population— Agri- 
cultural Statistics— Biographical 488-505 

Concord Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— First Election— First Justice of the Peace in 
the County — Early Settlers — Sketch of Nelson TJlm — List of Pioneers — Early Justices, 
Constables, Trustees and Assessors— Spencerville— St. Joe— Population— Property and 
Taxation— Crop Statistics— Biographical 506-552 


Fairfield Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— Organization as a TownBhip— Pioneers— Early 
Events— Fairfield Center— Early JuBtices, Constables and Trustees— Population— Prop- 
erty and Taxation— Agri en ltural Statistics— Biographical 553-599 

Franklin Township. 

Sitnation— Geography and Topography— Organization— John Houlton, the First Settler 
of the Connty— Other Pioneers— Roads, Mills and Markets— First Election— EarlylPreach- 
ers, School-houses and Schools— Population— Property and Taxation— Agricultural 
Statistics— Reminiscences of John Houlton— Anecdote of Beecher— John Driscal— Near- 
est Neighbors— Biographical 600-637 

Jackson Township. 

-First Comers — Population- 
Justices, Constables, Trusteei 
and Assessors— Biographical 638-672 

Keyber Township. 

"opography— Organiza- 
Qd Taxation— Agricult- 
ural Statistics— Garrett— Business— Present Business Directory— Professional— Paper- 
Town Officers— Churches and Societies— Biographical 673-700 

Newttlle Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— Pioneers— Newrille— Early Township Officials 
—Population— Property and Taxation— Agricultural Statistics— Biographical 701-719 

Richland Township. 
Situation— Geograi 
Settlers— Other Pic 
ation — Crop Statistics — Sedan — Corunna— Biographical 720-754 

Smithpield Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— First Settler, Isaac B. Smith— His Narrative- 
Entering Land Under Unusual Difficulties— Other Pioneers— First Events— A Poem (?) 
—Early Township Officials— Population— Property and Taxation— Agricultural Statistics 
—Biographical 755-778 

Stafford Township. 
Situation— Geogra 
Early Day— First 1 
Statistics— Biographical .-.", 779-796 

Trot Township. 

Situation— Geography and Topography— Early Settlers— EarlyTownship ( 
ulation— Property and Taxation— Agricultural Statistics— Biographical . . . 

Union Township. 

Position— Advantages— Geography and Topography— Early 
Organization of Township— Early Justices, Constables ai 
Property and Taxation— Agricultural Statistics— Auburn— Its Early History— First Mer- 
chants, Professional Men, Buildings, etc.— Progress— Business Directory— Manufactur- 

Wilmington Township. 

and Topograph 1 , _. 

Life of John ] 
Dan Coats— The "Hard Winter"— Organization as a Township— Early Township 
cials— Population— Property and Taxation— Agricultural Statistics— Butler— Early His- 
tory and Subsequent Progress— Business Directory— Professional— Bank— Newspapers 
—Schools— Religious-Societies— Biographical 852-966 


^ . 



Cornell, William 

Cornell, W. H. H 


. . .492 

.. 492 




Jackson, Levi 

Knott, Robert 

Knott, S. M 

Lung, Paul 

Lung, Pnilip 




. in; 

.. 199 



. . 532 


. . 53 3 
..53 4 



Si mon, Jonathan 



Smith, Henry 

Stonestreet, David 


Fair, Abraham 

Feagler, W. A 

Finney, Rev. William.. . 

Honsel,J. F 

Jackson, JeBse 


Abel,H. J 

Abel, J. H 

Baker, James 

...49 J 



Titnberlain Brothers... 

Olds, S.N 

Provines, J. A 

Ricketts, Ira 




Reever, Michael 


Gee,H. J 

Hadsell, Rev. James 

Hamilton, Benjamin 

Hamilton, J. M 

Hauk, George 

Henderson, William 

Horn, Andrew 

Hornberger, I.N 

Hull, Henry 

Jenkins, Henry 

Kines, George 

Koch, Joseph 

Krise, Thomas 

Rnmmel, O. W 

Scholes, Nelson 

Secbler, Levi 

Shilling, J. R 

.. 544 

Boyles, Jonathan 

Buchanan, David 

Buchanan, Florance . . . 


Butler, D. C 


Showalter, Levi 

Shull, Jonathan 


Coburn, C. M 

Coburn, Ebenezer 

Coburn, J. F 


St. Clair, J. H 

Walters, C. C 

Wasson, Samuel 


Leighty, John 

Lutz, Stephen 

Malone, James 

Maxwell, Henry 

Culbertson, Robertson. 

Draggoo, G. W 

Draper, Amos 

Dermott. Jacob 

Emanuel, Jonas, M. D . 
Fales.H. H 

Ansley.D. C 

Barkey, Christian 

. . . 524 



Widney, Samuel 


Murray, T. S 538 

Nelson, Thomas 539 

Gushwa, Philip, Jr 570 

Wilmot G. W 


Rowe, G. W 

Rufner, George 

Scbmid, Andrew 


Haller, J.F 

Hartman, Leonard 

Helwig. Hon. Jacob 

Hemstreet, Alonzo 

Hovater, John, Sr 

Husselman, G. W 

Husselman, J. T 

Jones, Harrison 

Krahn, Frederick 


. . 572 
. . 573 
. . 574 

Billman, George 

Boyer, Jqsiah 

. . . 55S 

Brumback, J. M 

Buchanan, David 

Buchanan, G. M 

Buchanan, John 

Buchanan, Leander ... 

Childs, Willard 

Deitz, A.H 


. . . 561 

. . . 563 

Shipe. Ephraim 

Shook, Jonathan 

Slayman, George 

Smith, Harrison 

Stonebraker, James 

Stonebraker, J. M 

Stomm, Henry 

Urey, J. T 

Watts. Samuel 

Wei rich, Adam 

. ..589 

Ling. John L 

Mcfnturf, Elihu 

McNabb, David 

Metzger, J.J 

. 576 
. 578 

Eckart, Sebastian 

Emerick, George 

Frederick, George 

Freed, Henry 

Freed, John 

Gardner, Henry 




. . . 56? 

Potts, John 

Putt, George 

Keinoehl, David 

Reinoehl , Michael 

Reiuoebl, Peter 


White, S.F 

Wiley, W.P 

Wilsey, W. H 


Goodrich, Philander 

Gushwa, J. A 

Gushwa, Philip 

Aldrich, J. D 

.' '. . 569 


Wright, Edward 

Zonker, Anthony 


Ringler, Chauncey 582 


Houlton, John 

Houlton, M. K 

Houlton, W. L 



Bontrager, Nicholas 

Boyer, C. C 

Bratton, William 

Casey, Benjamin 

Casper. Capt. G. H.... 

Clark, J. N. 

Crain.E. A 

Crain.L. T 

Dirrim, John 

Dirrim, W. H 

. . .608 

Myers, J. C 


Huyck, J. T 

Jackman, Cyrns 

Jackman, Isaac 

Jone°,M. C 

Kepler, Alfred 

Kepler, Elias 

. 621 



.62 4 


Sawvel, I. D 

Sawvel, Reuben 

Shnltz, Allen 


Smith, J. H 


Teutsch, Peter 

Waterman, Hon. Miles. 



Kepler, Samael 

Knieely, William 

Lantzenheiser, E. E 

Lantzenheiser, J. H 



Firestone, S. K 

Greenwood, G. F 

Hamman, Adam 

Hamman, John 

Helwig, Peter 


Wilson, M. H 








Bishop,J.W 643 

Boots, J. S 644 

Brown, Burton 645 

Brown, Henry 645 

Cool, John 646 

Cornel], Samnel 647 

Dancer, W S 648 

Ditmars, Isaac 649 

Ditmars, Peter 650 

Freeman, Edmund 650 

Friend, Michael 651 

Glazier, C. P 651 

Hamilcon, John 653 

Hamilton, G.W 653 

Askew, I.N 660 

Bicknell, H. M 680 

Bicknell, T. P 681 

B.echbill, Jacob 681 

Bruce, Devolzo 682 

Clark, T. J 682 

■Cochran, Thomas 683 

Cottell, Josiah 683 

Cupp, Jacob 684 

Depew, Abel 684 

Fisher. Elias 685 

Former, Elihu 685 

Fountain, William 685 

Bartletr, S. H 705 

Blair, B.F 706 

Blood, O.S 706 

OilHirn, II. W 707 

Faurot, Randal 707 

Fuller, N. T 709 

Fusselman, Henry 710 

Bangs, Heman 723 

Browand, C. C 724 

Buse.C. C 725 

Calkins, P. N 726 

Cbaffie, B. A 726 

Cox, A. F 727 

Daily, T. D 727 

Eldridge.T. J 728 

Franks, Manoah <28 

Franks, T. F 729 

Fried, F. G 730 

Frost, J. B 730 

Goetscbius, J. M 731 

Griffith, Nelson 732 

Grncrcr, Peter 732 

natter, J. F. 733 

Barker, M. P 763 

Bowman, CyruB 764 

Boyer, Adam 764 

Beyer, B. H 765 

Camp, O.J 765 

Campbell, Abel 765 

Duncan, G. H 766 

Duncan, R. T...: 767 

Erwin, Edward 767 

Feagler, David 768 

Arford, Robert 782 

Beha, Daniel 782 

Blaker, D. W 783 

Bradley, Joseph 783 

Cather, Rev. JameB.., 784 

Diehl, Isaac 785 

Gaffi, James 786 

Greenwalt, Daniel 787 

Grube, Peter 787 

Henderson, Samuel.. 

Hilkey, Amos 

Hinee, Henry 

Johnson, Nathan — 
Johnson, William.... 

Lawhead, J. G 

illan, William. 

Means, J. W 

Miller, W. D 

Osborne, Samuel . . . 

Owens.J. C 

Owens, Marchall — 


Grub, Calvin 686 

Grub, lohn 686 

Hathaway, Albert 687 

Hathaway, Lucian 687 

Jackson, Amos 688 

K.'iu .m, Edward 68S 

Kester, A. A 689 

McClure, J. A 690 

Moody, B. F 690 

Moody, Harvey .■ 691 

Oeker, D. W 691 

Ocker, E. U 692 

Probst, Henry 693 

I Prosser, Adam 662 

Prosser, J. C 663 

Prosser, William 663 

Provines, Alexander 664 

ProvineB, James .665 

Sq uiers, Nathan 666 

Sqniers.W. A 666 

Stafford, J. K 667 

Staff.-rd, Samuel 667 

Steward, J. M 668 

Tarney, S. J 669 

Wyatt, Daniel 670 

Wyatt, John 671 

Wyatt, Nathan 671 

traw, Mahlon 694 

Reyher, C 694 

Rogers, Harris 695 

Ritmmel, Jonathan 695 

Swihart, Daniel 696 

Teeteis, Washington 697 

Truelove, Robert 697 

Wagner, J. W 698 

Weaver, Allen 698 

Weaver, David 699 

Weaver, Henry 699 

Tarde, John, Sr.. 
Yarde, John, Jr. 



Gunsenoonser, Isaac 712 Rhodes, Capt. M. L. 

Headley, W. S... 


Jewell, Rev. O. ] 

M ithews, John 

Nelson, John 714 Wair 

Flatter, J. W 715 


.713 Seeley, 

.713 Smith, A. W 

.713 Smith, Philander. 
Strong, E. B 

lmer, J. W. 

Kagey, C. B 735 

Keen, George 736 

■ i .iM-'rpb .. .. ;.-»; 

Knapp, 0. H 737 

Lawrence, David 
Lchner, Jacob . 
Lockwood, Irwin 

Linty, Daniel 

McDowell " ' 

Mead, H. P 744 

Palmer, J. S 745 

Patterson, G. 1 746 

Quince, Joseph 747 

Kinger, Jacob 747 

suowtrs, Gilbert 748 

Shnll, H. A 749 


, Hon. W. M. 

738 Smith, J. L. 

738 i ThomaB, Daniel 751 

739 I Treesh, h. W.....». 751 

739 I Treesh, Michael 752 

740 I Treesh, Peter 753 

742 I Treesh, William 753 



Frick, Henry 768 

Gramling, Rtchord 769 

Hamman, Franklin 769 

llaniiuau, Thomas 769 

Uemstreet Jeremiah 770, E. M 770 

J uc k i, i an , Wesley 771 

Jenkins, John 772 

Kennedy, Samuel 772 

Kimmell, Daniel 773 



Grube, W. H 

Gunseiihouser, J.J. 

Ilollinger, John 789 

Hall, Peleg .789 

Loveland, L. C 790 

McDannel, David 785 

'.! ., ,„ oel . .. . V'O 

rille, Eil ward 791 

Scoville, W.H 791 

Martin, John 773 

McOscar, John 774 

Porter, J. D 774 

l;, C.L., Jr 775 

Sawvell, Jacob 776 

Stoffer, Eli 776 

Stout, A. A 776 

Walker, J. R 777 

Waterman,F.C 778 

Scoville. W.E 792 

Shoub, John 792 

Smith, John 793 

Soule.G. B 794 

Tinstman, Henry 794 

Wattenbe, S. P 795 

Webster, Hazzard 795 



- *U t 




Aldrich|s. J 

Brunner, Jacob 

Burkhart, Henry 

Casebeer, George 

Casebeer, John 

Casebeer, J. P 

Everetts, G. G 

. 803 

Heller, George 

. 865 

. Si 15 

.'si 16 
.SI 17 











.'s9 ; : 

Robinett, John 

Rummel, Talma 

Smiley, G. W 

Smith, J. H 

Souder.G. B 


Jennings, William 

Kecistnck, John 

Leason, Thomas 

McCurdy, David 

Mllligan, Dr. James 


Abright, Joseph 

Ashleman, J. W 

Bachtel, 1. 

Baird, Prank 

. 837 


Otto, J. F 

Pepple, G. W 


Goodwin, Samuel 

Gordon, G. W 

Griswold, Hiram 

Grogg, Daniel 

Grogg, Jacob 

Groscop, J. F 

Haque, Isaac 

Hartman, E. D 

Headley, D. C 

Heberling, S. R 

Henry, J. C 

Hodge, C. P 

Hollister, Sherman 

Hoodelmire, Leonard — 

Husselman, Calviu 

Husselman, D. T 

ImhofE.T. E 

Kiblinger, W. H 

Kimsey, J. M 

Kimsey, T. B 

Kline, Michael 

Ralston, S. W 

Raub, E. D 

Raut, Charles 

Reed, R. S. S 

Rhodenbaugh, Gilbert.. 

Robbins, Albert 

Rose, J. E 

Rush, W. E 

Saxton.T. J 

. ..921 
.. 924 

Bauglinian, Isaiah 

Baxter, C. R 

Beck, Jacob 

Beck, Samuel 

Beidler. John 




Blair, Gen. L.J 

Boland, Michael 

Bongham, W. M 



Shoner, George 


Brandon J. 2 

Brand, Capt., J. C 

Brandon, Moses 

Brandon, S. J 

Braun, Henry 

Batt, Mrs. Delia 


Sinclair, A.J 

Sinclair, J. W 


Smith, A. T 

Smith.D. T 

Snyder, William 


Casebeer, J. B 

Chamberlain, J. N 

. ..85" 

Kutzner, M. S 

Somers, J. M 

Stafford, JoseDh 

St. Clair, J. C." 

Stevens, Capt. A. R 


LeaslH.K. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'. 

Clark, O.C 


Cooper, J. R 

Cowan, J, A 

Crooks, Mathew 


.. .858 


Lessin, William 


Long, E. E 

Lowman, Rev. I. W 





'. '.$m 


. 9111 
..91 is 



Stroh, William 

Stongh, Solomon 


Cutter, Capt. E. B 

Danks, Orris 

Darby, A. B 

Davis, John 

Dickenson, Ezra 

Dills, W.H 



Swartz, William 

Taylor, E. H 

Thomas, John 

Tomlinson, T. H 

Trout, Eugene 

Van Auken.J. J 

Veley.J. C 


Matheny, T. G 

Maxson, J. F 

Maxwell, W. B 

McBride, R. W 


McCleilan, Hon. C. A. O 

McEntaffer, Abram 

.Mei.nist.iu. W. H 

Merita, C. M 

Miser, Peter 

Mott, Hon. E. B 

Mott, Mrs. Mary 

Mott, Lieut. S. E 


Dunn, G. H 

Bldridge. Kdward 

Elson, Richard 

Ensley, Hon. Nicholas. 

Farrington, A S 

Fluke, Philip 

Froehlich, Herman 

Gardner, Joseph 

Ackley, E.C 

Aldrich, W. C 

Baxter, A. J 

Baxter, J. H 

Beechler, C. W 

Bennett. J. B 


'.'.'. Si -.9 



. .91)9 

Walsworth, W. J 

Ward. liev. S. B 

Widney, J. M 

Winney, O. H 

Willis, M. B 


Wolfe, George 

Hablawetz, Anton 

Hamilton, Gavin 

Hamilton, J. G 

Hamilton, S. L 

IIaskins,G. C 

lla/.lett. Jonathan 

Hepp, C. P 


.. .992 

Coats, Dr. Noyce 

ColHnberry, H. N 

Coflrin, Charles 

Cou'gewell, P. K 

Crane, C. H 

Dailey.I. D 

Demaranville, William.. 

Diehl.D. D 

Kukri-lit, Abraham 

Kakriu'lit, J. J 

..9, 7 

. 981 



Blaker, Achilles 


Briggs, E. D 

Brinl, P. A 


IIunt.L. C 


Fosdick, E. L 

. 984 



Brunstetter, Morrison. 

Campbell, J. A 

Cannon, J. W 

Cantleberry, J. E 

Chambers, James 

Chambers, James-Jr. . . 
Cherry, Rev. H. W.... 


.. 976 


Johnson, David 


Ginder, Frederick 

Ginder, Jacob 

Ginder, P. D 

Kenestrick, J. D 

Kester, P. S 

Kmsely, T. J 


Griffith, Lafayette 

Gunsenhouser, Henry... 




Knisely, William 



' <• 

« "" 

"" 5 



Krafft, Edward 998 

Krontz, William 998 

Lanning, J. K 999 

Levy, Aaron 999 

Madden, Hon. W. H 1000 

Mason, A. J 1000 

Masters, E. P 1001 

Maxwell, David 1001 

Maxwell, Hugh 1002 

McNabb.D. T 1003 

Mitchell, T. H 1003 

Moore, A. D 1004 

Newman, C. A 1005 

Nimmons, P. B 1005 

Obendorf , AugnBtuB 1006 

Oberlin, Benjamin 1006 

Oberlin.F. W 1007 

Piuchin, A. P 1007 

Porter, Augustus 1008 

Proctor, Julius 1009 

Pugsley, George 1010 

Revett, JameB 1010 

Reynolds, Frank 1011 

Rose.J. W 1012 

Rose, W. A 1013 

Rudd, Thomas 1013 

Sanders, T. J 1014 

Sco- ill., J. M 1015 

Smith, Andrew 1016 

Stafford, S. E 1017 

Stannard.H. E 1017 

Strong, A. T 1018 

Swartz.G. W 

Topper, J. H 

Topper, W. H 

Troutman, W. V 

Waters, A. A 

Weamer, R. H 

Weeks, J. M 

Whetsel, Henry 

Whetsel.W. J 

Wilson, John 

Woods, J. D 

Woolpert, Rev. D. C . 

Wyckofl, P. Q 

Yoey, Jacob 

Young, O. L 

. 1025 

Bachtel, I. 839 

Bangs, Heman 722 

Buchanan, John 563 

Butt, John 436 

Butt, Delia 437 

Casebeer, J. B 851 

Chamberlain, J. N 469 

Clark, Geo. Rogers 53 

Darby.A. B 501 

Early Explorers of Ind.Ter. 25 

Faurot, Randal 533 

Fountain, William 548 

Fountain, Mrs. William.... 549 

Grogg, Jacob 980 

GuBhwa, Philip 1000 

Haller.J. F 581 


Hartman, Lenard 597 

Hemstreet, Jeremiah 613 

Hemstreet, M. M 614 

Hieroglyphics of the Mound 

Builders 29 

Hunting Prairie Wolves. ... 191 
Indians Attacking Front- 
iersmen 43 

Jones, Harrison 661 

Kelham.E 677 

Leishty, J. D 709 

Matheny, T. G 896 

Map of DeKalb County 215 

Mercer, W. M 741 

McBride, R. W 828 

McClellan, C. A. O 813 

Mott.E.B 906 

Mott, Mrs. E. B 907 

Mott, Lieut. S. E 914 

Opening Ind. Forest 123 

Pioneer Dwelling 179 

PuttB, George 277 

Reinoehl, David 309 

Scene on the Ohio 233 

Scene on the Wabash 145 

Shilling, S 341 

Tecumseh 109 

The Shawnee Prophet 88 

Timberlain, D 405 

Vertical Section of the 
Rocks 252 




Scientists have ascribed to the Mound Builders varied origins 
and though their divergence of opinion may for a time seem incom- 
patible with a thorough investigation of the subject, and tend to 
a confusion of ideas,-no doubt whatever can exist as to the compar- 
ative accuracy of conclusions arrived at by some of them. Like 
the vexed question of the Pillar Towers of Ireland, it has caused 
much speculation, and elicited the opinions of so many learned 
antiquarians, ethnologists and travelers, that it will not be found 
beyond the range of possibility to make deductions that may 
suffice to solve the problem who were the prehistoric settlers of 
America. To achieve this it will not be necessary to go beyond the 
period over which Scripture history extends, or to indulge in those 
airy nights of imagination so sadly identified with occasional 
writers of even the Christian school, and all the accepted literary 
exponents of modern paganism. 

That this continent is co-existent with the world of the ancients 
cannot be questioned. Every investigation, instituted under the 
auspices of modern civilization, confirms the fact and leaves no 
channel open through which the skeptic can escape the thorough 
refutation of his opinions. China, with its numerous living testi- 
monials of antiquity, with its ancient, though limited literature 
and its Babelish superstitions, claims a continuous history from 
antediluvian times; but although its continuity may be denied 
with every just reason, there is nothing to prevent the transmission 
of a hieroglyphic record of its history prior to 1656 anno mundi, 
since many traces of its early settlement survived the Deluge, and 
became sacred objects of the first historical epoch. This very sur- 
vival of a record, such as that of which the Chinese boast, is not 
at variance with the designs of a God who made and ruled the 
universe; but that an antediluvian people inhabited this continent. 


will not be claimed; because it is not probable, though it may be 
possible, that a settlement in a land which may be considered a 
portion of the Asiatic continent, was effected by the immediate 
followers of the first progenitors of the human race. Therefore, on 
entering the study of the ancient people who raised these tumu- 
lus monuments over large tracts of the country, it will be just 
sufficient to wander back to that time when the flood-gates of 
heaven were swung open to hurl destruction on a wicked world; 
and in doing so the inquiry must be based on legendary, or rather 
upon many circumstantial evidences; for, so far as written narra- 
tive extends, there is nothing to show that a movement of people 
too far east resulted in a Western settlement. 


The first and most probable sources in which the origin of the 
Builders must be sought, are those countries lying along the east- 
ern coast of Asia, which doubtless at that time stretched far beyond 
its present limits, and presented a continuous shore from Lopatka 
to Point Cambodia, holding a population comparatively civilized, 
and all professing some elementary form of the Boodhism of later 
days. Those peoples, like the Chinese of the present, were bonnd 
to live at home, and probably observed that law until after the con. 
fusion of languages and the dispersion of the builders of Babel in 
1757, a. m. ; but subsequently, within the following century, the 
old Mongolians, like the new, crossed the great ocean in the very 
paths taken by the present representatives of the race, arrived on 
the same shores, which now extend a very questionable hospitality 
to them, and entered at once upon the colonization of the country 
south and east, while the Caucasian race engaged in a similar move- 
ment of exploration and colonization over what may be justly 
termed the western extension of Asia, and both peoples growing 
stalwart under the change, attained a moral and physical eminence 
to which they never could lay claim under the tropical sun which 
shed its beams upon the cradle of the human race. 

That mysterious people who, like the Brahmins of to-day, wor- 
shiped some transitory deity, and in after years, evidently embraced 
the idealization of Boodhism. as preached in Mongolia early in the 
35th century of the world, together with acquiring the learning of 
the Confucian and Pythagorean schools of the same period, spread 
all over the land, and in their numerous settlements erected these 
rathe, or mounds, and sacrificial altars whereon they received their 



periodical visiting gods, surrendered their bodies to natural absorp- 
tion or annihilation, and watched lor the return of some transmi- 
grated soul, the while adoring the universe, which with all beings 
they believed would be eternally existent. They possessed religious 
orders corresponding in external show at least with the Essenes or 
Theraputas of the pre-Christian and Christian epochs, and to the 
reformed Theraputas or monks of the present. Every memento 
of their coming and their stay which has descended to us is an evi- 
dence of their civilized condition. The free copper found within 
the tumuli ; the open veins of the Superior and Iron Mountain 
copper-mines, with all the modus operandi of ancient mining, such 
as ladders, levers, chisels, and hammer-heads, discovered by the 
French explorers of the Northwest and the Mississippi, are conclu- 
sive proofs that those prehistoric people were highly civilized, and 
that many nourishing colonies were spread throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley, while yet the mammoth, the mastodon, and a hundred 
other animals, now only known by their gigantic fossil remains, 
guarded the eastern shore of the continent as it were against sup- 
posed invasions of the Tower Builders who went west from Babel; 
while yet the beautiful isles of the Antilles formed an integral 
portion of this continent, long years before the European Northman 
dreamed of setting forth to the discovery of Greenland and the 
northern isles, and certainly at a time when all that portion of 
America north of latitude 45° was an ice-incumbered waste. 

Within the last few years great advances have been made toward 
the discovery of antiquities whether pertaining to remains of organic 
or inorganic nature. Together with many email, but telling 
relics of the early inhabitants of the country, the fossils of pre- 
historic animals have been unearthed from end to end of the land, 
and in districts, too, long pronounced by geologists of some repute 
to be without even a vestige of vertebrate fossils. Among the 
collected souvenirs of an age about which so very little is known, 
are twenty-five vertebras averaging thirteen inches in diameter, 
and three vertebras ossified together measure nine cubical feet; a 
thigh-bone five feet long by twenty-eight, by tweive inches in 
diameter, and the shaft fourteen by eight inches thick, the entire 
lot weighing 600 lbs. These fossils are presumed to belong to the 
cretaceous period, when the Dinosaur roamed over the country from 
East to "West, desolating the villages of the people. This animal 
is said to have been sixty feet long, and when feeding in cypress 
and palm forests, to extend himself eighty-five feet, so that he may 



devour the budding tops of those great trees. Other efforts in this 
direction may lead to great results, and culminate probably in the 
discovery of a tablet engraven by some learned Mound Builder, 
describing in the ancient hieroglyphics of China all these men and 
beasts whose history excites so much speculation. The identity of 
the Mound Builders with the Mongolians might lead us to hope 
forsuchacoDsummation; nor is it beyond the range of probability, 
particularly in this practical age, to find the future labors of some 
industrious antiquarian requited by the upheaval of a tablet, written 
in the Tartar characters of 1700 years ago, bearing on a subject 
which can now be treated only on a purely circumstantial basis. 


may have begun a few centuries prior to the Christian era, and 
unlike the former expedition or expeditions, to have traversed north- 
eastern Asia to its Arctic confines, and then east to the narrow 
channel now known as Behring's Straits, which they crossed, and 
sailing up the unchanging Yukon, settled under the shadow of 
Mount St. Elias for many years, and pushing South commingled 
with their countrymen, soon acquiring the characteristics of the 
descendants of the first colonists. Chinese chronicles tell of such 
a people, who went North and were never heard of more. Circum- 
stances conspire to render that particular colony the carriers of a 
new religious faith and of an alphabetic system of a representative 
character to the old colonists, and they, doubtless, exercised a most 
beneficial influence in other respects ; because the influx of immi- 
grants of such culture as were the Chinese, even of that remote 
period, must necessarily bear very favorable results, not only in 
bringing in reports of their travels, but also accounts from the 
fatherland bearing on the latest events. 

With the idea of a second and important exodus there are many 
theorists united, one of whom says: "It is now the generally 
received opinion^ that the first inhabitants of America passed over 
from Asia through these straits. The number of small islands 
lying between both continents renders this opinion still more 
probable; and it is yet further confirmed by some remarkable traces 
of similarity in the physical conformation of the northern natives 
of both continents. The Esquimaux of North America, the 
Samoieds of Asia, and the Laplanders of Europe, are supposed to 
be of the same family; and this supposition is strengthened by the 
affinity which exists in their languages. The researches of Hum- 



boldt have traced the Mexicans to the vicinity of Behring's Straits ; 
whence it is conjectured that they, as well as the Peruvians and 
other tribes, came originally from Asia, and were the Hiongnoos, 
who are, in the Chinese annals, said to have emigrated under Puno, 
and to have been lost in the North of Siberia." 

' Since this theory is accepted by most antiquaries, there is every 
reason to believe that from the discovery of what may be called an 
overland route to what was then considered an eastern extension of 
that country which is now known as the " Celestial Empire," many 
caravans of emigrants passed to their new homes in the land of 
illimitable possibilities until the way became a well-marked trail 
over which the Asiatic might travel forward, and having once 
entered the Elysian fields never entertained an idea of returning. 
Thus from generation to generation the tide of immigration poured 
in until the slopes of the Pacific and the banks of the great inland 
rivers became hives of busy industry. Magnificent cities and 
monuments were raised at the bidding of the tribal leaders and 
populous settlements centered with happy villages sprung up 
everywhere in manifestation of the power and wealth and knowl- 
edge of the people. The colonizing Caucasian of the historic 
period walked over this great country on the very ruins of a civil- 
ization which a thousand years before eclipsed all that of which he 
could boast. He walked through the wilderness of the West over 
buried treasures hidden under the accumulated growth of nature, 
nor rested until he saw, with great surprise, the remains of ancient 
pyramids and temples and cities, larger and evidently more beauti- 
ful than ancient Egypt could bring forth after its long years of 
uninterrupted history. The pyramids resemble those of Egypt in 
exterior form, and in some instances are of larger dimensions. The 
pyramid of Cholula is square, having each side of its base 1,335 
feet in length, and its height about 172 feet. Another pyramid) 
situated in the north of Vera Cruz, is formed of large blocks 
of highly-polished porphyry, and bears upon its front hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions and curious sculpture. Each side of its 
square base is 82 feet in length, and a flight of 57 steps conducts to 
its summit, which is 65 feet in height. The ruins of Palenque are 
said to extend 20 miles along the ridge of a' mountain, and the 
remains of an Aztec city, near the banks of the river Gila, are 
spread over more than a square league. Their literature consisted 
of hieroglyphics; but their arithmetical knowledge did not extend 
farther than their calculations by the aid of grains of corn. Yet, 


notwithstanding all their varied accomplishments, and they were 
evidently many, their notions of religious duty led to a most demo- 
niac zeal at once barbarously savage and ferociously cruel. Each 
visiting, god instead of bringing new life to the people, brought 
death to thousands; and their grotesque idols, exposed to drown 
the senses of the beholders in fear, wrought wretchedness rather 
than spiritual happiness, until, as some learned and humane Monte- 
zumian said, the people never approached these idols without fear, 
and this fear was the great animating principle, the great religious 
motive power which sustained the terrible religion. Their altars 
were sprinkled with blood drawn from their own bodies in large 
quantities, and on them thousands of human victims were sacri- 
ficed in honor of the demons whom they worshiped. The head 
and heart of every captive taken in war were offered up as a bloody 
sacrifice to the god of battles, while the victorious legions feasted 
on the remaining portions of the dead bodies. It has been ascer- 
tained that during the ceremonies attendant on the consecration of 
two of their temples, the number of prisoners offered up in sacri- 
fice was 12,210; while their own legions contributed voluntary 
victims to the terrible belief in large numbers. Nor did this 
horrible custom cease immediately after 1521, when Cortez entered 
the imperial city of the Montezumas; for, on being driven from 
it, all his troops who fell into the hands of the native soldiers were 
subjected to the most terrible and prolonged suffering that could be 
experienced in this world, and when about to yield up that spirit 
which is indestructible, were offered in sacrifice, their hearts and 
heads consecrated, and the victors allowed to feast on the yet warm 

A reference is made here to the period when the Montezumas 
ruled over Mexico, simply to gain a better idea of the hideous 
idolatry which took the place of the old Boodhism of the Mound 
Builders, and doubtless helped in a great measure to give victory 
to the new comers, even as the tenets of Mahometanism urged the 
ignorant followers of the prophet to the conquest of great nations. 
It was not the faith of the people who built the mounds and the 
pyramids and the temples, and who, 200 years before the Christian 
era, built the great wall of jealous China. No: rather was it that 
terrible faith born of the Tartar victory, which carried the great 
defenses of China at the point of the javelin and hatchet, who 
afterward marched to the very walls of Rome, under Alaric, and 


spread over the islands of Polynesia to the Pacific slopes of South 


came there, and, like the pure Mongols of Mexico and the Missis- 
sippi valley, rose to a state of civilization bordering on that attained 
by them. Here for centuries the sons of the fierce Tartar race con- 
tinued to dwell in comparative peace until the all-ruling ambition 
of empire took in the whole country from the Pacific to the Atlan- 
tic, and peopled the vast territory watered by the Amazon with a 
race that was destined to conquer all the peoples of the Orient, 
and only to fall before the march of the arch-civilizing Caucasian. 
In course of time those fierce Tartars pushed their settlements 
northward, and ultimately entered the territories of the Mound 
Builders, putting to death all who fell within their reach, and 
causing the survivors of the death-dealing invasion to seek a refuge 
from the hordes of this semi-barbarous people in the wilds and fast- 
nesses of the North and Northwest. The beautiful country of the 
Mound Builders was now in the hands of savage invaders, the quiet, 
industrious people who raised the temples and pyramids were gone; 
and the wealth of intelligence and industry, accumulating forages, 
passed into the possession of a rapacious horde, who could admire 
it only so far as it offered objects for plunder. Even in this the 
invaders were satisfied, and then having arrived at the height of 
their ambition, rested on their swords and entered upon the luxury 
and ease in the enjoyment of which they were found when the van- 
guard of European civilization appeared upon the scene. Mean- 
time the southern countries which those adventurers abandoned 
after having completed their conquests in the North, were soon 
peopled by hundreds of people, always moving from island to 
island and ultimately halting amid the ruins of villages deserted 
by those who, as legends tell, had passed eastward but never returned; 
and it would scarcely be a matter for surprise if those emigrants 
were found to be the progenitors of that race found by the Spaniards 
in 1532, and identical with the Araucanians, Cuenches and Huil- 
tiches of to-day. 


One of the most brilliant and impartial historians of the Republic 
stated that the valley of the Mississippi contained no monuments. 
So far as the word is entertained now, he was literally correct, but 


in some hasty effort neglected to qualify his sentence by a refer- 
ence to the numerous relics of antiquity to be found throughout 
its length and breadth, and so exposed his chapters to criticism. 
The valley of the Father of "Waters, and indeed the country from 
the trap rocks of the Great Lakes southeast to the Gulf and south- 
west to Mexico, abound in tell-tale monuments of a race of people 
much farther advanced in civilization than the Montezumas of the 
sixteenth century. The remains of walls and fortifications found 
in Kentucky and Indiana, the earthworks of Vincennes and 
throughout the valley of the Wabash, the mounds scattered over 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Virginia, and those found in Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin and Minnesota, are all evidences of the univer- 
sality of the Chinese Mongols and of their advance toward a com- 
parative knowledge of man and cosmology. At the mouth of 
Fourteen -Mile creek, in Clark county, Indiana, there stands one of 
these old monuments known as the " Stone Fort." It is an 
unmistakable heirloom of a great and ancient people, and must 
have formed one of their most important posts. The State Geolo- 
gist's report, filed among the records of the State and furnished 
by Prof. Cox, says: "At the mouth of Fourteen-Mile creek, and 
about three miles from Charleston, the county-seat of Clark county, 
there is one of the most remarkable stone fortifications which has 
ever come under my notice. Accompanied by my assistant, Mr. 
Borden, and a number of citizens of Charleston, I visited the 'Stone 
Fort' for the purpose of making an examination of it. The locality 
selected for this fort presents many natural advantages for making 
it impregnable to the opposing forces of prehistoric times. It 
occupies the point of an elevated narrow ridge which faces the 
Ohio river on the east and is bordered by Fourteen-Mile creek on 
the west side. This creek empties into the Ohio a short distance 
below the fort. The top of the ridge is pear-shaped, with the 
part answering to the neck at the north end. This part is not 
over twenty feet wide, and is protected by precipitous natural walls 
of stone. It is 280 feet above the level of the Ohio river, and the 
slope is very gradual to the south. At the upper field it is 240 feet 
high and one hundred steps wide. At the lower timber it is 120 
feet high. The bottom land at the foot of the south end is sixty 
feet above the river. Along the greater part of the Ohio river 
front there is an abrupt escarpment rock, entirely too steep to be 
scaled, and a similar natural barrier exists along a portion of the 
northwest side of the ridge, facing the creek. This natural wall 


is joined to the neck of an artificial wall, made by piling up, mason 
fashion but without mortar, loose stone, which had evidently been 
pried up from the carboniferous layers of rock. This made wall, at 
this point, is about 150 feet long. It is built along the slope of the 
hill and had an elevation of about 75 feet above its base, the upper 
ten feet being vertical. The inside of the wall is protected by a 
ditch. The remainder of the hill is protected by an artificial stone 
wall, built in the same manner, but not more than ten feet high. 
The elevation of the side wall above the creek bottom is 80 feet. 
Within the artificial walls is a 6tring of mounds which rise to the 
height of the wall, and are protected from the washing of the hill- 
sides by a ditch 20 feet wide and four feet deep. The position of 
the artificial walls, natural cliff's of bedded stone, as well as that of 
the ditch and mounds, are well illustrated. The top of the enclosed 
ridge embraces ten or twelve acres, and there are as many as five 
mounds that can be recognized on the flat surface, while no doubt 
many others existed which have been obliterated by time, and 
though the agency of man in his efforts to cultivate a portion of 
the ground. A trench was cut into one of these mounds in search 
of relics. A few fragments of charcoal and decomposed bones, and 
a large irregular, diamond-shaped boulder, with a small circular 
indentation near the middle of the upper part, that was worn quite 
smooth by the use to which it had been put, and the small pieces 
of fossil coral, comprised all the articles of note which were revealed 
by the excavation. The earth of which the mound is made resem- 
bles that seen on the hillside, and was probably in most part taken 
from the ditch. The margin next to the ditch was protected by 
slabs of stone set on edge, and leaning at an angle corresponding to 
the slope of the mound. This stone shield was two and one-half 
feet wide and one foot high. At intervals along the great ditch 
there are channels formed between the mounds that probably served 
to carry off the surplus water through openings in the outer wall. 
On the top of the enclosed ridge, and near its narrowest part, there 
is one mound much larger than any of the others, and so situated 
as to command an extensive view up and down the Ohio river, as well 
as affording an unobstructed view east and west. This is designated 
as ' Look-out Mound.' There is near it a slight break in the cliff 
of rock, which furnished a narrow passage way to the Ohio river. 
Though the locality afforded many natural advantages for a fort or 
stronghold, one is compelled to admit that much skill was displayed 
and labor expended in making its defense as perfect as possible at 


all points. Stone axes, pestles, arrow-heads, spear-points, totums, 
charms and flint flakes have been found in great abundance in 
plowing the field at the foot of the old fort." 

From the " Stone Fort " the Professor turns his steps to Posey 
county, at a point on the Wabash, ten miles above the mouth, 
called "Bone Bank," on account of the number of human bones 
continually washed out from the river bank. " It is," he states 
"situated in a bend on the left bank of the river; and the ground 
is about ten feet above high-water mark, being the only land along 
this portion of the river that is not submerged in seasons of high 
water. The bank slopes gradually back from the river to a slough. 
This slough now seldom contains water, but no doubt at one time 
it was an arm of the Wabash river, which flowed around the Bone 
Bank and afforded protection to the island home of the Mound 
Builders. The Wabash has been changing its bed for many years, 
leaving a broad extent of newly made land on the right shore, and 
gradually making inroads on the left shore by cutting away the 
Bone Bank. The stages of growth of land on the right bank of the 
river are well denned by the cottonwood trees, which increase in size 
as you go back from the river. Unless there is a change in the cur- 
rent of the river, all trace of the Bone Bank will be obliterated. 
Already within the memory of the white inhabitants, the bank has 
been removed to the width of several hundred yards. As the bank 
is cut by the current of the river it loses its support, and when the 
water sinks it tumbles over, carrying with it the bones of the 
Mound Builders and the cherished articles buried with them. No 
locality in the country furnishes a greater number and variety of 
relics than this. It has proved especially rich in pottery of 
quaint design and skillful workmanship. I have a number of jugs 
and pots and a cup found at the Bone Bank. This kind of work 
has been very abundant, and is still found in such quantities that 
we are led to conclude that its manufacture formed a leading indus- 
try of the inhabitants of the Bone Bank. It is not in Europe 
alone that we find a well-founded claim of high antiquity for the 
art of making hard and durable stone by a mixture of clay, lime, 
sand and stone; for I am convinced that this art was possessed by 
a race of people who inhabited this continent at a period so remote 
that neither tradition nor history can furnish any account of them. 
They belonged to the Neolithic, or polished-stone, age. They lived 
in towns and built mounds for sepulture and worship and pro- 
tected their homes by surrounding them with walls of earth and 



stone. In some of these mounds specimens of various kinds of 
pottery, in a perfect state of preservation, have from time to time 
been found, and fragments are so common that every student of 
archaeology can have a bountiful supply. Some of these fragments 
indicate vessels of very great size. At the Saline springs of Gal- 
latin I picked up fragments that indicated, by their curvature, ves- 
sels five to six feet in diameter, and it is probable they are frag- 
ments of artificial stone pans used to hold brine that was manufac- 
tured into salt by solar evaporation. 

" Now, all the pottery belonging to the Mound Builders' age, 
which I have seen, is composed of alluvial clay and sand, or a mix- 
ture of the former with pulverized fresh-water shells. A paste 
made of such a mixture possesses, in high degree, the properties of 
hydraulic Puzzuoland and Portland cement, so that vessels formed 
of it hardened without being burned, as is customary with modern 

The Professor deals very aptly with this industry of the aborig- 
ines, and concludes a very able disquisition on the Bone Bank in 
its relation to the prehistoric builders. 


The great circular redoubt or earth-work found two miles west oi 
the village of New Washington, and the " Stone Fort," on a ridge 
one mile west of the village of Deputy, offer a subject for the anti- 
quarian as deeply interesting as any of the monuments of a 
decayed empire so far discovered. 


From end to end of Indiana there are to be found many other rel- 
ics of the obscure past. Some of them have been unearthed and now 
appear among the collected antiquities at Indianapolis. The highly 
finished sandstone pipe, the copper ax, stone axes, flint arrow-heads 
and magnetic plummets found a few years ago beneath the soil of 
Cut-Off Island near New Harmony, together with the pipes of rare 
workmanship and undoubted age, unearthed near Covington, all 
live as it were in testimony of their owner's and maker's excel- 
lence, and hold a share in the evidence of the partial annihilation 
of a race, with the complete disruption of its manners, customs 
and industries; and it is possible that when numbers of these relics 
are placed together, a key to the phonetic or rather hieroglyphic 
system of that remote period might be evolved. 

It may be asked what these hieroglyphical characters really are 
Well, they are varied in form, so much so that the pipes found in 
the mounds of Indians, each bearing a distinct representation of 
some animal, may be taken for one species, used to represent the 
abstract ideas of the Mound Builders. The second form consists 
of pure hieroglyphics or phonetic characters, in which the sound is 
represented instead of the object; and the third, or painted form of 
the first, conveys to the mind that which is desired to be repre- 
sented. This form exists among the Cree Indians of the far North- 
west, at present. They, when departing from their permanent vil- 
lages for the distant hunting grounds, paint on the barked trees in 
the neighborhood the figure of a snake or eagle, or perhaps huskey 
dog; and this animal is supposed to guard the position until the 
warrior's return, or welcome any friendly tribes that may arrive 
there in the interim. In the case of the Mound Builders, it is un- 
likely that this latter extreme was resorted to, for the simple reason 
that the relics of their occupation are too high in the ways of art to 
tolerate such a barbarous science of language; but the sculptured 
pipes and javelins and spear-heads of the Mound Builders may be 
taken as a collection of graven images, each conveying a set of 
ideas easily understood, and perhaps sometimes or more generally 
used to designate the vocation, name or character of the owner. 
That the builders possessed an alphabet of a phonetic form, and 
purely hieroglyphic, can scarcely be questioned; but until one or 
more of the unearthed tablets, which bore all or even a portion of 
such characters, are raised from their centuried graves, the mystery 
which surrounds this people must remain, while we must dwell in 
a world of mere speculation. 


Yigo, Jasper, Sullivan, Switzerland and Ohio counties can boast 
of a most liberal endowment in this relation; and when in other 
days the people will direct a minute inquiry, and penetrate to the 
very heart of the thousand cones which are scattered throughout 
the land, they may possibly extract the blood in the shape of metal- 
lic and porcelain works, with hieroglyphic tablets, while leaving 
the form of heart and body complete to entertain and delight un- 
born generations, who in their time will wonder much when they 
learn that an American people, living toward the close of the 59th 
century, could possibly indulge in such an anachronism as is im- 
plied in the term "New "World." 


The origin of the Red Men, or American Indians, is a subject 
which interests as well as instructs. It is a favorite with the eth- 
nologist, even as it is one of deep concern to the ordinary reader. 
A review of two works lately published on the origin of the Indians 
treats the matter in a peculiarly reasonable light. It says: 

" Recently a German writer has put forward one theory on the 
subject, and an English writer has put forward another and directly 
opposite theory. The difference of opinion concerning our aborig- 
inals among authors who have made a profound study of races is at 
once curious and interesting. Blumenbach treats them in his 
classifications as a distinct variety of the human family; but, in the 
threefold division of Dr. Latham, they are ranked among the Mon- 
golidse. Other writers on race regard them as a branch of the great 
Mongolian family, which at a distant period found its way from 
Asia to this continent, and remained here for centuries separate 
from the rest of mankind, passing, meanwhile, through divers 
phases of barbarism and civilization. Morton, our eminent eth- 
nologist, and his followers, Nott and Gliddon, claim for our native 
Red Men an origin as distinct as the flora and fauna of this conti- 
nent. Prichard, whose views are apt to differ from Morton's, finds 
reason to believe, on comparing the American tribes together, that 
they must have formed a separate department of nations from the 
earliest period of the world. The era of their existence as a distinct 
and insulated people must probably be dated back to the time 
which separated into nations the inhabitants of the Old World, and 

fave to each its individuality and primitive language. Or. Robert 
irown, the latest authority, attributes, in his "Races of Mankind," 
an Asiatic origin to our aboriginals. He says that the Western In- 
dians not only personally resemble their nearest neighbors — the 
Northeastern Asiatics — but they resemble them in language and 
traditions. The Esquimaux on the American and the Tchuktchis 
on the Asiatic side understand one another perfectly. Modern an- 


thropologists, indeed, are disposed to think that Japan, the Kuriles, 
and neighboring regions, may be regarded as the original home of 
the greater part of the native American race. It is also admitted 
by them that between the tribes scattered from the Arctic sea to 
Cape Horn there is more uniformity of physical features than is 
seen in any other quarter of the globe. The weight of evidence 
and authority is altogether in favor of the opinion that our so- 
called Indians are a branch of the Mongolian family, and all addi- 
tional researches strengthen the opinion. The tribes of both North 
and South America are unquestionably homogeneous, and, in all 
likelihood, had their origin in Asia, though they have been altered 
and modified by thousands of years of total separation from the 
parent stock." 

The conclusions arrived at by the reviewer at that time, though 
safe, are too general to lead the reader to form any definite idea on 
the subject. No doubt whatever can exist, when the American In- 
dian is regarded as of an Asiatic origin; but there is nothing in the 
works or even in the review, to which these works were subjected, 
which might account for the vast difference in manner and form 
between the Red Man, as he is now known, or even as he appeared 
to Columbus and his successors in the field of discovery, and the 
comparatively civilized inhabitants of Mexico, as seen in 1521 by 
Cortez, and of Peru, as witnessed by Pizarro in 1532. The fact is 
that the pure bred Indian of the present is descended directly 
from the earliest inhabitants, or in other words from the survivors 
of that people who, on being driven from their fair possessions, re- 
tired to the wilderness in sorrow and reared up their children under 
the saddening influences of their unquenchable griefs, bequeathing 
them only the habits of the wild, cloud-roofed home of their de- 
clining years, a sullen silence, and a rude moral code. In after 
years these wild sons of the forest and prairie grew in numbers and 
in strength. Some legend told them of their present sufferings, of 
the station which their fathers once had known, and of the riotous 
race which now reveled in wealth which should be theirs. The 
fierce passions of the savage were aroused, and uniting their scat- 
tered bands marched in silence upon the villages of the Tartars, 
driving them onward to the capital of their Incas, and consigning 
their homes to the flames. Once in view of the great city, the 
hurrying bands halted in surprise; but Tartar cunning took in the 
situation and offered pledges of amity, which were sacredly ob- 
served. Henceforth Mexico was open to the Indians, bearing pre- 
cisely the same relation to them that the Hudson's Bay Company's 


villages do to the Northwestern Indians of the present; obtaining 
all, and bestowing very little. The subjection of the Mongolian 
race represented in North America by that branch of it to which 
the Tartars belonged, represented in the Southern portion of the con- 
tinent, seems to have taken place some five centuries before the 
advent of the European, while it may be concluded that the war of 
the races which resulted in reducing the villages erected by the 
Tartar hordes to ruin took place between one and two hundred 
years later. These statements, though actually referring to events 
which in point of time are comparatively modern, can only be sub- 
stantiated by the facts that, about the periods mentioned the dead 
bodies of an unknown race of men were washed ashore on the Eu- 
ropean coasts, while previous to that time there is no account 
whatever in European annals of even a vestige of trans-Atlantic hu- 
manity being transferred by ocean currents to the gaze of a won- 
dering people. Towards the latter half ot the 15th century two 
dead bodies entirely free from decomposition, and corresponding 
with the Ked Men as they afterward appeared to Columbus, were 
cast on the shores of the Azores, and confirmed Columbus in his be- 
lief in the existence of a western world and western people. 

Storm and flood and disease have created sad havoc in the ranks 
of the Indian since the occupation of the country by the white man. 
These natural causes have conspired to decimate the race even more 
than the advance of civilization, which seems not to affect it to any 
material extent. In its maintenance of the same number of rep- 
resentatives during three centuries, and its existence in the very 
face of a most unceremonious, and r whenever necessary, cruel cou- 
quest, the grand dispensations of the unseen Ruler of the universe 
is demonstrated; for, without the aborigines, savage and treach- 
erous as they were, it is possible that the explorers of former times 
would have so many natural difficulties to contend with, that their 
work would be surrendered in despair, and the most fertile regions 
of the continent saved for the plowshares of generations yet un- 
born. It is questionable whether we owe the discovery of this con- 
tinent to the unaided scientific knowledge of Columbus, or to the 
dead bodies of the two Indians referred to above; nor can their ser- 
vices to the explorers of ancient and modern times be over-esti- 
mated. Their existence is embraced in the plan of the Divinity 
for the government of the world, and it will not form subject for 
surprise to learn that the same intelligence which sent a thrill of 
liberty into every corner of the republic, will, in the near future, 



devise some method under which the remnant of a great and an- 
cient race may taste the sweets of public kindness, and feel that, 
after centuries of turmoil and tyranny, they have at last found a 
shelter amid a sympathizing people. Many have looked at the In- 
dian as the pessimist does at all things; they say that he was never 
formidable until the white man supplied him with the weapons of 
modern warfare; but there is no mention made of his eviction from 
his retired home, and the little plot of cultivated garden which 
formed the nucleus of a village that, if fostered instead of being 
destroyed, might possibly hold an Indian population of some im- 
portance in the economy of the nation. There is no intention what- 
ever to maintain that the occupation of this country by the favored 
races is wrong even in principle; for where any obstacle to advanc- 
ing civilization exists, it has to fall to the ground; but it may be 
said, with some truth, that the white man, instead of a policy of 
conciliation formed upon the power of kindness, indulged in bel- 
ligerency as impolitic as it was unjust. A modern writer says, 
when speaking of the Indian's character: "He did not exhibit that 
steady valor and efficient discipline of the American soldier; and 
to-day on the plains Sheridan's troopers would not hesitate to 
attack the bravest band, though outnumbered three to one." This 
piece of information applies to the European and African, as well 
as to the Indian. The American soldier, and particularly the 
troopers referred to, would not fear or shrink from a very legion of 
demons, even with odds against them. This mode of warfare seems 
strangely peculiar when compared with the military systems of 
civilized countries; yet, since the main object of armed men is to 
defend a country or a principle, and to destroy anything which may 
oppose itself to them, the mode of warfare pursued by the savage 
will be found admirably adapted to their requirements in this con- 
nection, and will doubtless compare favorably with the systems of 
the Afghans and Persians of the present, and the Caucasian people 
s>f the first historic period. 


The art of hunting not only supplied the Indian with food, but, 
like that of war, was a means of gratifying his love of distinction. 
The male children, as soon as they acquired sufficient age and 
strength, were furnished with a bow and arrow and taught to shoot 
birds and other small game. Success in killing a large quadruped 
required years of careful study and practice, and the art was as 



sedulously inculcated in the minds of the rising generation as are 
the elements of reading, writing and arithmetic in the common 
schools of civilized communities. The mazes of the forest and the 
dense, tall grass of the prairies were the best fields for the exercise 
of the hunter's skill. No feet could be impressed in the yielding 
soil but that the tracks were the objects of the most searching 
scrutiny, and revealed at a glance the animal that made them, the 
direction it was pursuing, and the time that had elapsed since it 
had passed. In a forest country he selected the valleys, because 
they were most frequently the resort of game. The most easily 
taken, perhaps, of all the animals of the chase was the deer. It is 
endowed with a curiosity which prompts it to stop in its flight and 
look back at the approaching hunter, who always avails himself of 
this opportunity to let fly the fatal arrow. ' 

Their general councils were composed of the chiefs and old men. 
When in council, they usually sat in concentric circles around the 
speaker, and each individual, notwithstanding the fiery passions 
that rankled within, preserved an exterior as immovable as if cast 
in bronze. Before commencing business a person appeared with 
the sacred pipe, and another with fire to kindle it. After being 
lighted it was first presented to heaven, secondly to the earth, 
thirdly to the presiding spirit, and lastly the several councilors, 
each of whom took a whiff. These formalities were observed with 
as close exactness as state etiquette in civilized courts. 

The dwellings of the Indians were of the simplest and rudest 
character. On some pleasant spot by the bank of a river, or near 
an ever-running spring, they raised their groups of wigwams, con- 
structed of the bark of trees, and easily taken down and removed 
to another spot. The dwelling-places of the chiefs were sometimes 
more spacious, and constructed with greater care, but of the same 
materials. Skins taken in the chase served them for repose. 
Though principally dependent upon hunting and fishing, the 
uncertain supply from those sources led them to cultivate small 
patches of corn. Every family did everything necessary within 
itself, commerce, or an interchange of articles, being almost unknown 
to them. In cases of dispute and dissension, each Indian relied 
upon himself for retaliation. Blood for blood was the rule, and 
the relatives of the slain man were bound to obtain bloody revenge 
for his death. This principle gave rise, as a matter of course, to 
innumerable and bitter feuds, and wars of extermination where such 
were possible. War, indeed, rather than peace, was the Indian's 


glory and delight, — war, not conducted as civilization, but war 
where individual skill, endurance, gallantry and cruelty were prime 
requisites. For such a purpose as revenge the Indian would make 
great sacrifices, and display a patience and perseverance truly heroic; 
but when the excitement was over, he sank back into a listless, un- 
occupied, well-nigh useless savage. During the intervals of his 
more exciting pursuits, the Indian employed his time in decorating 
his person with all the refinement of paint and feathers, and in the 
manufacture of his arms and of canoes. These were constructed of 
bark, and so light that they could easily be carried on the shoulder 
from stream to stream. His amusements were the war-dance, ath- 
letic games, the narration of his exploits, and listening to the ora- 
tory of the chiefs; but during long periods of such existence he 
remained in a state of torpor, gazing listlessly upon the trees of 
the forests and the clouds that sailed above them; and this vacancy 
imprinted an habitual gravity, and even melancholy, upon his gen- 
eral deportment. 

The main labor and drudgery of Indian communities fell upon 
the women. The planting, tending and gathering of the crops, 
making mats and baskets, carrying burdens, — in fact, all things, of 
the kind were performed by them, thus making their condition but 
little better than that of slaves. Marriage was merely a matter of 
bargain and sale, the husband giving presents to the father of the 
bride. In general they had but few children. They were sub- 
jected to many and severe attacks of sickness, and at times famine 
and pestilence swept away whole tribes. 



The State of Indiana is bounded on the east by the meridian line 
which forms also the western boundary of Ohio, extending due 
north from the mouth of the Great Miami river; on the south by 
the Ohio river from the mouth of the Great Miami to the mouth 
of the "Wabash ; on the west by a line drawn along the middle' of 
the Wabash river from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line from the town of Yincennes would last touch the shore of said 
river, and thence directly north to Lake Michigan ; and on the north 
by said lake and an east and west line ten miles north of the ex- 
treme south end of the lake, and extending to its intersection with 
the aforesaid meridian, the west boundary of Ohio. These bound- 
aries include an area of 33,809 square miles, lying between 37° 
47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and between 7° 45' and 11° 1' west 
longitude from Washington. 

After the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492, more than 
150 years passed away before any portion of the territory now com- 
prised within the above limits was explored by Europeans. Colo- 
nies were established in Florida, Virginia and Nova Scotia by the 
principal rival governments of Europe, but not until about 1670-'2 
did the first white travelers venture as far into the Northwest as 
Indiana or Lake Michigan. These explorers were Frenchmen by 
the names of Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, who then visited 
what is now the eastern part of "Wisconsin, the northeastern portion 
of Illinois and probably that portion of this State north of the Kan- 
kakee river. In the following year M. Joliet, an agent of the 
French Colonial government, and James Marquette, a good and 
simple-hearted missionary who had his station at Mackinaw, ex- 
plored the country about Green Bay, and along Fox and Wiscon- 
sin rivers as far westward as the Mississippi, the banks of which 
they reached June 17, 1673. They descended this river to about 
33° 40', but returned by way of the Illinois river and the route 
they came in the Lake Region. At a village among the Illinois In- 
dians, Marquette and his small band of adventurers were received 


in a friendly manner and treated hospitably. They were made the 
honored guests at a great feast, where hominy, fish, dog meat and 
roast buffalo meat were spread before them in great abundance. In 
1682 LaSalle explored the West, but it is not known that he entered 
the region now embraced within the State of Indiana. He took 
formal possession, however, of all the Mississippi region in the 
name of the King of France, in whose honor he gave all this Mis- 
sissippi region, including what is now Indiana, the name " Louisi- 
ana." Spain at the same time laid claim to all the region about 
the Gulf of Mexico, and thus these two great nations were brought 
into collision. But the country was actually held and occupied by 
the great Miami confederacy of Indians, the Miamis proper (an- 
ciently the Twightwees) being the eastern and most powerful tribe. 
Their territory extended strictly from the Scioto river west to the 
Illinois river. Their villages were few and scattering, and their 
occupation was scarcely dense enough to maintain itself against in- 
vasion. Their settlements were occasionally visited by Christian 
missionaries, fur traders and adventurers, but no body of white men 
made any settlement sufficiently permanent for a title to national 
possession. Christian zeal animated France and England in mis- 
sionary enterprise, the former in the interests of Catholicism and 
the latter in the interests of Protestantism. Hence their haste to 
preoccupy the land and proselyte the aborigines. No doubt this 
ugly rivalry was often seen by Indians, and they refused to be 
proselyted to either branch of Christianity . 

The " Five Nations," farther east, comprised the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Cayugas, Onondaguas and Senecas. In 1677 the number 
of warriors in this confederacy was 2,150. About 1711 the Tusca- 
roras retired from Carolina and joined the Iroquois, or Five Na- 
tions, which, after that event, became known as the "Six Nations." 
In 1689 hostilities broke out between the Five Nations and the 
colonists of Canada, and the almost constant wars in which France 
was engaged until the treaty of Kyswick in 1697 combined to 
check the grasping policy of Louis XIY., and to retard the plant- 
ing of French colonies in the Mississippi valley. Missionary efforts, 
however, continued with more failure than success, the Jesuits 
allying themselves with the Indians in habits and customs, even 
encouraging inter-marriage between them and their white fol- 


The Wabash was first named by the French, and spelled by them 
Ouabache. This river was known even before the Ohio, and was 
navigated as the Onabache all the way to the Mississippi a long time 
before it was discovered that it was a tributary of the Ohio (Belle 
Riviere). In navigating the Mississippi they thought they passed 
the mouth of the Ouabache instead of the Ohio. In traveling from 
the Great Lakes to the south, the French always went by the way of 
the Ouabache or Illinois. 

Francois Morgan de Vinsenne served in Canada as early as 1720 
in the regiment of " De Carrignan " of the French service, and 
again on the lakes in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie in the same 
service under M. de Vaudriel, in 1725. It is possible that his ad- 
vent to Yincennes may have taken place in 1732; and in proof of 
this the only record is an act of sale under the joint names of him- 
self and Madame Vinsenne, the daughter of M. Philip Longprie, 
and dated Jan. 5, 1735. This document gives his military position 
as commandant of the post of Ouabache in the service of the French 
King. The will of Longprie, dated March 10, same year, bequeaths 
him, among other things, 408 pounds of pork, which he ordered to 
be kept safe until Vinsenne, who was then at Ouabache, returned 
to Kaskaskia. 

There are many other documents connected with its early settle- 
ment by Vinsenne, among which is a receipt for the 100 pistoles 
granted him as his wife's marriage dowry. In 1736 this officer was 
ordered to Charlevoix by D'Artagette, viceroy of the King at New 
Orleans, and commandant of Illinois. Here M. St. Vinsenne re- 
ceived his mortal wounds. The event is chronicled as follows, in 
the words of D'Artagette: " "We have just received very bad news 
from Louisiana, and our war with the Chickasaws. The French 
have been defeated. Among the slain is M. de Vinsenne, who 
ceased not until his last breath to exhort his men to behave worthy 
of their faith and fatherland." 

Thus closed the career of this gallant officer, leaving a name 
which holds as a remembrancer the present beautiful town of Vin- 
cennes, changed from Vinsenne to its present orthography in 1749. 

Post Vincennes was settled as early as 1710 or 1711. In a letter 
from Father Marest to Father Germon, dated at Kaskaskia, Nov. 9, 
1712, occurs this passage: u Les Francois itoieat itabli unfort sur 


lefleuve Ouabache ; Us demanderent tin missionaire ; et le Pere 
Mermet leurfut envoy e. Ce Pere crut devoir travailler a la 
conversion des Mascoutens qui avoient fait un village sur les 
bords dumeme Jleuve. Cest une nation Indians qui entend la 
langue fflimoise." Translated: " The French have established a 
fort upon the river Wabash, and want a missionary; and Father 
Mermet has been sent to them. That Father believes he should 
labor for the conversion of the Mascoutens, who have built a vil- 
lage on the banks of the same river. They are a nation of Indians 
who understand the language of the Illinois." 

Mermet was therefore the first preacher of Christianity in this 
part of the world, and his mission was to convert the Mascoutens, 
a branch of the Miamis. "The way I took," says he, " was to con- 
found, in the presence of the whole tribe, one of these charlatans 
[medicine men], whose Manitou, or great spirit which he wor- 
shiped, was the buffalo. After leading him on insensibly to the 
avowal that it was not the buffalo that he worshiped, but the Man- 
itou, or spirit, of the buffalo, which was under theearthand ani- 
mated all buffaloes, which heals the sick and has all power, I asked 
him whether other beasts, the bear for instance, and which one of 
his nation worshiped, was not equally inhabited by a Manitou, 
which was under the earth. 'Without doubt,' said the grand medi- 
cine man. ' If this is so,' said I, ' men ought to have a Manitou 
who inhabits them.' ' Nothing more certain,' said he. ' Ought 
not that to convince you,' continued I, ' that you are not very 
reasonable? For if man upon the earth is the master of all animals, 
if he kills them, if he eats them, does it not follow that the Mani- 
tou which inhabits him must have a mastery over all other Mani- 
tous? Why then do you not invoke him instead of the Manitou 
of the bear and the buffalo, when you are sick?' This reasoning 
disconcerted the charlatan. But this was all the effect it 

The result of convincing these heathen by logic, as is generally 
the case the world over, was only a temporary logical victory, and 
no change whatever was produced in the professions and practices 
of the Indians. 

But the first Christian (Catholic) missionary at this place whose 
name we find recorded in the Church annals, was Meurin, in 1849. 

The church building used by these early missionaries at Vin- 
cennes i6 thus described by the " oldest inhabitants:" Fronting on 
Water street and running back on Church street, it was a plain 



building with a rough exterior, of upright posts, chinked and 
daubed, with a rough coat of cement on the outside; about 20 feet 
wide and 60 long ; one story high, with a small belfry and an equally 
small bell. It was dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. This spot is 
now occupied by a splendid cathedral. 

Vincennes has ever been a stronghold of Catholicism. The 
Church there has educated and sent out many clergymen of her 
faith, some of whom have become bishops, or attained other high 
positions in ecclesiastical authority. 

Almost contemporaneous with the progress of the Church at 
Vincennes was a missionary work near the mouth of the "Wea river, 
among the Ouiatenons, but the settlement there was broken up in 
early day. 



Soon after the discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi by La- 
Salle in 1682, the government of France began to encourage the 
policy of establishing a line of trading posts and missionary 
stations extending through the West from Canada to Louisiana, 
and this policy was maintained, with partial success, for about 75 
years. The traders persisted in importing whisky, which cancelled 
nearly every civilizing influence that could be brought to bear upon 
the Indian, and the vast distances between posts prevented that 
strength which can be enjoyed onlv by close and convenient inter- 
communication. Another characteristic of Indian nature was to 
listen attentively to all the missionary said, pretending to believe 
all he preached, and then offer in turn his theory of the world, of 
religion, etc., and because he was not listened to with the same 
degree of attention and pretense of belief, would go off disgusted. 
This was his idea of the golden rule. 

The river St. Joseph of Lake Michigan was called " the river 
Miamis" in 1679, in which year LaSalle built a small fort on its 
bank, near the lake shore. The principal statioD of the mission 
for the instruction of the Miamis was established on the borders of 
this river. The first French post within the territory of the 
Miamis was at the mouth of the river Miamis, on an eminence 
naturally fortified on two sides by the river, and on one side by a 


deep ditch made by a fall of water. It was of triangular form. 
The missionary Hennepin gives a good description of it, as he was 
one of the company who built it, in 1679. Says he: " "We fell the 
trees that were on the top of the hill ; and having cleared the 6ame 
from bushes for about two musket shot, we began to build a 
redoubt of 80 feet long and 40 feet broad, with great square pieces 
of timber laid one upon another, and prepared a great number of 
stakes of about 25 feet long to drive into the ground, to make our 
fort more inaccessible on the river side. We employed the whole 
month of November about that work, which was very hard, though 
we had no other food but the bear's flesh our savage killed. These 
beasts are very common in that place because of the great quantity 
of grapes they find there; but their flesh being too fat and luscious, 
our men began to be weary of it and desired leave to go a hunting 
to kill some wild goats. M. LaSalle denied them that liberty, 
which caused some murmurs among them ; and it was but unwill- 
ingly that they continued their work. This, together with the 
approach of winter and the apprehension that M. LaSalle had that 
his vessel (the Griffin) was lost, made him very melancholy, though 
he concealed it as much as he could. We made a cabin wherein 
we performed divine service every Sunday, and Father Gabriel and 
I, who preached alternately, took care to take such texts as were 
suitable to our present circumstances and fit to inspire us with 
courage, concord and brotherly love. * * * The fort was at 
last perfected, and called Fort Miamis." 

In the year 1711 the missionary Chardon, who was said to be 
very zealous and apt in the acquisition of languages, had a station 
on the St. Joseph about 60 miles above the mouth. Charlevoix, 
another distinguished missionary from France, visited a post on 
this river in 1721. In a letter dated at the place, Aug. 16, he says: 
" There is a commandant here, with a small garrison. His house, 
which is but a very sorry one, is called the fort, from its being sur- 
rounded with an indifferent palisado, which is pretty near the case 
in all the rest. We have here two villages of Indians, one of the 
Miamis and the other of the Pottawatomies, both of them mostly 
Christians ; but as they have been for a long time without any pas- 
tors, the missionary who has been lately sent to them will have no 
small difficulty in bringing them back to the exercise of their re- 
ligion." He speaks also of the main commodity for which the In, 
dians would part with their goods, namely, spirituous liquors, 
which they drink and keep drunk upon as long as a supply lasted. 


More than a century and a half has now passed since Charlevoix 
penned the above, without any change whatever in this trait of In- 
dian character. 

In 1765 the Miami nation, or confederacy, was composed of four 
tribes, whose total number of warriors was estimated at only 1,050 
men. Of these about 250 were Twightwees, or Miamis proper, 
300 "Weas, or Ouiatenons , 300 Piankeshaws and 200 Shockeys; and 
at this time the principal villages of the Twightwees were situated 
about the head of the Maumee river at and near the place where 
Fort Wayne now is. The larger Wea villages were near the banks 
of the Wabash river, in the vicinity of the Post Ouiatenon; and 
the Shockeys and Piankeshaws dwelt on the banks of the Vermil- 
lion and on the borders of the Wabash between Vincennes and 
Ouiatenon. Branches of the Pottawatomie, Shawnee, Delaware and 
Kickapoo tribes were permitted at different times to enter within 
the boundaries of the Miamis and reside for a while. 

The wars in which France and England were engaged, from 1688 
to 1697, retarded the growth of the colonies of those nations in 
North America, and the efforts made by France to connect Canada 
and the Gulf of Mexico by a chain of trading posts and colonies 
naturally excited the jealousy of England and gradually laid the 
foundation for a struggle at arms. After several stations were estab- 
lished elsewhere in the West, trading posts were started at the 
Miami villages, which stood at the head of the Maumee, at the Wea 
villages about Ouiatenon on the Wabash, and at the Piankeshaw vil- 
lages about the present sight of Vincennes. It is probable that before 
the close of the year 1719, temporary trading posts were erected at the 
sites of Fort Wayne, Ouiatenon and Vincennes. These points were 
probably often visited by French fur traders prior to 1700. In the 
meanwhile the English people in this country commenced also to 
establish military posts west of the Alleghanies, and thus matters 
went on until they naturally culminated in a general war, which, 
being waged by the French and Indians combined on one side, was 
called " the French and Indian war." This war was terminated in 
1763 by a treaty at Paris, by which France ceded to Great Britain 
all of North America east of the Mississippi except New Orleans 
and the island on which it is situated; and indeed, France had the 
preceding autumn, by a secret convention, ceded to Spain all the 
country west of that river. 



In 1762, after Canada and its dependencies had been surrendered 
to the English, Pontiac and his partisans secretly organized a pow- 
erful confederacy in order to crush at one blow all English power 
in the "West. This great scheme was skillfully projected and cau- 
tiously matured. 

The principal act in the programme was to gain admittance into 
the fort at Detroit, on pretense of a friendly visit, with short- 
ened muskets concealed under their blankets, and on a given signal 
suddenly break forth upon the garrison; but an inadvertent remark 
of an Indian woman led to a discovery of the plot, which was con- 
sequently averted. Pontiac and his warriors afterward made many 
attacks upon the English, some of which were successful, but the 
Indians were finally defeated in the general war. 


In 1765 the total number of French families within the limits of 
the Northwestern Territory did not probably exceed 600. These 
were in settlements about Detroit, along the river Wabash and the 
neighborhood of Fort Chartres on the Mississippi. Of these fami- 
lies, about 80 or 90 resided at Post Vincennes, 14 at Fort Ouiate- 
non, on the Wabash, and nine or ten at the confluence of the St. 
Mary and St. Joseph rivers. 

The colonial policy of'the British government opposed any meas- 
ures which might strengthen settlements in the interior of this 
country, lest they become self-supporting and independent of the 
mother country; hence the early and rapid settlement of the North- 
western territory was still further retarded by the short-sighted 
selfishness of England. That fatal policy consisted mainly in hold- 
ing the land in the hands of the government and not allowing it to 
be subdivided and sold to settlers. But in spite of all her efforts 
in this direction, she constantly made just such efforts as provoked 
the American people to rebel, and to rebel successfully, which was 
within 15 years after the perfect close of the French and Indian 


Thomas Jefferson, the shrewd statesman and wise Governor of 
Virginia, saw from the first that actual occupation of "Western lands 
was the only way to keep them out of the hands of foreigners and 


Indians. Therefore, directly after the conquest of Vincennes by 
Clark, be engaged a scientific corps to proceed under an escort to 
the Mississippi, and ascertain by celestial observations the point 
on that river intersected by latitude 36° 30', the southern limit of 
the State, and to measure its distance to the Ohio. To Gen. Clark 
was entrusted the conduct of the military operations in that quar- 
ter. He was instructed to select a strong position near that point 
and establish there a fort and garrison ; thence to extend his conquests 
northward to the lakes, erecting forts at different points, which 
might serve as monuments of actual possession, besides affording 
protection to that portion of the country. Fort " Jefferson " was 
erected and garrisoned on the Mississippi a few miles above the 
southern limit. 

The result of these operations was the addition, to the chartered 
limits of Virginia, of that immense region known as the " North- 
western Territory." The simple fact that such and such forts were 
established by the Americans in this vast region convinced the Brit- 
ish Commissioners that we had entitled ourselves to the land. But 
where are those " monuments " of our power now? 


As a striking example of the inhuman treatment which the early 
Indians were capable of giving white people, we quote the follow 
ing blood-curdling story from Mr. Cox' " Kecollections of the 
"Wabash Valley": 

On the 11th of February, 1781, a wagoner named Irvin Hinton 
was sent from the block-house at Louisville, Ky., to Harrodsburg 
for a load of provisions for the fort. Two young men, Richard 
Rue and George Holman, aged respectively 19 and 16 } 7 ears, were 
sent as guards to protect the wagon from the depredations of any 
hostile Indians who might be lurking in the cane-brakes or ravines 
through which they must pass. Soon after their start a severe 
snow-storm set in which lasted until afternoon. Lest the melting 
snow might dampen the powder in their rifles, the guards fired 
them off, intending to reload them as soon as the storm ceased. 
Hinton drove the horses while Rue walked a few rods ahead and 
Holman about the same distance behind. As they ascended a hill 
about eight miles from Louisville Hinton heard some one say Whoa 
to the horses. Supposing that something was wrong about the 
wagon, he stopped and asked Holman why he bad called him to 
halt. Holman said that he had not spoken; Rue also denied it, 



but said that he had heard the voice distinctly. At this time a voice 
cried out, " I will solve the mystery for you; it was Simon Girty that 
cried "Whoa, and he meant what he said," — at the same time emerg- 
ing from a sink-hole a few rods from the roadside, followed by 13 
Indians, who immediately surrounded the three Keutuckians and 
demanded them to surrender or die instantly. The little party, 
making a virtue of necessity, surrendered to this renegade white 
man and his Indian allies. 

Being so near two forts, Girty made all possible speed in making 
fast his prisoners, selecting the lines and other parts of the harness, 
he prepared for an immediate flight across the Ohio. The panta- 
loons of the prisoners were cut off about four inches above the 
knees, and thus they started through the deep snow as fast as the 
horses could trot, leaving the wagon, containing a few empty bar- 
rels, standing in the road. They continued their march for sev- 
eral cold days, without fire at night, until they reached Wa-puc-ca- 
nat-ta, where they compelled their prisoners to run the gauntlet as 
they entered the village. Hinton first ran the gauntlet and reached 
the council-house after receiving several severe blows upon the head 
and shoulders. Rue next ran between the lines, pursued by an 
Indian with an uplifted tomahawk. He far outstripped his pursuer 
and dodged most of the blows aimed at him. Holman complaining 
that it was too severe a test for a worn-out stripling like himself, 
was allowed to run between two lines of squaws and boj s, and was 
followed by an Indian with a long switch. 

The first council of the Indians did not dispose of these young 
men; they were waiting for the presence of other chiefs and war- 
riors. Hinton escaped, but on the afternoon of the second day he 
was re-captured. Now the Indians were glad that they had an 
occasion to indulge in the infernal joy of burning him at once. 
Soon after their supper, which they shared with their victim, they 
drove the stake into the ground, piled up the fagots in a circle 
around it, stripped and blackened the prisoner, tied him to the 
stake, and applied the torch. It was a slow fire. The war-whoop 
then thrilled through the dark surrounding forest like the chorus 
of a band of infernal spirits escaped from pandemonium, and the 
scalp dance was struck up by those demons in human shape, who 
for hours encircled their victim, brandishing their tomahawks and 
war clubs, and venting their execrations upon the helpless sufferer, 
who died about midnight from the effects of the slow heat. As 
soon as he fell upon the ground, the Indian who first discovered 


him in the woods that evening sprang in, sunk his tomahawk into 
his skull above the ear, and with his knife stripped off the scalp, 
which he bore back with him to the town as a trophy, and which 
was tauntingly thrust into the faces of Rue and Holman, with the 
question, " Can you smell the fire on the scalp of your red-headed 
friend? We cooked him and left him for the wolves to make a 
breakfast upon; that is the way we serve runaway prisoners." 

After a march of three days more, the prisoners, Rue and Hol- 
man, had to run the gauntlets again, and barely got through with 
their lives. It was decided that they should both be burned at the 
stake that night, though this decision was far from being unani- 
mous. The necessary preparations were made, dry sticks and 
brush were gathered and piled around two stakes, the faces 
and hands of the doomed men were blackened in the customary 
manner, and as the evening approached the poor wretches sat look- 
ing upon the setting sun for the last time. An unusual excitement 
was manifest in a number of chiefs who still lingered about the 
council-house. At a pause in the contention, a noble-looking In- 
dian approached the prisoners, and after speaking a few words to 
the guards, took Holman by the hand, lifted him to his feet, cut the 
cords that bound him to his fellow prisoners, removed the black from 
his face and hands, put his hand kindly upon his head and said : " I 
adopt you as my son, to fill the place of the one I have lately buried ; 
you are now a kinsman of Logan, the white man's friend, as he has 
been called, but who has lately proven himself to be a terrible 
avenger of the wrongs inflicted upon him by the bloody Cresap and 
his men." With evident reluctance, Girty interpreted this to Hol- 
man, who was thus unexpectedly freed. 

But the preparations for the burning of Rue went on. Holman 
and Rue embraced each other most affectionately, with a sorrow too 
deep for description. Rue was then tied to one of the stakes; but 
the general contention among the Indians had not ceased. Just as 
the lighted fagots were about to be applied to the dry brush piled 
around the devoted youth, a tall, active young Shawnee, a son of 
the victim's, captor, sprang into the ring, and cutting the cords 
which bound him to the stake, led him out amidst the deafening 
plaudits of a part of the crowd and the execrations of the rest. Re- 
gardless of threats, he caused water to be brought and the black to 
be washed from the face and hands of the prisoner, whose clothes 
were then returned to him, when the young brave said: " I take 
this young man to be my brother, in the place of one I lately lost; 


I loved that brother well; I will love this one, too; my old mother 
will be glad when I tell her that I have brought her a son, in place 
of the dear departed one. We want no more victims. The burning 
of Eed-head [Hinton] ought to satisfy us. These innocent young 
men do not merit such cruel fate; I would rather die myself than 
see this adopted brother burned at the stake." 

A loud shout of approbation showed that the young Shawnee had 
triumphed, though dissension was manifest among the various 
tribes afterward. Some of them abandoned their trip to Detroit, 
others returded to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, a few turned toward the Mis- 
sissinewa and the Wabash towns, while a portion continued to De- 
troit. Holman was taken back to Wa-puc-ca-nat ta, where he re- 
mained most of the time of his captivity. Eue was taken first to 
the Mississinewa, then to the Wabash towns. Two years of his 
eventful captivity were spent in the region of the Wabash and Illi- 
nois rivers, but the last few months at Detroit; was in captivity 
altogether about three years and a half. 

Rue effected his escape in the following manner: During one of 
the drunken revels of the Indians near Detroit one of them lost a 
purse of $90; various tribes were suspected of feloniously keeping 
the treasure, and much ugly speculation was indulged in as to who 
was the thief. At length a prophet of a tribe that was not suspected 
was called to divine the mystery. He spread sand over a green 
deer-skin, watched it awhile and performed various manipulations, 
and professed to see that the money had been stolen and carried 
away by a tribe entirely different from any that had been 
suspicioned; but he was shrewd enough not to announce who the 
thief was or the tribe he belonged to, lest a war might arise. His 
decision quieted the belligerent uprisings threatened by the excited 

Rue and two other prisoners saw this display of the prophet's 
skill and concluded to interrogate him soon concerning their fami- 
lies at home. The opportunity occurred in a few days, and the In- 
dian seer actually astonished Rue with the accuracy with which he 
described his family, and added, " You all intend to make your 
escape, and you will effect it 60on. You will meet with many trials 
and hardships in passing over so wild a district of country, inhabited 
by so many hostile nations of Indians. You will almost starve to 
death ; but about the time you have given up all hope of finding 
game to sustain you in your famished condition, succor will come 
when you least expect it. The first game you will succeed in taking 


will be a male of some kind ; after that you will have plenty of 
game and return home in safety." 

The prophet kept this matter a secret for the prisoners, and the 
latter in a few days set off upon their terrible journey, and had 
just such experience as the Indian prophet had foretold; they 
arrived home with their lives, but were pretty well worn out with the 
exposures and privations of a three weeks' journey. 

On the return of Holman's party of Indians to Wa-puc-ca-nat-ta, 
much dissatisfaction existed in regard to the manner of his release 
from the sentence of condemnation pronounced against him by the 
council. Many were in favor of recalling the council and trying 
him again, and this was finally agreed to. The young man was 
again put upon trial for his life, with a strong probability of his 
being condemned to the stake. Both parties worked hard for vic- 
tory in the final vote, which eventually proved to give a majority of 
one for the prisoner's acquittal. 

While with the Indians, Holman saw them burn at the stake a 
Kentuckian named Kichard Hogeland, who had been taken prisoner 
at the defeat of Col . Crawford. They commenced burning him at 
nine o'clock at night, and continued roasting him until ten o'clock 
the next day, before he expired. During his excruciating tortures he 
begged for some of them to end his life and sufferings with a gun 
or tomahawk. Finally his cruel tormentors promised they would, 
and cut several deep gashes in his flesh with their tomahawks, and 
shoveled up hot ashes and embers and threw them into the gaping 
wounds. When he was dead they stripped off his scalp, cut him 
to pieces and burnt him to ashes, which they scattered through the 
town to expel the evil spirits from it. 

After a captivity of about three years and a half, Holman saw an 
opportunity of going on amission for the destitute Indians, namely, 
of going to Harrodsburg, Ky., where he had a rich uncle, from 
whom they could get what supplies they wanted. They let him go 
with a guard, but on arriving at Louisville, where Gen. Clark was 
in command, he was ransomed, and he reached home only three 
days after the arrival of Rue. Both these men lived to a good old 
age, terminating their lives at their home about two miles south of 
Richmond, Ind. 


In the summer of 1778, Col. George Rogers Clark, a native of 
Albemarle county, Va., led a memorable expedition against the 
ancient French settlements about Kaskaskia and Post Vincennes. 
With respect to the magnitude of its design, the valor and perse- 
verance with which it was carried on, and the memorable results 
which were produced by it, this expedition stands without a parallel 
in the early annals of the valley of the Mississippi. That portion 
of the West called Kentucky was occupied by Henderson & Co., 
who pretended to own the land and who held it at a high price. 
Col. Clark wished to test the validity of their claim and adjust the 
government of the country so as to encourage immigration. He 
accordingly called a meeting of the citizens at Harrodstown, to 
assemble June 6, 1776, and consider the claims of the company and 
consult with reference to the interest of the country. He did not 
at first publish the exact aim of this movement, lest parties would 
be formed in advance and block the enterprise; also, if the object 
of the meeting were not announced beforehand, the curiosity of the 
people to know what was to be proposed would bring out a much 
greater attendance. 

The meeting was held on the day appointed, and delegates were 
elected to treat with the government of Virginia, to see whether 
it would be best to become a county in that State and be protected 
by it, etc. Various delays on account of the remoteness of the 
white settlers from the older communities of Virginia and the hos- 
tility of Indians in every direction, prevented a consummation of 
this object until some time in 1778. The government of Virginia 
was friendly to Clark's enterprise to a certain extent, but claimed 
that they had not authority to do much more than to lend a little 
assistance for which payment should be made at some future time, 
as it was not certain whether Kentucky would become a part of Vir- 
ginia or not. Gov. Henry and a few gentlemen were individually 
so hearty in favor of Clark's benevolent undertaking that they 
assisted him all they could. Accordingly Mr. Clark organized his 
expedition, keeping every particular secret lest powerful parties 
would form in the West against him. He took in stores at Pitts- 















8 — " 



burg and Wheeling, proceeded down the Ohio to the "Falls," 
where he took possession of an island of a about seven acres, and 
divided it among a small number of families, for whose protection 
he constructed some light fortifications. At this time Post Vin- 
cennes comprised about 400 militia, and it was a daring undertak- 
ing for Col. Clark, with his small force, to go up against it and Kas- 
kaskia, as he had planned. Indeed, some of his men, on hearing of 
his plan, deserted him. He conducted himself so as to gain the 
sympathy of the French, and through them also that of the 
Indians to some extent, as both these people were very bitter 
against the British, who had possession of the Lake Region. 

From the nature of the situation Clark concluded it was best to 
take Kaskaskia first. The fact that the people regarded him as a 
savage rebel, he regarded as really a good thing in his favor; for 
after the first victory he would show them so much unexpected 
lenity that they would rally to his standard. In this policy he was 
indeed successful. He arrested a few men and put them in irons. 
The priest of the village, accompanied by five or six aged citizens, 
waited on Clark and said that the inhabitants expected to be separ- 
ated, perhaps never to meet again, and they begged to be permitted 
to assemble in their church to take leave of each other. Clark 
mildly replied that he had nothing against their religion, that they 
might continue to assemble in their church, but not venture out of 
town, etc. Thus, by what has since been termed the "Rarey" 
method of taming horses, Clark showed them he had power over 
them but designed them no harm, and they readily took the oath 
of allegiance to Virginia. 

After Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia it was difficult to induce the 
French settlers to accept the "Continental paper" introduced by 
him and his troops. Nor until Col. Vigo arrived there and guar- 
anteed its redemption would they receive it. Peltries and piastres 
formed the only currency, and Vigo found great difficulty in ex- 
plaining Clark's financial arrangements. "Their commandants 
never made money," was the reply to Vigo's explanation of the 
policy of the old Dominion. But notwithstanding the guarantees, 
the Continental paper fell very low in the market. Vigo had a 
trading establishment at Kaskaskia, where he sold coffee at one 
dollar a pound, and all the other necessaries of life at an equally 
reasonable price. The unsophisticated Frenchmen were generally 
asked in what kind of money they would pay their little bills. 


"Douleur," was the general reply, and as an authority on the sub 
ject says, "It took about twenty Continental dollars to purchase a 
silver dollar's worth of coffee; and as the French word "douleur" sig- 
nifies grief or pain, perhaps no word either in the French or Eng- 
lish languages expressed the idea more correctly than the douleur 
for a Continental dollar. At any rate it was truly douleur to the 
Colonel, for he never received a single dollar in exchange for the 
large amount taken from him in order to sustain Clark's credit. 

Now, the post at Vincennes, defended by Fort Sackville, came 
next. The priest just mentioned, Mr. Gibault, was really friendly 
to "the American interest;" he had spiritual charge of the church 
at Vincennes, and he with several others were deputed to assemble 
the people there and authorize them to garrison their own fort like 
a free and independent people, etc. This plan had its desired effect, 
and the people took the oath of allegiance to the State of Virginia 
and became citizens of the United States. Their style of language 
and conduct changed to a better hue, and they surprised the numer- 
ous Indians in the vicinity by displaying anew flag and informing 
them that their old father, the King of France, was come to life 
again, and was mad at them for fighting the English; and they ad- 
vised them to make peace with the Americans as soon as they 
could, otherwise they might expect to make the land very bloody, 
etc. The Indians concluded they would have to fall in line, and 
they offered no resistance. Capt. Leonard Helm, an American, 
was left in charge of this post, and Clark began to turn his atten- 
tion to other points. But before leaving this section of the coun- 
try he made treaties of peace with the Indians; this he did, how- 
ever, by a different method from what had always before been 
followed. By indirect methods he caused them to come to him, 
instead of going to them. He was convinced that inviting them to 
treaties was considered by them in a different manner from what 
the whites expected, and imputed them to fear, and that giving 
them great presents confirmed it. He accordingly established 
treaties with the Piankeshaws, Ouiatenons, Kickapoos, Illinois, 
Kaskaskias, Peorias and branches of some other tribes that inhab- 
ited the country between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi. 
Upon this the General Assembly of the State of Virginia declared 
all the citizens settled west of the Ohio organized into a county of 
that State, to be known as " Illinois " county; but before the pro- 
visions of the law could be carried into effect, Henry Hamilton, the 
British Lieutenant-Governor of Detroit, collected an army of about 


30 regulars, 50 French volunteers and 400 Indians, went down and 
re-took the post Vincennes in December, 1778. No attempt was 
made by the population to defend the town. Capt. Helm and a 
man named Henry were the only Americans at the fort, the only 
members of the garrison. Capt. Helm was taken prisoner and a 
number of the French inhabitants disarmed. 

Col. Clark, hearing of the situation, determined to re-capture the 
place. He accordingly gathered together what force he could in 
this distant land, 170 men, and on the 5th of February, started from 
Kaskaskia and crossed the river of that name. The weather was 
very wet, and the low lands were pretty well covered with water. 
The march was difficult, and the Colonel bad to workhard to keep 
his men in spirits. He suffered them to shoot game whenever they 
wished and eat it like Indian war-dancers, each company by turns 
inviting the others to their feasts, which was the case every night. 
Clark waded through water as much as any of them, and thus stimu- 
lated the men by his example. They reached the Little Wabash 
on the 13th, after suffering many and great hardships. Here a camp 
was formed, and without waiting to discuss plans for crossing the 
river, Clark ordered the men to construct a vessel, and pretended 
that crossing the stream would be only a piece of amusement, al- 
though inwardly he held a different opinion. 

The second day afterward a reconnoitering party was sent across 
the river, who returned and made an encouraging report. A scaf- 
folding was built on the opposite shore, upon which the baggage 
was placed as it was tediously ferried over, and the new camping 
ground was a nice half acre of dry land. There were many amuse- 
ments, indeed, in getting across the river, which put all the men in 
high spirits. The succeeding two or three days they had to march 
through a great deal of water, having on the night of the 17th to 
encamp in the water, near the Big Wabash. 

At daybreak on the 18th they heard the signal gun at Vincennes, 
and at once commenced their march. Reaching the Wabash about 
two o'clock, they constructed rafts to cross the river on a boat-steal- 
ing expedition, but labored all day and night to no purpose. On 
the 19th they began to make a canoe, in which a second attempt to 
steal boats was made, but this expedition returned, reporting that 
there were two "large fires" within a mile of them. Clark sent a 
canoe down the river to meet the vessel that was supposed to be on 
her way up with the supplies, with orders to hasten forward day and 
night. This was their last hope, as their provisions were entirely 


gone, and starvation seemed to be hovering about them. The next 
day they commenced to make more canoes, when about noon the 
sentinel on the river brought a boat with five Frenchmen from the 
fort. From this party they learned that they were not as yet dis- 
covered. All the army crossed the river in two canoes the next 
day, and as Clark had determined to reach the town that night, he 
ordered his men to move forward. They plunged into the water 
sometimes to the neck, for over three miles. 

Without food, benumbed with cold, up to their waists in water, 
covered with broken ice, the men at one time mutinied and refused 
to march. All the persuasions of Clark had no effect upon the 
half-starved and half-frozen soldiers. In one company was a small 
drummer boy, and also a sergeant who stood six feet two inches in 
socks, and stout and athletic. He was devoted to Clark. The Gen- 
eral mounted the little drummer on the shoulders of the stalwart 
sergeant and ordered him to plunge into the water, half-frozen as it 
was. He did so, the little boy beating the charge from his lofty 
perch, while Clark, sword in hand, followed them, giving the com- 
mand as he threw aside the floating ice, " Forward." Elated and 
amused with the scene, the men promptly obeyed, holding their 
rifles above their heads, and in spite of all the obstacles they reached 
the high land in perfect safety. But for this and the ensuing days 
of this campaign we quote from Clark's account: 

" This last day's march through the water was far superior to any- 
thing the Frenchmen had any idea of. They were backward in 
speaking; said that the nearest land to us was a small league, a 
sugar camp on the bank of the river. A canoe was sent off and re- 
turned without finding that we could pass. I went in her myself 
and sounded the water and found it as deep as to my neck. I returned 
with a design to have the men transported on board the canoes to 
the sugar camp, which I knew would expend the whole day and 
suing night, as the vessels would pass slowly through the bushes 
The loss of so much time to men half starved was a matter of con 
sequence. I would have given now a great deal for a day's provis 
ion, or for one of our horses. I returned but slowly to the troops, 
giving myself time to think. On our arrival all ran to hear what 
was the report; every eye was fixed on me; I unfortunately spoke 
in a serious manner to one of the officers. The whole were alarmed 
without knowing what I said. I viewed their confusion for about 
one minute; I whispered to those near me to do as I did, immedi- 
ately put some water in my hand, poured on powder, blackened my 


face, gave the war- whoop, and marched into the water without say- 
ing a word. The party gazed and fell in, one after another without 
saying a word, like a flock of sheep. I ordered those near me to 
begin a favorite song of theirs; it soon passed through the line, and 
the whole went on cheerfully. 

" I now intended to have them transported across the deepest 
part of the water; but when about waist-deep, one of the men in- 
formed me that he thought he felt a path; we examined and found 
it so, and concluded that it kept on the highest ground, which it did, 
and by taking pains to follow it, we got to the sugar camp with no 
difficulty, where there was about half an acre of dry ground, — at 
least ground not under water, and there we took up our lodging. 

" The night had been colder than any we had had, and the ice in 
the morning was one-half or three-quarters of an inch thick in still 
water; the morning was the finest. A little after sunrise I lectured 
the whole; what I said to them I forget, but I concluded by in- 
forming them that passing the plain then in full view, and 
reaching the opposite woods would put an end to their fatigue; 
that in a few hours they would have a sight of their long wished-for 
object; and immediately stepped into the water without waiting 
for any reply. A huzza took place. As we generally marched 
through the water in a line, before the third man entered, I called to 
Major Bowman, ordering him to fall in the rear of the 25 men, and 
put to death any man who refused to march. This met with a cry 
of approbation, and on we went. Getting about the middle of the 
plain, the water about mid-deep, I found myself sensibly failing; 
and as there were no trees nor bushes for the men to support them- 
selves by, I feared that many of the weak would be drowned. I or- 
dered the canoes to make the land, discharge their loading, and play 
backward and forward with all diligence and pick up the men ; and 
to encourage the party, sent some of the strongest men forward, 
with orders when they got to a certain distance, to pass the word 
back that the water was getting shallow, and when getting near the 
woods, to cry out land. This stratagem had its desired effect; the 
men exerted themselves almost beyond their abilities, the weak 
holding by the stronger. The water, however, did not become 
shallower, but continued deepening. Getting to the woods where 
the men expected land, the water was up to my shoulders; but 
gaining the woods was of great consequence; all the low men and 
weakly hung to the trees and floated on the old logs until they were 


taken off by the canoes; the strong and tall got ashore and built 
fires. Many would reach the shore and fall with their bodies half 
in the water, not being able to support themselves without it. 

" This was a dry and delightful spot of ground of about ten acres. 
Fortunately, as if designed by Providence, a canoe of Indian squaws 
and children was coming up to town, and took through this part of 
the plain as a nigh way; it was discovered by our canoe-men as they 
were out after the other men. They gave chase and took the Indian 
canoe, on board of which was nearly half a quarter of buffalo, some 
corn, tallow, kettles, etc. This was an invaluable prize. Broth was 
immediately made and served out, especially to the weakly; nearly 
all of us got a little ; but a great many gave their part to the 
weakly, saying something cheering to their comrades. By the 
afternoon, this refreshment and fine weather had greatly invigor- 
ated the whole party. 

" Crossing a narrow and deep lake in the canoes, and marching 
some distance, we came to a copse of timber called ' Warrior's 
Island.' We were now in full view of the fort and town; it was 
about two miles distant, with not a shrub intervening. Every man 
now feasted his eyes and forgot that he had suffered anything, say- 
ing that all which had passed was owing to good policy, and noth- 
ing but what a man could bear, and that a soldier had no right to 
think, passing from one extreme to the other, — which is common in 
such cases. And now stratagem was necessary. The plain between 
us and the town was not a perfect level; the sunken grounds were 
covered with water full of ducks. We observed several men within 
a half a mile of us shooting ducks, and sent out some of our active 
young Frenchmen to take one of these men prisoners without 
alarming the rest, which they did. The information we got from 
this person was similar to that which we got from those taken on the 
river, except that of the British having that evening completed the 
wall of the fort, and that there were a great many Indians in town. 

"Our situation was now critical. No possibility of retreat in 
case of defeat, and in full view of a town containing at this time 
more than 600 men, troops, inhabitants and Indians. The crew of the 
galley, though not 50 men, would have been now a re-enforcement 
of immense magnitude to our little army, if I may so call it, but 
we would not think of them. We were now in the situation that I 
had labored to get ourselves in. The idea of being made prisoner 
was foreign to almost every man, as they expected nothing but tor- 
ture from the savages if they fell into their hands. Our fate was 


now to be determined, probably in a few hours; we knew that 
nothing but the most daring conduct would insure success; I knew 
also that a number of the inhabitants wished us well. This was a 
favorable circumstance; and as there was but little prooability of our 
remaining until dark undiscovered, I determined to begin opera- 
tions immediately, and therefore wrote the following placard to the 

To the Inhabitants of Post Vincennes: 

Gentlemen: — Being now within two miles of your village with 
my army, determined to take your fort this night, and not being 
willing to surprise you, I take this method to request such of you 
as are true citizens and willing to enjoy the liberty I bring you, to 
remain still in your houses; and those, if any there be, that are 
friends to the king, will instantly repair to the fort and join the 
hair-buyer general and fight like men; and if any such as do not go 
to the fort shall be discovered afterward, they may depend on 
severe punishment. On the contrary, those who are true friends 
to liberty may depend on being well treated; and I once more 
request them to keep out of the streets; for everyone I find in 
arms on my arrival I shall treat as an enemy. 

[Signed] G. R Clabk. 

" I had various ideas on the results of this letter. I knew it 
could do us no damage, but that it would cause the lukewarm to. 
be decided, and encourage our friends and astonish our enemies. 
We anxiously viewed this messenger until he entered the town, and 
in a few minutes we discovered by our glasses some stir in every 
street we could penetrate, and great numbers running or riding out 
into the commons, we supposed to view us, which was the case. 
But what surprised us was that nothing had yet happened that had 
the appearance of the garrison being alarmed, — neither gun nor 
drum. We began to suppose that the information we got from our 
prisoners was false, and that the enemy had already knew of us and 
were prepared. A little before sunset we displayed ourselves in 
full view of the town, — crowds gazing at us. We were plunging 
ourselves into certain destruction or success ; there was no midway 
thought of. We had but little to say to our meu, except inculcat- 
ing an idea of the necessity of obedience, etc. We moved on 
slowly in full view of the town ; but as it was a point of some con- 
sequence to us to make ourselves appear formidable, we, in leaving 
the covert we were in, marched and counter- marched in such a 
manner that we appeared numerous. Our colors were displayed to 
the best advantage; and as the low plain we marched through was 


not a perfect level, but had frequent risings in it, of 7 or 8 
higher than the common level, which was covered with water; and 
as these risings generally run in an oblique direction to the town, 
we took the advantage of one of them, marching through the water 
by it, which completely prevented our being numbered. We gained 
the heights back of the town. As there were as yet no hostile 
appearance, we were impatient to have the cause unriddled. Lieut. 
Bayley was ordered with 14 men to march and fire on the fort; 
the main body moved in a different direction and took possession 
of the strongest part of the town." 

Clark then sent a written order to Hamilton commanding 
him to surrender immediately or he would be treated as a 
murderer; Hamilton replied that he and his garrison were not 
disposed to be awed into any action unworthy of British sub- 
jects. After one hour more of fighting, Hamilton proposed a 
truce of three days for conference, on condition that each side 
cease all defensive work; Clark rejoined that he would "not 
agree to any terms other than Mr. Hamilton surrendering himself 
and garrison prisoners at discretion," and added that if he, Hamil- 
ton, wished to talk with him he could meet him immediately at the 
church with Capt. Helm. In less than an hour Clark dictated the 
terms of surrender, Feb: 24, 1779. Hamilton agreed to the total 
surrender because, as he there claimed in writing, he was too far 
from aid from his own government, and because of the "unanimity" 
of his officers in the surrender, and his "confidence in a generous 

"Of this expedition, of its results, of its importance, of the merits of 
those engaged in it, of their bravery, their skill, of their prudence, of 
their success, a volume would not more than suffice for the details. 
Suffice it to say that in my opinion, and I have accurately and criti- 
cally weighed and examined all the results produced by the con- 
tests in which we were engaged during the Bevolutionary war, 
that for bravery, for hardships endured, for skill and consummate 
tact and prudence on the part of the commander, obedience, dis- 
cipline and love of country on the part of his followers, for the 
immense benefits acquired, and signal advantages obtained by it 
for the whole union, it was second to no enterprise undertaken dur- 
ing that struggle. I might add, second to no undertaking in an- 
cient or modern warfare. The whole credit of this conquest be- 
longs to two men; Gen. George Eogers Clark and Col. Francis 
Vigo. And when we consider that by it the whole territory now 


covered by the three great states of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan 
was added to the union, and so admitted to be by the British commis- 
sioners at the preliminaries to the treaty of peace in 1783; (and but 
for this very conquest, the boundaries of our territories west would 
have been the Ohio instead of the Mississippi, and so acknowledged 
by both onr commissioners and the British at that conference;) a 
territory embracing upward of 2,000,000 people, the human mind 
is lost in the contemplation of its effects; and we can but wonder 
that a force of 170 men, the whole number of Clark's troops, 
should by this single action have produced such important results." 
[John Law. 

The next day Clark sent a detachment of 60 men up the river 
"Wabash to intercept some boats which were laden with provisions 
and goods from Detroit. This force was placed under command of 
Capt. Helm, Major Bosseron and Major Legras, and they proceeded 
up the river, in three armed boats, about 120 miles, when the 
British boats, about seven in number, were surprised and captured 
without firing a gun. These boats, which had on board about 
§50,000 worth of goods and provisions, were manned by about 
40 men, among whom was Philip Dejean, a magistrate of Detroit. 
The provisions were taken for the public, and distributed among 
the soldiery. 

Having organized a military government at Vincennes and 
appointed Capt. Helm commandant of the town, Col. Clark return- 
ed in the vessel to Kaskaskia, where he was joined by reinforce- 
ments from Kentucky under Capt. George. Meanwhile, a party of 
traders who were going to the falls, were killed and plundered by 
the Delawares of White Biver; the news of this disaster having 
reached Clark, he sent a dispatch to Capt. Helm ordering him to 
make war on the Delawares and use every means in his power to 
destroy them; to show no mercy to the men, but to save the 
women and children. This order was executed without delay. 
Their camps were attacked in every quarter where they could be 
found. Many fell, and others were carried to Post Vincennes and 
put to death. The surviving Delawares at once pleaded for mercy 
and appeared anxious to make some atonement for their bad con- 
duct. To these overtures Capt. Helm replied that Col. Clark, the 
" Big Knife," had ordered the war, and that he had no power to lay 
down the hatchet, but that he would suspend hostilities until a 
messenger could be sent to Kaskaskia. This was done, and the 
crafty Colonel, well understanding the Indian character, sent a 


message to the Delawares, telling them that he would not accept 
their friendship or treat with them for peace; but that if they 
could get some of the neighboring tribes to become responsible for 
their future conduct, he would discontinue the war and spare their 
lives; otherwise they must all perish. 

Accordingly a council was called of all the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, and Clark's answer was read to the assembly. After due 
deliberation the Piankeshaws took on themselves to answer for the 
future good conduct of the Delawares, and the " Grand Door " in a 
long speech denounced their base conduct. This ended the war 
with the Delawares and secured the respect of the neighboring 

Ciark's attention was next turned to the British post at Detroit, 
but being unable to obtain sufficient troops he abandoned the en- 


Tradition says that when Clark captured Hamilton and his gar- 
rison at Fort Sackville, he took possession of the fort and kept the 
British flag flying, dressed his sentinels with the uniform of the 
British soldiery, and let everything about the premises remain as 
they were, so that when the Indians sympathizing with the British 
arrived they would walk right into the citadel, into the jaws of 
death. His success was perfect. Sullen and silent, with the scalp- 
lock of his victims hanging at his girdle, and in full expectation of 
his reward from Hamilton, the unwary savage, unconscious of 
danger and wholly ignorant of the change that had just been effected 
in his absence, passed the supposed British sentry at the gate of the 
fort unmolested and unchallenged; but as soon as in, a volley from 
the rifles of a platoon of Clark's men, drawn up and awaiting his 
coming, pierced their hearts and sent the unconscious savage, reek- 
ing with murder, to that tribunal to which he had so frequently, 
by order of the hair- buyer general, sent his American captives, 
from the infant in the cradle to the grandfather of the family, tot- 
tering with age and infirmity. It was a just retribution, and few 
men but Clark would have planned such a ruse or carried it out 
successfully. It is reported that fifty Indians met this fate within 
the fort; and probably Hamilton, a prisoner there, witnessed it all. 


Henry Hamilton, who had acted as Lieutenant and Governor of 
the British possessions under Sir George Carleton, was sent for- 


ward, with two other prisoners of war, Dejean and LaMothe, to 
Williamsburg, Va., early in June following, 1779. Proclamations, 
in his own handwriting, were found, in which he had offered a 
specific sum for every American scalp brought into the camp, either 
by his own troops or his allies, the Indians; and from this he was 
denominated the "hair-buyer General." This and much other tes- 
timony of living witnesses at the time, all showed what a savage he 
was. Thomas Jefferson, then Governor of "Virginia, being made 
aware of the inhumanity of this wretch, concluded to resort to a 
little retaliation by way of closer confinement. Accordingly he 
ordered that these three prisoners be put in irons, confined in a 
dungeon, deprived of the use of pen, ink and paper, and be ex- 
cluded from all conversation except with their keeper. Major 
General Phillips, a British officer out on parole in the vicinity of 
Charlottesville, where the prisoners now were, in closer confine- 
ment, remonstrated, and President Washington, while approving 
of Jefferson's course, requested a mitigation of the severe order, 
lest the British be goaded to desperate measures. 

Soon afterward Hamilton was released on parole, and he subse- 
quently appeared in Canada, still acting as if he had jurisdiction 
in the United States. 

gibault . 

The faithful, self-sacrificing and patriotic services of Father 
Pierre Gibault in behalf of the Americans require a special notice 
of him in this connection. He was the parish priest at Vincennes, 
as well as at Kaskaskia. He was, at an early period, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary to the Illinois. Had it not been for the influence of this man, 
Clark could not have obtained the influence of the citizens at either 
place. He gave all his property, to the value of 1,500 Spanish 
milled dollars, to the support of Col. Clark's troops, and never re- 
ceived a single dollar in return. So far as the records inform us,, 
he was given 1,500 Continental paper dollars, which proved in the 
end entirely valueless. He modestly petitioned from the Govern- 
ment a small allowance of land at Cahokia, but we find no account 
of his ever receiving it. He was dependent upon the public in his 
older days, and in 1790 Winthrop Sargent "conceded" to him a lot 
of about "14 toises, one side to Mr. Millet, another to Mr. Yaudrey, 
and to two streets," — a vague description of land. 



Col. Francis Vigo was born in Mondovi, in the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia, in 1747. He left his parents and guardians at a very early 
age, and enlisted in a Spanish regiment as a soldier. The regiment 
was ordered to Havana, and a detachment of it subsequently to 
New Orleans, then a Spanish post; Col. Vigo accompanied this de- 
tachment. But he left the army and engaged in trading with the 
Indians on the Arkansas and its tributaries. Next he settled at St. 
Louis, also a Spanish post, where he became closely connected, both 
in friendship and business, with the Governor of Upper Louisiana, 
then residing at the same place. This friendship he enjoyed, though 
he could only write his name; and we have many circumstantial 
evidences that he was a man of high intelligence, honor, purity of 
heart, and ability. Here he was living when Clark captured Kas- 
kaskia, and was extensively engaged in trading up the Missouri. 

A Spaniard by birth and allegiance, he was under no obligation 
to assist the Americans. Spain was at peace with Great Britain, 
and any interference by her citizens was a breach of neutrality, and 
subjected an individual, especially one of the high character and 
standing of Col. Vigo, to all the contumely, loss and vengeance 
which British power could inflict. But Col. Vigo did not falter. 
"With an innate love of liberty, an attachment to Kepublican prin- 
ciples, and an ardent sympathy for an oppressed people struggling 
for their rights, he overlooked all personal consequences, and as 
soon as he learned of Clark's arrival at Kaskaskia, he crossed the 
line and went to Clark and tendered him his means and influence, 
both of which were joyfully accepted. 

Knowing Col. Vigo's influence with the ancient inhabitants of 
the country, and desirous of obtaining some information from 
Vincennes, from which he had not heard for several months, Col. 
Clark proposed to him that he might go to that place and learn the 
actual state of affairs. Vigo went without hesitation, but on the 
Embarrass river he was seized by a party of Indians, plundered of 
all he possessed, and brought a prisoner before Hamilton, then in pos- 
session of the post, which he had a short time previously captured, 
holding Capt. Helm a prisoner of war. Being a Spanish subject, 
and consequently a non-combatant, Gov. Hamilton, although he 
strougly suspected the motives of the visit, dared not confine him, 
but admitted him to parole, on the single condition that he 
should daily report himself at the fort. But Hamilton was embar- 


rassed by his detention, being besieged by the inhabitants of the 
town, who loved Yigo and threatened to withdraw their support 
from the garrison if he would not release him. Father Gibault was 
the chief pleader for Vigo's release. Hamilton finally yielded, on con- 
dition that he, Vigo, would do no injury to the British interests on 
his way to St. Louis. He went to St. Louis, sure enough, doing no 
injury to British interests, but immediately returned to Kaskaskia 
and reported to Clark in detail all he had learned at Vincennes, 
without which knowledge Clark would have been unable to ac- 
complish his famous expedition to that post with final triumph. 
The redemption of this country from the British is due as much, 
probably, to Col. Vigo as Col. Clark. 


Col. John Todd, Lieutenant for the county of Illinois, in the 
spring of 1779 visited the old settlements at Vincennes and Kas- 
kaskia, and organized temporary civil governments in nearly all the 
settlements west of the Ohio. Previous to this, however, Clark 
had established a military government at Kaskaskia and Vincennes, 
appointed commandants in both places and taken up his headquar- 
ters at the falls of the Ohio, where he could watch the operations 
of the enemy and save the frontier settlements from the depreda- 
tions of Indian warfare. On reaching the settlements, Col. Todd 
issued a proclamation regulating the settlement of unoccupied 
lands and requiring the presentation of all claims to the lands set- 
tled, as the number of adventurers who would shortly overrun the 
country would be serious. He also organized a Court of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction at Vincennes, in the month of June, 1779. 
This Court was composed of several magistrates and presided over 
by Col. J. M. P. Legras, who had been appointed commandant at 
Vincennes. Acting from the precedents established by the early 
French commandants in the West, this Court began to grant tracts 
of land to the French and American inhabitants; and to the year 
17S3, it had granted to different parties about 26,000 acres of land; 
22,000 more was granted in this manner by 1787, when the practice 
was prohibited by Gen. Harmer. These tracts varied in size from 
a house lot to 500 acres. Besides this loose business, the Court 
entered into a stupendous speculation, one not altogether creditable 
to its honor and dignity. The commandant and the magistrates 
under him suddenly adopted the opinion that they were invested 


with the authority to dispose of the whole of that large region 
which in 1842 had been granted by the Piankeshaws to the French 
inhabitants of Vincennes. Accordingly a very convenient arrange- 
ment was entered into by which the whole tract of country men- 
tioned was to be divided between the members of the honorable 
Court. A record was made to that effect, and in order to gloss over 
the steal, each member took pains to be absent from Court on the 
day that the order was made in his favor. 

In the fall of 17S0 La Balme, a Frenchman, made an attempt to 
capture the British garrison of Detroit by leading an expedition 
against it from Kaskaskia. At the head of 30 men he marched to 
Yincennes, where his force was slightly increased. From this 
place he proceeded to the British trading post at the head of the 
Maumee, where Fort Wayne now stands, plundered the British 
traders and Indians and then retired. "While encamped on the 
bank of a small stream on his retreat, he was attacked by a band 
of Miamis, a number of his men were killed, and his expedition 
against Detroit was ruined. 

In this manner border war continued between Americans and 
their enemies, with varying victory, until 17S3, when the treaty of 
Paris was concluded, resulting in the establishment of the inde- 
pendence of the United States. Up to this time the territory now 
included in Indiana belonged by conquest to the State of Virginia; 
but in January, 1783, the General Assembly of that State resolved 
to cede to the Congress of the United States all the territory north- 
west of the Ohio. The conditions offered by Virginia were 
accepted by Congress Dec. 20, that year, and early in 178-4 the 
transfer was completed. In 1783 Virginia had platted the town of 
Clarksville, at the falls of the Ohio. The deed of cession provided 
that the territory should be laid out into States, containing a suita- 
ble extent of territory not less than 100 nor more than 150 miles 
square, or as near thereto as circumstances would permit; and that 
the States so formed shall be distinct Kepnblican States and 
admitted members of the Federal Union, having the same rights of 
sovereignty, freedom and independence as the other States. The 
other conditions of the deed were as follows: That the necessary 
and reasonable expenses incurred by Virginia in subduing any 
British posts, or in maintaining forts and garrisons within and for 
the defense, or in acquiring any part of the territory so ceded or 
relinquished, shall be fully reimbursed by the United States; that 
the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the Kas- 



kaskia, Post Vincennes and the neighboring villages who have pro- 
fessed themselves citizens of Yirginia, shall have their titles and 
possessions confirmed to them, and he protected in the enjoyment 
of their rights and privileges; that a quantity not exceeding 150,- 
000 acres of land, promised by Virginia, shall be allowed and 
granted to the then Colonel, now General, George Kogers Clark, 
and to the officers and soldiers of his regiment, who marched with 
him when the posts and of Kaskaskia and Vincennes were reduced, 
and to the officers and soldiers that have been since incorporated 
into the said regiment, to be laid off in one tract, the length of 
which not to exceed double the breadth, in such a place on the 
northwest side of the Ohio as a majority of the officers shall 
choose, and to be afterward divided among the officers and soldiers 
in due proportion according to the laws of Virginia; that in case 
the quantity of good lands on the southeast side of the Ohio, upon 
the waters of Cumberland river, and between Green river and Ten. 
nessee river, which have been reserved by law for the Virginia 
troops upon Continental establishment, should, from the North 
Carolina line, bearing in further upon the Cumberland lands than 
was expected, prove insufficient for their legal bounties, the defi- 
ciency shall be made up to the said troops in good lands to be laid 
off between the rivers Scioto and Little Miami, on the northwest 
side of the river Ohio, in such proportions as have been engaged 
to them by the laws of Virginia; that all the lands within the ter- 
ritory so ceded to the United States, and not reserved for or appro- 
priated to any of the before-mentioned purposes, or disposed of in 
bounties to the officers and soldiers of the American army, shall be 
considered as a common fund for the use and benefit of such of the 
United States as have become, or shall become, members of the 
confederation or federal alliance of the said States, Virginia included, 
according to their usual respective proportions in the general 
charge and expenditure, and shall be faithfully and lonafide dis- 
posed of for that purpose and for 710 other use or purpose whatever. 
After the above deed of cession had been accepted by Congress, 
in the spring of 1784, the matter of the future government of the 
territory was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. Jeffer- 
son of Virginia, Chase of Maryland and Howell of Rhode Island, 
which committee reported an ordinance for its government, provid- 
ing, among other things, that slavery should not exist in said terri- 
tory after 1800, except as punishment of criminals; but this article 
of the ordinance was rejected, and an ordinance for the temporary 


government of the county was adopted. In 1785 laws were passed 
by Congress for the disposition of lands in the territory and pro- 
hibiting the settlement of unappropriated lands by reckless specu- 
lators. But human passion is ever strong enough to evade the law 
to some extent, and large associations, representing considerable 
means, were formed for the purpose of monopolizing the land busi- 
ness. Millions of acres were sold at one time by Congress to asso- 
ciations on the installment plan, and so far as the Indian titles 
could be extinguished, the work of settling and improving the 
lands was pushed rapidly forward. 


This ordinance has a marvelous and interesting history. Con- 
siderable controversy has been indulged in as to who is entitled to 
the credit for framing it. This belongs, undoubtedly, to Nathan 
Dane; and to Rufus King and Timothy Pickering belong the 
credit for suggesting the proviso contained in it against slavery, 
and also for aids to religion and knowledge, and for assuring for- 
ever the common use, without charge, of the great national high- 
ways of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence and their tributaries to 
all the citizens of the United States. To Thomas Jefferson is also 
due much credit, as some features of this ordinance were embraced 
in his ordinance of 1784. But the part taken by each in the long, 
laborious and eventful struggle which had so glorious a consum- 
mation in the ordinance, consecrating forever, by one imprescript- 
ible and unchangeable monument, the very heart of our country to 
Freedom, Knowledge, and Union, will forever honor the names of 
those illustrious statesmen. 

Mr. Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the Northwestern territory. He was an emancipationist and 
favored the exclusion of slavery from the territory, but the South 
voted him down every time he proposed a measure of this nature. 
In 1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the anti- 
slavery clause was pending. This concession to the South was 
expected to carry it. Congress was in session in New York. On 
July 5, Rev. Manasseh Cutler, of Massachusetts, came into New 
York to lobby on the Northwestern territory. Everything seemed 
to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. The state of the public 
credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, 
his personal character, all combined to complete one of those sudden 


and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five or 
ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the breath of the 

Cutler was a graduate of Yale. He had studied and taken de- 
grees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. 
He had published a scientific examination of the plants of New 
England. As a scientist in America his name stood second only to 
that of Franklin. He was a courtly gentleman of the old style, a 
man of commanding presence and of inviting face. The Southern 
members said they had never seen such a gentleman in the North. 
He came representing a Massachusetts company that desired to 
purchase a tract of land, now included in Ohio, for the purpose of 
planting a colony. It was a speculation. Government money was 
worth eighteen cents on the dollar. This company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in 
New York made Dr. Cutler their agent, which enabled him to 
represent a demand for 5,500,000 acres. As this would reduce the 
national debt, and Jefferson's policy was to provide for the public 
credit, it presented a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She was opposed to opening the North- 
western region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. The South caught 
the inspiration, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The entire South ral. 
lied around him. Massachusetts could not vote against him, be- 
cause many of the constuitents of her members were interested 
personally in the "Western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends in the South, and doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convic- 
tions, he dictated one of the most compact and finished documents 
of wise statesmanship that has ever adorned any human law book. 
He borrowed from Jefferson the term "Articles of Compact," which, 
preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most sacred char- 
acter. He then followed very closely the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, adopted three years before. Its most prominent points 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a semi- 
nary and every section numbered 16 in each township; that is, one 
thirty-sixth of all the land for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any constitution or 
the enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 



Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " re- 
ligion, morality, and knowledge being necessary to good govern- 
ment and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of edu- 
cation shall always be encouraged." Dr. Cutler planted himself 
on this platform and would not yield. Giving his unqualified dec- 
laration that it was that or nothing, — that unless they could make 
the land desirable they did not want it, — he took his horse and buggy 
and started for the constitutional convention at Philadelphia. On 
July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unani- 
mously adopted. Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, a vast empire, were consecrated to free 
dom, intelligence, and morality. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared to save the union of States, for it was this act that was 
the salvation of the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon 
the South saw their great blunder and tried to have the compact 
repealed. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which 
John Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact and opposed repeal. Thus it stood, a rock in the 
wa} 7 of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

The " Northwestern Territory " included of course what is now 
the State of Indiana; and Oct 5, 1787, Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair 
was elected by Congress Governor of this territory. Upon 
commencing the duties of his office he was instructed to ascertain 
the real temper of the Indians and do all in his power to remove 
the causes for controversy between them and the United States, 
and to effect the extinguishment of Indian titles to all the land 
possible. The Governor took up quarters in the new settlement of 
Marietta, Ohio, where he immediately began the organization of 
the government of the territory. The first session of the General 
Court of the new territory was held at that place in 1788, the 
Judges being Samuel H. Parsons, James M. Varnum and John C. 
Symmes, but under the ordinance Gov. St. Clair was President of 
the Court. After the first session, and after the necessary laws for 
government were adopted, Gov. St. Clair, accompanied by the 
Judges, visited Kaskaskia for the purpose of organizing a civil gov- 
ernment there. Full instructions had been sent to Maj. Hamtramck, 
commandant at Yincennes, to ascertain the exact feeling and temper 
of the Indian tribes of the Wabash. These instructions were ac- 
companied by speeches to each of the tribes. A Frenchman named 
Antoine Gamelin was dispatched with these messages April 5, 1790, 
who visited nearly all the tribes on the Wabash, St. Joseph and St. 


Mary's rivers, but was coldly received ; most of the chiefs being 
dissatisfied with the policy of the Americans toward them, and 
prejudiced through English misrepresentation. Full accounts of 
his adventures among the tribes reached Gov. St. Clair at Kaskas- 
kia in June, 1790. Being satisfied that there was no prospect of 
effecting a general peace with the Indians of Indiana, he resolved 
to visit Gen. Harmar at his headquarters at Fort Washington and 
consult with him on the means of carrying an expedition against 
the hostile Indians; but before leaving he -intrusted Winthrop 
Sargent, the Secretary of the Territory, with the execution of the 
resolutions of Congress regarding the lands and settlers on the 
"Wabash. He directed that officer to proceed to Vincennes, lay 
out a county there, establish the militia and appoint the necessary 
civil and military officers. Accordingly Mr. Sargent went to Yin- 
cennes and organized Camp Knox, appointed the officers, and noti- 
fied the inhabitants to present their claims to lands. In establish- 
ing these claims the settlers found great difficulty, and concerning 
this matter the Secretary in his report to the President wrote as 
follows : 

" Although the lands and lots which were awarded to the inhabi- 
tants appeared from very good oral testimony to belong to those 
persons to whom they were awarded, either by original grants, pur- 
chase or inheritance, yet there was scarcely one case in twenty 
where the title was complete, owing to the desultory manner in 
which public business had been transacted and some other unfor- 
tunate causes. The original concessions by the French and British 
commandants were generally made upon a small scrap of paper, 
which it has been customary to lodge in the notary's office, who 
has seldom kept any book of record, but committed the most im- 
portant land concerns to loose sheets, which in process of time 
have come into possession of persons that have fraudulently de- 
stroyed them; or, unacquainted with their consequence, innocently 
lost or trifled them away. By French usage they are considered 
family inheritances, and often descend to women and children. In 
one instance, and during the government of St. Auge here, a royal 
notary ran off with all the public papers in his possession, as by a 
certificate produced to me. And I am very sorry further to observe 
that in the office of Mr. Le Grand, which continued from 1777 to 
1787, and where should have been the vouchers for important land 
transactions, the records have been so falsified, and there is such 
gross fraud and forgery, as to invalidate all evidence and informa- 
tion which I might have otherwise acquired from his papers." 


Mr. Sargent says there were about 150 French families at Vin- 
cennes in 1790. The heads of all these families had been at some 
time vested with certain titles to a portion of the soil ; and while 
the Secretary was busy in straightening out these claims, he re- 
ceived a petition signed by 80 Americans, asking for the confirma- 
tion of grants of land ceded by the Court organized by Col. John 
Todd under the authority of Virginia. With reference to this 
cause, Congress, March 3, 1791, empowered the Territorial Governor, 
in cases where land' had been actually improved and cultivated 
under a supposed grant for the same, to confirm to the persons who 
made such improvements the lands supposed to have been granted, 
not, however, exceeding the quantity of £00 acres to any one per- 


The General Court in the summer of 1790, Acting Governor 
Sargent presiding, passed the following laws with reference to 
vending liquor among the Indians and others, and with reference 
to games of chance: 

1. An act to prohibit the giving or selling intoxicating liquors 
to Indians residing in or coming into the Territory of the United 
States northwest of the river Ohio, and for preventing foreigners 
from trading with Indians therein. 

2. An act prohibiting the sale of spirituous or other intoxicat- 
ing liquors to soldiers in the service of the United States, being 
within ten miles of any military post in the territory; and to pre- 
vent the selling or pawning of arms, ammunition, clothing or 

3. An act prohibiting every species of gaming for money or 
property, and for making void contracts and payments made in 
consequence thereof, and for restraining the disorderly practice 
of discharging arms at certain hours and places. 

Winthrop Sargent's administration was highly eulogized by the 
citizens at Vincennes, in a testimonial drawn up and signed by a 
committee of officers. He had conducted the investigation and 
settlement of land claims to the entire satisfaction of the residents, 
had upheld the principles of free government in keeping with the 
animus of the American .Revolution, and had established in good 
order the machinery of a good and wise government. In the same 
address Major Hamtramck also received a fair share of praise for 
his judicious management of affairs. 



Gov. St. Clair, on his arrival at Fort Washington from Kas- 
kaskia, had a long conversation with Gen. Harmar, and concluded 
to send a powerful force to chastise the savages about the head- 
waters of the Wabash. He had been empowered by the President 
to call on Virginia for 1,000 troops and on Pennsylvania for 500, 
and he immediately availed himself of this resource, ordering 300 
of the Virginia militia to muster at Fort Steuben and march with 
the garrison of that fort to Vincennes, and join Maj. Hamtramck, 
who had orders to call for aid from the militia of Vincennes, march 
up the Wabash, and attack any of the Indian villages which he 
might think he could overcome. The remaining 1,200 of the mi- 
litia were ordered to rendezvous at Fort Washington, and to join 
the regular troops at that post under command of Gen. Harmar. 
At this time the United States troops in the West were estimated 
by Gen. Harmar at 400 effective men. These, with the militia, 
gave him a force of 1,450 men. With this army Gen. Harmar 
marched from Fort Washington Sept. 30, and arrived at the Mau- 
mee Oct. 17. They commenced the work of punishing the Indians, 
but were not very successful. The savages, it is true, received a 
severe scourging, but the militia behaved so badly as to be of little 
or no service. A detachment of 340 militia and 60 regulars, under 
the command of Col. Hardin, were sorely defeated on the Maumee 
Oct. 22. The next day the army took up the line of march for 
Fort Washington, which place they reached Nov. 4, having lost in 
the expedition 183 killed and 31 wounded; the Indians lost about 
as many. During the progress of this expedition Maj. Hamtramck 
marched up the Wabash from Vincennes, as far as the Vermillion 
river, and destroyed several deserted villages, but without finding 
an enemy to oppose him. 

Although the savages seem to have been severely punished by 
these expeditions, yet they refused to sue for peace, and continued 
their hostilities. Thereupon the inhabitants of the frontier settle- 
ments of Virginia took alarm, and the delegates of Ohio, Monon- 


gahela, Harrison, Kandolph, Greenbrier, Kanawha and Mont- 
gomery counties sent a joint memorial to the Governor of Vir- 
ginia, saying that the defenseless condition of the counties, form- 
ing a line of nearly 400 miles along the Ohio river, exposed to the 
hostile invasion of their Indian enemies, destitute of every kind of 
support, was truly alarming; for, notwithstanding all the regula- 
tions of the General Government in that country, they have reason 
to lament that they have been up to that time ineffectual for their 
protection; nor indeed could it be otherwise, for the garrisons kept 
by the Continental troops on the Ohio river, if of any use at all, 
must protect only the Kentucky settlements, as they immediately 
covered that country. They further stated in their memorial: "We 
beg leave to observe that we have reason to fear that the conse- 
quences of the defeat of our army by the Indians in the late expe- 
dition will be severely felt on our frontiers, as there is no doubt 
that the Indians will, in their turn, being flushed with victory, in- 
vade our settlements and exercise all their horrid murder upon the 
inhabitants thereof whenever the weather will permit them to 
travel. Then is it not better to support us where we are, be the ex- 
pense what it may, than to oblige such a number of your brave 
citizens, who have so long supported, and still continue to support, 
a dangerous frontier (although thousands of their relatives in the 
flesh have in the prosecution thereof fallen a sacrifice to savage in- 
ventions) to quit the country, after all they have done and suffered, 
when you know that a frontier must be supported somewhere?" 

This memorial caused the Legislature of Virginia to authorize 
the Governor of that State to make any defensive operations neces- 
sary for the temporary defense of the frontiers, until the general 
Government could adopt and carry out measures to suppress the 
hostile Indians. The Governor at once called upon the military 
commanding officers in the western counties of Virginia to raise by 
the first of March, 1791, several small companies of rangers for this 
purpose. At the same time Charles Scott was appointed Brigadier- 
General of the Kentucky militia, with authority to raise 226 vol- 
unteers, to protect the most exposed portions of that district. A 
full report of the proceedings of the Virginia Legislature being 
transmitted to Congress, that body constituted a local Board of 
War for the district of Kentucky, consisting of five men. March 9, 
1791, Gen. Henry Knox, Secretary of War, sent a letter of instruc- 
tions to Gen. Scott, recommending an expedition of mounted men 
not exceeding 750, against the Wea towns on the Wabash. With 


this force Gen. Scott accordingly crossed the Ohio, May 23, 1791, 
and reached the Wabash in about ten days. Many of the Indians, 
having discovered his approach, fled, but he succeeded in destroy- 
ing all the villages around Ouiatenon, together with several Kick- 
apoo towns, killing 32 warriors and taking 58 prisoners. He 
released a few of the most infirm prisoners, giving them a " talk," 
which they carried to the towns farther up the Wabash, and which 
the wretched condition of his horses prevented him from reaching. 

March 3, 1791, Congress provided for raising and equipping a 
regiment for the protection of the frontiers, and Gov. St. Clair was 
invested with the chief command of about 3,000 troops, to be raised 
and employed against the hostile Indians in the territory over 
which his jurisdiction extended. He was instructed by the Secre- 
tary of War to march to the Miami village and establish a strong 
and permanent military post there; also such posts elsewhere along 
the Ohio as would be in communication with Fort Washington. 
The post at Miami village was intended to keep the savages in that 
vicinity in check, and was ordered to be strong enough in its gar- 
rison to afford a detachment of 500 or 600 men in case of emer- 
gency, either to chastise any of the Wabash or other hostile Indians 
or capture convoys of the enemy's provisions. The Secretary of 
War also urged Gov. St. Clair to establish that post as the first and 
most important part of the campaign. In case of a previous 
treaty the Indians were to be conciliated upon this point if possible; 
and he presumed good arguments might be offered to induce their 
acquiescence. Said he: " Having commenced your march upon the 
main expedition, and the Indians continuing hostile, you will use 
every possible exertion to make them feel the effects of your superi- 
ority; and, after having arrived at the Miami village and put your 
works in a defensible state, you will seek the enemy with the whole 
of your remaining force, and endeavor by all possible means to 
strike them with great severity. * * * * 

In order to avoid future wars, it might be proper to make the Wa- 
bash and thence over to the Maumee, and down the same to its 
mouth, at Lake Erie, the boundary between the people of the 
United States and the Indians (excepting so far as the same should 
relate to the Wyandots and Delawares), on the supposition of their 
continuing faithful to the treaties; but if they should join in the 
war against the United States, and your army be victorious, the 
said tribes ought to be removed without the boundary mentioned." 

Previous to marching a strong force to the Miami town, Gov. St. 


Clair, June 25, 1791, authorized Gen Wilkinson to conduct a second 
expedition, not exceeding 500 mounted men, against the Indian 
villages on the Wabash. Accordingly Gen. Wilkinson mustered 
his forces and was ready July 20, to march with 525 mounted vol- 
unteers, well armed, and provided with 30 days' provisions, and 
with this force he reached the Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua village on the 
north hank of Eel river about six miles above its mouth, Aug. 7, 
where he killed six warriors and took 34 prisoners. This town, 
which was scattered along the river for three miles, was totally de- 
stroyed. Wilkinson encamped on the ruins of the town that night, 
and the next day he commenced his march for the Kickapoo town 
on the prairie, which he was unable to reach owing to the impassa- 
ble condition of the route which he adopted and the failing condi- 
tion of his horses. He reported the estimated results of the expe- 
dition as follows: "I have destroyed the chief town of the Ouiate- 
non nation, and have made prisoners of the sons and sisters of the 
king. I have burned a respectable Kickapoo village, and cut down 
at least 400 acres of corn, chiefly in the milk." 


The Indians were greatly damaged by the expeditions of Harmar, 
Scott and Wilkinson, but were far from being subdued. They 
regarded the policy of the United States as calculated to extermi- 
nate them from the land; and, goaded on by the English of Detroit, 
enemies of the Americans, they were excited to desperation. At 
this time the British Government still supported garrisons at 
Niagara, Detroit and Michilimackinac, although it was declared by 
the second article of the definitive treaty of peace of 17S3, that 
the king of Great Britain would, " with all convenient speed, and 
without causing any destruction or carrying away any negroes or 
property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his forces, 
garrisons and fleets from the United States, and from every post, 
place and harbor within the same." That treaty also provided that 
the creditors on either side should meet with no lawful impedi- 
ments to the recovery of the full value, in sterling money, of all 
bona fide debts previously contracted. The British Government 
claimed that the United States had broken faith in this particular 
understanding of the treaty, and in consequence refused to with- 
draw its forces from the territory. The British garrisons in the 
Lake Region were a source of much annoyance to the Americans, 
as they afforded succor to hostile Indians, encouraging them to 


make raids among the Americans. This state of affairs in the 
Territory Northwest of the Ohio continued from the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary war to 1796, when under a second 
treaty all British soldiers were withdrawn from the country. 

In September, 1791, St. Clair moved from Fort Washington 
with about 2,000 men, and November 3, the main army, consisting 
of about 1,400 effective troops, moved forward to the head-waters 
of the Wabash, where Fort Recovery was afterward erected, and 
here the army encamped. About 1,200 Indians were secreted a few 
miles distant, awaiting a favorable opportunity to begin an attack, 
which they improved on the morning of Nov. 4, about half an hour 
before sunrise. The attack was first made upon the militia, which 
immediately gave way. St. Clair was defeated and he returned to 
Fort Washington with a broken and dispirited army, having lost 
39 officers killed, and 539 men killed and missing; 22 officers and 
232 men were wounded. Several pieces of artillery, and all the 
baggage, ammunition and provisions were left on the field of bat- 
tle and fell into the hands of the victorious Indians. The stores 
and other public property lost in the action were valued at $32,800. 
There were also 100 or more American women with the army of 
the whites, very few of whom escaped the cruel carnage of the sav- 
age Indians. The latter, characteristic of their brutal nature, 
proceeded in the flush of victory to perpetrate the most horrible 
acts of cruelty and brutality upon the bodies of the living and the 
dead Americans who fell into their hands. Believing that the 
whites had made war for many years merely to acquire land, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and down the throats 
of the dying and the dead! 

«jen. wayne's great victory. 

Although no particular blame was attached to Gov. St. Clair for 
the loss in this expedition, yet he resigned the office of Major-Gen- 
eral, and was succeeded by Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war. Early in 1792 provisions were 
made by the general Government for re-organizing the army, so 
that it should consist of an efficient degree of strength. Wayne 
arrived at Pittsburg in June, where the army was to rendezvous. 
Here he continued actively engaged in organizing and training his 
forces until October, 1793, when with an army of about 3,600 men 
he moved westward to Fort Washington. 

While Wayne was preparing for an offensive campaign, every 


possible means was employed to induce the hostile tribes of the 
Northwest to enter into a general treaty of peace with the Ameri- 
can Government; speeches were sent among them, and agents to 
make treaties were also sent, but little was accomplished. Major 
Hamtramck, who still remained at Vincennes, succeeded in con- 
cluding a general peace with the Wabash and Illinois Indians; but 
the tribes more immediately under the influence of the British 
refused to hear the sentiments of friendship that were sent among 
them, and tomahawked several of the messengers. Their courage 
had been aroused by St. Clair's defeat, as well as by the unsuccess- 
ful expeditions which had preceded it, and they now felt quite pre- 
pared to meet a superior force under Gen. "Wayne. The Indians 
insisted on the Ohio river as the boundary line between their lands 
and the lands of the United States, and felt certain that they could 
maintain that boundary. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with about 1,600 mounted volunteers from 
Kentucky, joined the regular troops under Gen. Wayne July 26, 
1794, and on the 2Stli the united forces began their march for the 
Indian towns on the Maumee river. Arriving at the mouth of 
the Auglaize, they erected Fort Defiance, and Aug. 15 the army 
advanced toward the British fort at the foot of the rapids of the 
Maumee, where, on the 20th, almost within reach of the British, 
the American army gained a decisive victory over the combined 
forces of the hostile Indians and a considerable number of the 
Detroit militia. The number of the enemy was estimated at 2,000, 
against about 900 American troops actually engaged. This horde 
of savages, as soon as the action began, abandoned themselves to 
flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving Wayne's vic- 
torious army in full and quiet possession of the field. The Ameri- 
cans lost 33 killed and 100 wounded; loss of the enemy more than 
double this number. 

The army remained three days and nights on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which time all the 
houses and cornfields were consumed and destroyed for a considera- 
ble distance both above and below Fort Miami, as well as within 
pistol shot of the British garrison, who were compelled to remain 
idle spectators to this general devastation and conflagration, among 
which were the houses, stores and property of Col. McKee, the 
British Indian agent and " principal stimulator of the war then 
existing between the United States and savages." On the return 
march to Fort Defiance the villages and cornfields for about 50 


miles on each side of the Mauraee were destroyed, as well as those 
for a considerable distance around that post. 

Sept. 14, 1794, the army under Gen. "Wayne commenced its 
march toward the deserted Miami villages at the confluence of St. 
Joseph's and St. Mary's rivers, arriving Oct. 17, and on the follow- 
ing day the site of Fort Wayne was selected. The fort was com- 
pleted Nov. 22, and garrisoned by a strong detachment of infantry 
and artillery, under the command of Col. John F. Hamtramck, who 
gave to the new fort the name of Fort Wayne. In 1814 a new fort 
was built on the site of this structure. The Kentucky volunteers 
returned to Fort Washington and were mustered out of service. 
Gen. Wayne, with the Federal troops, marched to Greenville and 
took up his headquarters during the winter. Here, in August, 
1795, after several months of active negotiation, this gallant officer 
succeeded in concluding a general treaty of peace with all the hos- 
tile tribes of the Northwestern Territory. This treaty opened the 
way for the flood of immigration for many years, and ultimately 
made the States and territories now constituting the mighty North- 

Up to the organization of the Indiana Territory there is but little 
history to record aside from those events connected with military 
affairs. In July, 1796, as before stated, after a treaty was con- 
cluded between the United States and Spain, the British garrisons, 
with their arms, artillery and stores, were withdrawn from the 
posts within the boundaries of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio river, and a detachment of American troops, consisting of 65 
men, under the command of Capt. Moses" Porter, took possession 
of the evacuated post of Detroit in the same month. 

In the latter part of 1796 Winthrop Sargent went to Detroit and 
organized the county of Wayne, forming a part of the Indiana 
Territory until its division in 1805, when the Territory of Michigan 
was ora 



On the final success of American arms and diplomacy in 1796, 
the principal town within the Territory, now the State, of Indiana 
was Vincennes, which at this time comprised about 50 houses, all 
presenting a thrifty and tidy appearance. Each house was sur- 
rounded by a garden fenced with poles, and peach and apple-trees 
grew in most of the enclosures. Garden vegetables of all kinds 
were cultivated with success, and corn, tobacco, wheat, barley and 
cotton grew in the fields around the village in abundance. During 
the last few years of the 18th century the condition of society at 
Vincennes improved wonderfully. 

Besides Vincennes there was a small settlement near where the 
town of Lawrenceburg now stands, in Dearborn county, and in the 
course of that year a small settlement was formed at " Armstrong's 
Station," on the Ohio, within the present limits of Clark county. 
There were of course several other smaller settlements and trading 
posts in the present limits of Indiana, and the number of civilized 
inhabitants comprised within the territory was estimated at 4,875. 

The Territory of Indiana was organized by Act of Congress May 
7, 1800, the material parts of the ordinance of 1787 remaining in 
force; and the inhabitants were invested with all the rights, privi- 
leges and advantages granted and secured to the people by that 
ordinance. The seat of government was fixed at Vincennes. May 
13, 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison, a native ot Virginia, was appoint- 
ed Governor of this new territory, and on the next day John Gib- 
son, a native of Pennsylvania and a distinguished Western pioneer, 
(to whom the Indian chief Logau delivered his celebrated speech in 
1774), was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Soon afterward 
"Wm. Clark, Henry Vanderburgh and John Griffiu were appointed 
territorial Judges. 

Secretary Gibson arrived at Vincennes in July, and commenced, 
in the absence of Gov. Harrison, the administration of government. 
Gov. Harrison did not arrive until Jan. 10, 1S01, when he imme- 
diately called together the Judges of the Territory, who proceeded 



to pass such laws as they deemed necessary for the present govern- 
ment of the Territory. This session began March 3, 1S01. 

From this time to 1S10 the principal subjects which attracted the 
attention of the people of Indiana were land speculations, the 
adjustment of land titles, the question of negro slavery, the purchase 
of Indian lands by treaties, the organization of Territorial legis- 
latures, the extension of the right of suffrage, the division of 
Indiana Territory, the movements of Aaron Burr, and the hostile 
views and proceedings of the Shawanee chief, Tecumseh, and his 
brother, the Prophet. 

Up to this time the sixth article of the celebrated ordinance of 
1787, prohibiting slavery in the Northwestern Territory, had been 
somewhat neglected in the execution of the law, and many French 
settlers still held slaves in a manner. In some instances, according 
to rules prescribed by Territorial legislation, slaves agreed by 
indentures to remain in servitude under their masters for a certain 
number of years; but many slaves, with whom no such contracts 
were made, were removed from the Indiana Territory either to the 
west of the Mississippi or to some of the slaveholding States. 
Gov. Harrison convoked a session of delegates of the Territory, 
elected by a popular vote, who petitioned Congress to declare the 
sixth article of the ordinance of 1787, prohibiting slavery, suspend- 
ed; but Congress never consented to grant that petition, and many 
other petitions of a similar import. Soon afterward some of the 
citizens began to take colored persons out of the Territory for the 
purpose of selling them, and Gov. Harrison, by a proclamation 
April 6, 1804, forbade it, and called upon the authorities of the 
Territory to assist him in preventing such removal of persons 
of color. 

During the year 1804 all the country west of the Mississippi and 
north of 33° was attached to Indiana Territory by Congress, but in 
a few months was again detached and organized into a separate ter- 

When it appeared from the result of a popular vote in the Terri- 
tory that a majority of 138 freeholders were in favor of organizing 
a General Assembly, Gov. Harrison, Sept. 11, 1804, issued a procla- 
mation declaring that the Territory had passed into the second grade 
of government, as contemplated by the ordinance of 1787, and 
fixed Thursday, Jan. 3, 1805, as the time for holding an election in 
the several counties of the Territory,to choose members of a House 
of Representatives, who should meet at Yincennes Feb. 1 and 


adopt measures for the organization of a Territorial Council. These 
delegates were elected, and met according to the proclamation, and 
selected ten men from whom the President of the United States, 
Mr. Jefferson, should appoint five to be and constitute the Legisla- 
tive Council of the Territory, but he declining, requested Mr. Har- 
rison to make the selection, which was accordingly done. Before 
the first session of this Council, however, was held, Michigan Ter- 
ritory was set off, its south line being one drawn from the southern 
end of Lake Michigan directly east to Lake Erie. 


The first General Assembly, or Legislature, of Indiana Territory 
met at Vincennes July 29, 1805, in pursuance of a gubernatorial 
proclamation. The members of the House of Representatives were 
Jesse B. Thomas, of Dearborn county; Davis Floyd. of Clark county; 
Benjamin Parke and John Johnson, of Knox county; Shadrach 
Bond and William Biggs, of St. Clair county, and George Fisher, 
of Randolph county. July 30 the Governor delivered his first mes- 
sage to "the Legislative Council and House of Representatives of 
the Indiana Territory." Benjamin Parke was the first delegate 
elected to Congress. He had emigrated from New Jersey to In- 
diana in 1801. 


was the first newspaper published in the Indiana Territory, now 
comprising the four great States of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and 
Wisconsin, and the second in all that country once known as the 
"Northwestern Territory." It was commenced at Vincennes in 
1803, by Elihn Stout, of Kentucky, and first called the Indiana 
Gazette, and July, 4, 1S04, was changed to the Western Sun. Mr. 
Stout continued the paper until 1S45, amid many discouragements, 
when he was appointed postmaster at the place, and he sold out 
the office. 

INDIANA in 1810. 

The events which we have just been describing really constitute 
the initiatory steps to the great military campaign of Gen. Harrison 
which ended in the "battle of Tippecanoe;" but before proceeding 
to an account of that brilliant affair, let us take a glance at the re- 
sources and strength of Indiana Territory at this time, 1810: 

Total population, 24,520; 33 grist mills; 14 saw mills; 3 horse 
mills; 18 tanneries; 28 distilleries; 3 powder mills; 1,256 looms; 


1,350 spinning wheels; value of manufactures — woolen, cotton 
hempen and flaxen cloths, $159,052; of cotton and wool spun in 
mills, $150,000; of nails, 30,000 pounds, $4,000; of leather tanned, 
$9,300; of distillery products, 35,950 gallons, $16,230; of gun- 
powder, 3,600 pounds, $1,800; of wine from grapes, 96 barrels, 
$6,000, and 5 0,000 pounds of maple sugar. 

During the year 1810 a Board of Commissioners was established 
to straighten out the confused condition into which the land-title 
controversy had been carried by the various and conflicting admin- 
istrations that had previously exercised jurisdiction in this regard. 
This work was attended with much labor on the part of the Commis- 
sioners and great dissatisfaction on the part of a few designing specu- 
lators, who thought no extreme of perjury too hazardous in their 
mad attempts to obtain lands fraudulently. In closing their report 
the Commissioners used the following expressive language: "We 
close this melancholy picture of human depravity by rendering our 
devout acknowledgment that, in the awful alternative in which we 
have been placed, of either admitting perjured testimony in sup- 
port of the claims before us, or having it turned against our char- 
acters and lives, it has as yet pleased that divine providence which 
rules over the affairs of men, to preserve us, both from legal mur- 
der and private assassination." 

The question of dividing the Territory of Indiana was agitated 
from 1S06 to 1809, when Congress erected the Territory of Illinois, 
to comprise all that part of Indiana Territory lying west of the 
Wabash river and a direct line drawn from that river and Post 
Yincennes due north to the territorial line between the United 
States and Canada. This occasioned some confusion in the govern- 
ment of Indiana, but in due time the new elections were confirmed, 
and the new territory started off on a journey of prosperity which 
this section of the United States has ever since enjoyed. 

From the first settlement of Vincennes for nearly half a century 
there occurred nothing of importance to relate, at least so far as 
the records inform us. The place was too isolated to grow very 
fast, and we suppose there was a succession of priests and com- 
mandants, who governed the little world around them with almost 
infinite power and authority, from whose decisions there was no 
appeal, if indeed any was ever desired. The character of society 
in such a place would of course grow gradually different from the 
parent society, assimilating more or less with that of neighboring 
tribes. The whites lived in peace with the Indians, each under- 


standing the other's peculiarities, which remained fixed long 
enough lor both parties to study out and understand them. The 
government was a mixture of the military and the civil. There 
was little to incite to enterprise. Speculations in money and prop- 
erty, and their counterpart, beggary, were both unknown; the nec- 
essaries of life were easily procured, and beyond these there were 
but few wants to be supplied; hospitality was exercised by all, as 
there were no taverns; there seemed to be no use for law, judges 
or prisons; each district had its commandant, and the proceedings 
of a trial were singular. The complaining party obtained a notifi- 
cation from the commandant to his adversary, accompanied by a 
command to render justice. If this had no effect he was notified 
to appear before the commandant on a particular day and answer; 
and if the last notice was neglected, a sergeant and file of men 
were sent to bring him, — no sheriff and no costs. The convicted 
party would be fined and kept in prison until he rendered justice 
according to the decree; when extremely refractory the cat-o'-nine- 
tails brought him to a sense of justice. In such a state of society 
there was no demand for learning and science. Few could read, 
and still fewer write. Their disposition was nearly always to deal 
honestly, at least simply. Peltries were their standard of value. 
A brotherly love generally prevailed. But they were devoid of 
public spirit, enterprise or ingenuity. 


Immediately after the organization of Indiana Territory Governor 
Harrison's attention was directed, by necessity as well as by in- 
structions from Congress, to settling affairs with those Indians who 
still held claims to lands. He entered into several treaties, by 
which at the close of 1805 the United States Government had ob- 
tained about 46,000 square miles of territory, including all the 
lands lying on the borders of the Ohio river between the mouth of 
the Wabash river and the State of Ohio. 

The levying of a tax, especially a poll tax, by the General Assem-- 
bly, created considerable dissatisfaction among many of the inhabit- 
ants. At a meeting held Sunday, August 16, 1S07, a number of 
Frenchmen resolved to " withdraw their confidence and support 
forever from those men who advocated or in any manner promoted 
the second grade of government." 

In 1807 the territorial statutes were revised and under the new 
code, treason, murder, arson and horse-stealing were each punish- 
able by death. The crime of manslaughter was punishable by the 
common law. Burglary and robbery were punishable by whip- 
ping, fine and in some cases by imprisonment not exceeding forty 
years. Hog stealing was punishable by fine and whipping. Bigamy 
was punishable by fine, whipping and disfranchisement, etc. 

In 1804 Congress established three land offices for the sale of 
lands in Indiana territory; one was located at Detroit, one at Yin- 
cennes and one at Kaskaskia. In 1807 a fourth one was opened at 
Jefferson ville, Clark county; this town was first laid out in 1802, 
agreeably to plans suggested by Mr. Jefferson then President of 
the United States. 

Governor Harrison, according to his message to the Legislature 
in 1806, seemed to think that the peace then existing between the 
whites and the Indians was permanent; but in the same document 
he referred to a matter that might be a source of trouble, which in- 
deed it proved to be, namely, the execution of white laws among 
the Indians — laws to which the latter had not been a party in their 
enactment. The trouble was aggravated by the partiality with 
which the laws seem always to have been executed ; the Indian 


was nearly always the sufferer. All along from 1805 to 1810 the 
Indians complained bitterly against the encroachments of the white 
people upon the lands that belonged to them. The invasion of their 
hunting grounds and the unjustifiable killing of many of their peo- 
ple were the sources of their discontent. An old chief, in laying 
the trouble of his people before Governor Harrison, said : " You 
call us children ; why do you not make us as happy as our fathers, 
the French, did? They never took from us our lands; indeed, they 
were common between us. They planted where they pleased, and 
they cut wood where they pleased; and so did we; but now if a 
poor Indian attempts to take a little bark from a tree to cover him 
from the rain, up comes a white man and threatens to shoot him, 
claiming the tree as his own." 

The Indian truly had grounds for his complaint, and the state of 
feeling existing among the tribes at this time was well calculated 
to develop a patriotic leader who should carry them all forward to 
victory at arms, if certain concessions were not made to them by the 
whites. But this golden opportunity was seized by an unworthy 
warrior. A brother of Tecumseh, a "prophet" named Law-le-was-i- 
kaw, but who assumed the name of Pems-quat-a-wah (Open Door), 
was the crafty Shawanee warrior who was enabled to work upon 
both the superstitions and the rational judgment of his fellow In- 
dians. He was a good orator, somewhat peculiar in his appearance 
and well calculated to win the attention and respect of the savages. 
He began by denouncing witchcraft, the use of intoxicating liquors, 
the custom of Indian women marrying white men, the dress of the 
whites and the practice of selling Indian lands to the United States. 
He also told the Indians that the commands of the Great Spirit re- 
quired them to punish with death those who practiced the arts of 
witchcraft and magic; that the Great Spirit had given him power 
to find out and expose such persons ; that he had power to cure all 
diseases, to confound his enemies and to stay the arm of death in 
sickness and on the battle-field. His harangues aroused among 
some bands of Indians a high degree of superstitious excitement. 
An old Delaware chief named Ta-te-bock-o-she, through whose in- 
fluence a treaty had been made with the Delawares in 1804, was 
accused of witchcraft, tried, condemned and tomahawked, and 
his body consumed by fire. The old chief's wife, nephew 
("Billy Patterson ") and an aged Indian named Joshua were next 
accused of witchcraft and condemned to death. The two men were 
burned at the stake, but the wife of Ta-te-bock-o-she was saved from 


death by her brother, who suddenly approached her, took her by the 
hand, and, without meeting any opposition from the Indians present, 
led her outof the council- house. He then immediately returned and 
checked the growing influence of the Prophet by exclaiming in a 
strong, earnest voice, " Tbe Evil Spirit has come among us and we 
are killing each other." — [Dillon's History of Indiana. 

When Gov. Harrison was made acquainted with these events he 
sent a special messenger to the Indians, strongly entreating them to 
renounce the Prophet and his works. This reallydestroyed to some 
extent the Prophet's influence; but in the spring of 1808, having 
aroused nearly all the tribes of the Lake Kegion, the Prophet with 
a large number of followers settled near the mouth of the Tippe- 
canoe river, at a place which afterward had the name of "Prophet's- 
Town." Taking advantage of his brother's influence, Tecumseh 
actively engaged himself in forming the various tribes into a con- 
federacy. He announced publicly to all the Indians that the 
treaties by which the United States had acquired lands northwest 
of the Ohio were not made in fairness, and should be considered 
void. He also said that no single tribe was invested with power to 
sell lands without the consent of all the other tribes, and that he 
and his brother, the Prophet, would oppose and resist all future 
attempts which the white people might make to extend their set- 
tlements in the lands that belonged to the Indians. 

Early in 1808, Gov. Harrison sent a speech to the Shawanees, 
in which was this sentence: " My children, this business must be 
stopped ; I will no longer suffer it. You have called a number of 
men from the most distant tribes to listen to a fool, who speaks 
not the words of the Great Spirit but those of the devil and the 
British agents. My children, your conduct has much alarmed the 
white settlers near you. They desire that you will send away those 
people; and if they wish to have the impostor with them they can 
carry him along with them. Let him go to the lakes; he can hear 
the British more distinctly.' ' This message wounded the pride of 
the Prophet, and he prevailed on the messenger to inform Gov. 
Harrison that he was not in league with the British, but was speak- 
ing truly the words of the Great Spirit. 

In the latter part of the summer of 1808, the Prophet spent sev- 
eral weeks at Vincennes, for the purpose of holding interviews 
with Gov. Harrison. At one time he told the Governor that he 
was a Christian and endeavored to persuade his people also to 
become Christians, abandon the use of liquor, be united in broth- 


erly love, etc., making Mr. Harrison believe at least, that he was 
honest; but before long it was demonstrated that the "Prophet" 
was designing, cunning and unreliable; that both he and Tecumseh 
were enemies of the United States, and friends of the English; and I 
that in case of a war between the Americans and English, they 
would join the latter. The next year the Prophet again visited 
Vincennes, with assurances that he was not in sympathy with the 
English, but the Governor was not disposed to believe him; and in 
a letter to the Secretary of War, in July, 1809, he said that he 
regarded the bands of Indians at Prophet's Town as a combination 
which had been produced by British intrigue and influence, in antic- 
ipation of a war between them and the United States. 

In direct opposition to Tecumseh and the prophet and in spite 
of all these difficulties, Gov. Harrison continued the work of extin- 
guishing Indian titles to lands, with very good success. By the 
close of 1809, the total amount of laud ceded to the United States, 
under treaties which had been effected by Mr. Harrison, exceeded 
30,000,000 a:res. 

From 1805 to 1807, the movements of Aaron Burr in the Ohio 
valley created considerable excitement in Indiana. It seemed that 
he intended to collect a force of men, invade Mexico and found a 
republic there, comprising all the country west of the Alleghany 
mountains. He gathered, however, but a few men, started south, 
and was soon arrested by the Federal authorities. But before his 
arrest he had abandoned his expedition and his followers had 

hakrison's campaign. 

While the Indians were combining to prevent any further trans- 
fer of land to the whites, the British were using the advantage as a 
groundwork for a successful war upon the Americans. In the 
spring of 1810 the followers of the Prophet refused to receive their 
annuity of salt, and the officials who offered it were denounced as 
"American dogs," and otherwise treated in a disrespectful manner. 
Gov. Harrison, in July, attempted to gain the friendship of the 
Prophet by sending him a letter, offering to treat with him person- 
ally in the matter of his grievances, or to furnish means to send 
him, with three of his principal chiefs, to the President at Wash- 
ington; but the messenger was coldly received, and they returned 
word that they would visit Vincennes in a few days and interview 
the Governor. Accordingly, Aug. 12, 1810, the Shawanee chief 
with 70 of his principal warriors, marched up to the door of the 


Governor's house, and from that day until the 22d held daily inter- 
views with His Excellency. In all of his speeches Tecnmseh was 
haughty, and sometimes arrogant. On the 20th he delivered that 
celebrated speech in which he gave the Governor the alternative of 
returning their lands or meeting them in battle. 

While the Governor was replying to this speech Tecumseh inter- 
rupted him with an angry exclamation, declaring that the United 
States, through Gov. Harrison, had "cheated and imposed on the 
Indians." When Tecumseh first rose, a number of his party also 
sprung to their feet, armed with clubs, tomahawks and spears, and 
made some threatening demonstrations. The Governor's guards, 
who stood a little way off, were marched up in haste, and the In- 
dians, awed by the presence of this small armed force, abandoned 
what seemed to be an intention to make an open attack on the Gov- 
ernor and his attendants. As soon as Tecumseh's remarks were 
interpreted, the Governor reproached him for his conduct, and com- 
manded him to depart instantly to his camp. 

On the following day Tecumseh repented of his rash act and re- 
quested the Governor to grant him another interview, and pro- 
tested against any intention of offense. The Governor consented, 
and the council was re-opened on the 21st, when the Shawanee 
chief addressed him in a respectful and dignified manner, but re- 
mained immovable in his policy. The Governor then requested 
Tecumseh to state plainly whether or not the surveyors who might 
be sent to survey the lands purchased at the treaty of Fort Wayne 
in 1809, would be molested by Indians. Tecumseh replied: 
"Brother, when you speak of annuities to me, I look at the land 
and pity the women and children. I am authorized to say that they 
will not receive them. Brother, we want to save that piece of land. 
We do not wish you to take it. It is small enough for our purpose. 
If you do take it, you must blame yourself as the cause of the 
trouble between us and the tribes who sold it to you. I want the 
present boundary line to continue. Should you cross it, I assure 
you it will be productive of bad consequences." 

The next day the Governor, attended only by his interpreter, 
visited the camp of the great Shawanee, and in the course of along 
interview told him that the President of the United States would 
not acknowledge his claims. "Well," replied the brave warrior, 
"as the great chief is to determine the matter, I hope the Great 
Spirit will put sense enough into his head to induce him to direct 
you to give up this land. It is true, he is so far off he will not be 


injured by the war. He may sit still in his town and drink his 
wine, while you and I will have to fight it out." 

In his message to the new territorial Legislature in 1810 Gov. 
Harrison called attention to the dangerous views held by Teeumseh 
and the Prophet, to the pernicious influence of alien enemies 
among the Indians, to the unsettled condition of the Indian trade 
and to the policy of extinguishing Indian titles to lands. The 
eastern settlements were separated from the western by a consider- 
able extent of Indian lands, and the most fertile tracts within the 
territory were still in the hands of the Indians. Almost entirely 
divested of the game from which they had drawn their subsistence, 
it had become of little use to them; and it was the intention of 
the Government to substitute for the precarious and scanty sup- 
plies of the chase the more certain and plentiful support of agri- 
culture and stock-raising. The old habit of the Indians to hunt 
so long as a deer could be found was so inveterate that they would 
not break it and resort to intelligent agriculture unless they were 
compelled to, and to this they would not be compelled unless they 
were confined to a limited extent of territory. The earnest lan- 
guage of the Governor's appeal was like this: "Are then those 
extinguishments of native title which are at once so beneficial to 
the Indian and the territory of the United States, to be suspended on 
account of the intrigues of a few individuals? Is one of the fair- 
est portions of the globe to remain in a state of nature, the haunt 
of a few wretched savages, when it seems destined by the Creator 
to give suppoi't to a large population, and to be the seat of civili- 
zation, of science and true religion?" 

In the same message the Governor also urged the establishment 
of a system of popular education. 

Among the acts passed by this session of the Legislature, one 
authorized the President and Directors of the Vincennes Public 
Library to raise $1,000 by lottery. Also, a petition was sent to 
Congress for a permanent seat of government for the Territory, and 
commissioners were appointed to select the site. 

With the beginning of the year 1811 the British agent for 
Indian affairs adopted measures calculated to secure the support of 
the savages in the war which at this time seemed almost inevitable. 
Meanwhile Gov. Harrison did all in his power to destroy the influ- 
ence of Teeumseh and his brother and break up the Indian confed- 
eracy which was oeing organized in the interests of Great Britain. 
Pioneer settlers and the Indians naturally grew more and more 


aggressive and intolerant, committing depredations and murders, 
until the Governor felt compelled to send the following speech, 
substantially, to the two leaders of the Indian tribes: "This is the 
third year that all the white people in this country have been 
alarmed at your proceedings; you threaten us with war; 'you invite 
all the tribes north and west of you to join against us, while your 
warriors who have lately been here deny this. The tribes on the 
Mississippi have sent me word that you intended to murder me 
and then commence a war upon my people, and your seizing the salt 
I recently sent up the Wabash is also sufficient evidence of such 
intentions on your part. My warriors are preparing themselves, 
not to strike you, but to defend themselves and their women and 
children. You shall not surprise us, as yon expect to do. Your 
intended act is a rash one: consider well of it. What can induce 
you to undertake such a thing when there is so little prospect of 
success? Do you really think that the handful of men you have 
about you are able to contend with the seventeen 'fires?' or even 
that the whole of the tribes united could contend against the Ken- 
tucky 'fire' alone? I am myself of the Long 'Knife fire.' As soon 
as they hear my voice you will see them pouring forth their swarms 
of hunting-shirt men as numerous as the musquitoes on the shores 
of the Wabash. Take care of their stings. It is not our wish to 
hurt you; if we did, we certainly have power to do it. 

" You have also insulted the Government of the United States, 
by seizing the salt that was intended for other tribes. Satisfaction 
must be given for that also. You talk of coming to see me, attend- 
ed by all of your young men; but this must not be. If your inten- 
tions are good, you have no need to bring but a few of your young 
men with you. I must be plain with you. I will not suffer you 
to come into our settlements with such a force. My advice is that 
you visit the President of the United States and lay your griev- 
ances before him. 

" With respect to the lands that were purchased last fall I can 
enter into no negotiations with you; the affair is with the Presi- 
dent. If you wish to go and see him, I will supply you with the 

" The person who delivers this is one of my war officers, and is a 
man in whom I have entire confidence; whatever he says to you, 
although it may not be contained in this paper, you may believe 
comes from me. My friend Tecumseh, the bearer is a good man 
and a brave warrior; I hope you will treat him well. You ar- 

. — _ . I 1° 


yourself a warrior, and all such should have esteem for each other." 

The bearer of this speech was politely received by Tecumseh, 
who replied to the Governor briefly that he should visit Vincennes 
in a few days. Accordingly he arrived July 27, 1811, bringing 
with him a considerable force of Indians, which created much 
alarm among the inhabitants. In view of an emergency Gov. 
Harrison reviewed his militia — about 750 armed men — and station- 
ed two companies and a detachment of dragoons on the borders of 
the town. At this interview Tecumseh held forth that he intended 
no war against the United States ; that he would send messengers 
among the Indians to prevent murders and depredations on the 
white settlements; that the Indians, as well as the whites, who had 
committed murders, ought to be forgiven; that he had set the white 
people an example of forgiveness, which they ought to follow; 
that it was his wish to establish a union among all the Indian 
tribes; that the northern tribes were united; that he was going to 
visit the southern Indians, and then return to the Prophet's town. 
He said also that he would visit the President the next spring and 
settle all difficulties with him, and that he hoped no attempts would 
be made to make settlements on the lands which had been sold to 
the United States, at the treaty of Fort Wayne, because the Indians 
wanted to keep those grounds for hunting. 

Tecumseh then, with about 20 of his followers, left for the South, 
to induce the tribes in that direction to join his confederacy. 

By the way, a lawsuit was instituted by Gov. Harrison against a 
certain Vm. Mcintosh, for asserting that the plaintiff had cheated 
the Indians out of their lands, and that by so doing he had made 
them enemies to the United States. The defendant was a wealthy 
Scotch resident of Vincennes, well educated, and a man of influence 
among the people opposed to Gov. Harrison's land policy. The 
jury rendered a verdict in favor of Harrison, assessing the damages 
at $4,000. In execution of the decree of Court a large quantity of 
the defendant's land was sold in the absence of Gov. Harrison; 
but some time afterward Harrison caused about two-thirds of the 
land to be restored to Mr. Mcintosh, and the remainder was given 
to some orphan children. 

Harrison's first movement was to erect a new fort on the "Wabash 
river and to break up the assemblage of hostile Indians at the 
Prophet's town. For this purpose he ordered Col. Boyd's regiment 
of infantry to move from the falls of Ohio to Vincennes. When 
the military expedition organized by Gov. Harrison was nearly 


ready to march to the Prophet's town,several Indian chiefs arrived 
at Yincennes Sept. 25, 1811, and declared that the Indians 
would comply with the demands of the Governor and disperse; but 
this did not check the military proceedings. The army under com- 
mand of Harrison moved from Vincennes Sept. 26, and Oct. 3, en- 
countering no opposition from the enemy, encamped at the place 
where Fort Harrison was afterward built, and near where the city 
of Terre Haute now stands. On the night of the 11th a few hos- 
tile Indians approached the encampment and wounded one of the 
sentinels, which caused considerable excitement. The army was 
immediately drawn up in line of battle, and small detachments 
were sent in all directions; but the enemy could not be found. 
Then the Governor sent a message to Prophet's Town, requiring 
the Shawanees, "Winnebagoes, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos at 
that place to return to their respective tribes; he also required the 
Prophet to restore all the stolen horses in his possession, or to give 
satisfactory proof that such persons were not there, nor had lately 
been, under his control. To this message the Governor received 
no answer, unless that answer was delivered in the battle of Tip- 

The new fort on the Wabash was finished Oct. 28, and at the re- 
quest of all the subordinate officers it was called "Fort Harrison," 
near what is now Terre Haute. This fort was garrisoned with a 
small number of men under Lieutenant-Colonel Miller. On the 
29th the remainder of the army, consisting of 910 men, moved 
toward the Prophet's town; about 270 of the troops were mounted. 
The regular troops, 250 in number, were under the command of 
Col. Boyd. "With this army the Governor marched to within a 
half mile of the Prophet's town, when a conference was opened 
with a distinguished chief, in high esteem with the Prophet, and 
he informed Harrison that the Indians were much surprised at the 
approach of the army, and had already dispatched a message to 
him by another route. Harrison replied that he would not attack 
them until he had satisfied himself that they would not comply 
with his demands; that he would continue his encampment on the 
Wabash, and on the following morning would have an interview 
with the prophet. Harrison then resumed his march, and, after 
some difficulty, selected a place to encamp — a spot not very desir- 
able. It was a piece of dry oak land rising about ten feet above 
the marshy prairie in front toward the Indian town, and nearly 
twice that height above a similar prairie in the rear, through which 



and near this bank ran a small stream clothed with willow and 
brush wood. Toward the left flank this highland widened consid- 
erably, but became gradually narrower in the opposite direction, 
and at the distance of 150 yards terminated in an abrupt point. 
The two columns of infantry occupied the front and rear of this 
ground, about 150 yards from each other on the left, and a little 
more than half that distance on the right, flank. One flank was 
filled by two companies of mounted riflemen, 120 men, under com- 
mand of Major-General "Wells, of the Kentucky militia, and one 
by Spencer's company of mounted riflemen, numbering 80 men. 
The front line was composed of one battalion of United States in- 
fantry, under command of Major Floyd,- flanked on the right by 
two companies of militia, and on the left by one company. The 
rear line was composed of a battalion of United States troops, 
under command of Capt. Bean, acting as Major, and four companies 
of militia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Decker. The regular 
troops of this line joined the mounted riflemen under Gen. Wells, 
on the left flank, and Col. Decker's battalion formed an angle with 
Spencer's company on the left. Two troops of dragoons, about 60 
men in all, were encamped in the rear of the left flank, and Capt. 
Parke's troop, which was larger than the other two, in rear of 
the right line. For a night attack the order of encampment was 
the order of battle, and each man slept opposite his post in the 
line. In the formation of the troops single file was adopted, in 
order to get as great an extension of the lines as possible. 


No attack was made by the enemy until about 4 o'clock on the 
morning of Nov. 7, just after the Governor had arisen. The 
attack was made on the left flank. Only a single gun was tired by the 
sentinels or by the guard in that direction, which made no resist- 
ance, abandoning their posts and fleeing into camp; and the first 
notice which the troops of that line had of the danger was the yell 
of the savages within a short distance of them. But the men 
were courageous and preserved good discipline. Such of them as 
were awake, or easily awakened, seized arms and took their stations; 
others, who were more tardy, had to contend with the enemy in 
the doors of their tents. The storm first fell upon Capt. Barton's 
company of the Fourth United States Regiment, and Capt. Geiger's 
company of mounted riflemen, which formed the left angle of the 
rear line. The fire from the Indians was exceedingly severe, and 


men in these companies suffered considerably before relief could be 
brought to tbem. Some few Indians passed into the encampment 
near the angle, and one or two penetrated to some distance before 
they were killed. All the companies formed for action before they 
were fired on. The morning was dark and cloudy, and the fires of 
the Americans afforded only a partial light, which gave greater 
advantage to the enemy than to the troops, and they were there- 
fore extinguished. 

As soon as the Governor could mount his horse he rode to the 
angle which was attacked, where he found that Barton's company had 
suffered severely, and the left of Geiger's entirely broken. He 
immediately ordered Cook's and Wentworth's companies to march 
up to the center of the rear line, where were stationed a small com- 
pany of U. S. riflemen and the companies of Bean, Snelling and 
Prescott. As the General rode up he found Maj. Daviess forming 
the dragoons in the rear of these companies, and having ascertained 
that the heaviest fire proceeded from some trees 15 or 20 paces in 
front of these companies, he directed the Major to dislodge them 
with a part of the dragoons; but unfortunately the Major's gal- 
lantry caused him to undertake the execution of the order with a 
smaller force than was required, whicli enabled the enemy to avoid 
him in front and attack his flanks. He was mortally wounded and 
his men driven back. Capt. Snelling, however, with his company 
immediately dislodged those Indians. Capt. Spencer and his 1st 
and 2nd Lieutenants were killed, and Capt. Warwick mortally 
wounded. The soldiery remained brave. Spencer had too much 
ground originally, and Harrison re-enforced him with a company 
of riflemen which had been driven from their position on the left 

Gen. Harrison's aim was to keep the lines entire, to prevent the 
enemy from breaking into the camp until daylight, which would 
enable him to make a general and effectual charge. With this view 
he had re-enforced every part of the line that had suffered much, 
and with the approach of morning he withdrew sevcval companies 
from the front and rear lines and re-enforced the right and left 
flanks, foreseeing that at these points the enemy would make their 
last effort. Maj. Wells, who had commanded the left flank, charged 
upon the enemy and drove them at the point of the bayonet into 
the marsh, where they could not be followed. Meanwhile Capt. 
Cook and Lieut. Larrabee marched their companies to the right 
flank and formed under fire of the enemy, and being there joined 


by the riflemen of that flank, charged upon the enemy, killing a 
number and putting the rest to a precipitate flight. 

Thus ended the famous battle of Tippecanoe, victoriously to the 
whites and honorably to Gen. Harrison. 

In this battle Mr. Harrison had about 700 efficient men, while 
the Indians had probably more than that. The loss of the Ameri- 
cans was 37 killed and 25 mortally wounded, and 126 wounded; the 
Indians lost 38 killed on the field of battle, and the number of the 
wounded was never known. Among the whites killed were Daviess, 
Spencer, Owen, Warwick, Randolph, Bean and White. Standing on 
an eminence near by, the Prophet encouraged his warriors to battle 
by singing a favorite war-song. He told them that they would gain 
an easy victory, and that the bullets of their enemies would be made 
harmless by the Great Spirit. Being informed during the engagement 
that some of the Indians were killed, he said that his warriors must 
fight on and they would soon be victorious. Immediately after 
their defeat the surviving Indians lost faith in their great (?) Proph- 
et, returned to their respective tribes, and thus the confederacy 
was destroyed. The Prophet, with a very few followers, then took 
iip his residence among a small band of Wyandots encamped on 
Wild-Cat creek. His famous town, with all its possessions, was 
destroyed the next day, Nov. 8. 

On the 18th the American army returned to Vincennes, where 
most of the troops were discharged. The Territorial Legislature, 
being in session, adopted resolutions complimentary to Gov. Harri- 
son and the officers and men under him, and made preparations for 
a reception and celebration. 

Capt. Logan, the eloquent Shawanee chief who assisted our 
forces so materially, died in the latter part of November, 1812, 
from the effects of a wound received in a skirmish with a recon- 
noitering party of hostile Indians accompanied by a white man in 
the British service, Nov. 22. In that skirmish the white man was 
killed, and Wir.amac, a Pottawatomie chief of some distinction, 
fell by the riSe of Logan. The latter was mortally wounded, when 
he retreated with two warriors of his tribe, Capt. Johnny and 
Bright-Horn, to the camp of Gen. Winchester, where he soon after- 
ward died. He was buried with the honors of war. 


The victory recently gained by the Americans at the battle of 
Tippecanoe insured perfect peace for a time, but only a short time 
as the more extensive schemes of the British had so far ripened as 
to compel the United States again to declare war against them. 
Tecumseh had fled to Maiden, Canada, where, counseled by the 
English, he continued to excite the tribes against the Americans. 
As soon as this war with Great Britain was declared (June 18, 
1812), the Indians, as was expected, commenced again to commit 
depredations. During the summer of 1812 several points along 
the Lake Region succumbed to theBritish, as Detroit, under Gen. 
Hull, Fort Dearborn (now Chicago), commanded by Capt. Heald 
under Gen. Hull, the post at Mackinac, etc. 

In the early part of September, 1812, parties of hostile Indians 
began to assemble in considerable numbers in the vicinity of Forts 
Wayne and Harrison, with a view to reducing them. Capt. Rhea, 
at this time, had command of Fort Wayne, but his drinking pro- 
pensities rather disqualified him for emergencies. For two weeks 
the fort was in great jeopardy. An express had been sent to Gen. 
Harrison for reinforcements, but many days passed without any 
tidings of expected assistance. At length, one day, Maj. Wm. 
Oliver and four friendly Indians arrived at the fort on horseback. 
One of the Indians was the celebrated Logan. They had come in 
defiance of " 500 Indians," had "broken their ranks" and reached 
the fort in safety. Oliver reported that Harrison was aware of the 
situation and was raising men for a re-enforcement. Ohio was also 
raising volunteers; 800 were then assembled at St. Mary's, Ohio, 
60 miles south of Fort Wayne, and would march to the relief of 
the fort in three or four days, or as soon as they were joined by re- 
enforcements from Kentucky. 

Oliver prepared a letter, announcing to Gen. Harrison his safe ar- 
rival at the besieged fort, and giving an account of its beleaguered 
situation, which he dispatched by his friendly Shawanees, while he 
concluded to take his chances at the fort. Brave Logan and his 
companions started with the message, but had scarcely left the fort 
when they were discovered and pursued by the hostile Indians, yet 
passing the Indian lines in safety, they were soon out of reach. 
The Indians now began a furious attack upon the fort; but the little 
garrison, with Oliver to cheer them on, bravely met the assault, re- 
pelling the attack day after day, until the army approached to their 
relief. During this siege the commanding officer, whose habits of 


intemperance rendered him unfit for the command, was confined in 
the " black hole," while the junior officer assumed charge. This 
course was approved by the General, on his arrival, but Capt. Rhea 
received very little censure, probably on account of his valuable ser- 
vices in the Revolutionary war. 

Sept. 6, 1812, Harrison moved forward with his army to the re- 
lief of Fort Wayne; the next day he reached a point within three 
miles of St. Mary's river; the next day he reached the river and 
was joined at evening by 200 mounted volunteers, under Col. Rich- 
ard M. Johnson; the next day at "Shane's Crossing" on the St. 
Mary's they were joined by 800 men from Ohio, under Cols. Adams 
and Hawkins. At this place Chief Logan and four other Indians 
offered their services as spies to Gen. Harrison, and were accepted. 
Logan was immediately disguised and sent forward. Passing 
through the lines of the hostile Indians,he ascertained their number 
to be about 1,500, and entering the fort, he encouraged the soldiers 
to hold out, as relief was at hand. Gen. Harrison's force at this 
time was about 3,500. 

After an early breakfast Friday morning they were under march- 
ing orders; it had rained and the guns were damp; they were dis- 
charged and reloaded; but that day only one Indian was encount- 
ered ; preparations were made at night for an expected attack by 
the Indians, but no attack came; the next day, Sept. 10, they ex- 
pected to fight their way to Fort "Wayne, but in that they were hap- 
pily disappointed; and "At the first grey of the morning," as Bryce 
eloquently observes, " the distant halloos of the disappointed sav- 
ages revealed to the anxious inmates of the fort the glorious news 
of the approach of the army. Great clouds of dust could be seen 
from the fort, rolling up in the distance, as the valiant soldiery 
under Gen. Harrison moved forward to the rescue of the garrison 
and the brave boys of Kentucky and Ohio." 

This siege of Fort Wayne of course occasioned great loss to the 
few settlers who had gathered around the fort. At the time of its 
commencement quite a little village had clustered around the mili- 
tary works, but during the siege most of their improvements and 
crops were destroyed by the savages. Every building out of the reach 
of the guns of the fort was leveled to the ground, and thus the in- 
fant settlement was destroyed. 

During this siege the garrison lost but three men, while the 
Indians lost 25. Gen. Harrison had all the Indian villages for 25 
miles around destroyed. Fort Wayne was nothing but a military 
post until about 1819. 


Simultaneously with the attack on Fort Wayne the Indians also 
besieged Fort Harrison, which was commanded by Zachary Taylor. 
The Indians commenced firing upon the fort about 11 o'clock one 
night, when the garrison was in a rather poor plight for receiving 
them. The enemy succeeded in firing one of the block-houses, 
which contained whisky, and the whites had great difficulty in pre- 
venting the burning of all the barracks. The word " fire " seemed 
to have thrown all the men into confusion; soldiers' and citizens' 
wives, who had taken shelter within the fort, were crying; Indians 
were yelling; many of the garrison were sick and unable to be on 
duty; the men despaired and gave themselves up as lost; two of 
the strongest and apparently most reliable men jumped the pickets 
in the very midst of the emergency, etc., so that Capt. Taylor was 
at his wit's end what to do; but he gave directions as to the many 
details, rallied the men by a new scheme, and after about seven 
hours succeeded in saving themselves. The Indians drove up the 
horses belonging to the citizens, and as they could not catch th^m 
very readily, shot the whole of them in the sight of their owners, 
and also killed a number of the hogs belonging to the whites. 
They drove off all of the cattle, 65 in number, as well as the public 

Among many other depredations committed by the savages dur- 
ing this period, was the massacre of the Pigeon Roost settlement, 
consisting of one man, five women and 16 children; a few escaped. 
An unsuccessful effort was made to capture these Indians, but 
when the news of this massacre and the attack on Fort Harrison 
reached Vincennes, about 1,200 men, under the command of Col. 
"Win. Russell, of the 7th U. S. Infantry, marched forth for the re- 
lief of the fort and to punish the Indians. On reaching the fort 
the Indians had retired from the vicinity; but on the 15th of Sep- 
tember a small detachment composed of 11 men, under Lieut. Rich- 
ardson, and acting as escort of provisions sent from Vincennes to 
Fort Harrison, was attacked by a party of Indiaus within the pres- 
ent limits of Sullivan county. It was reported that seven of these 
men were killed and one wounded. The provisions of course fell 
into the hands of the Indians. 


By the middle of August, through the disgraceful surrender of 
Gen. Hull, at Detroit, and the evacuation of Fort Dearborn and 
massacre of its garrison, the British and Indians were in possession 
of the whole Northwest. The savages, emboldened by their sue- 


cesses, penetrated deeper into the settlements, committing great 
depredations. The activity and success of the enemy aroused the 
people to a realization of the great danger their homes and families 
were in. Gov. Edwards collected a force of 350 men at Camp 
Russell, and Capt. Russell came from Vincennes with about 50 more. 
Being officered and equipped, they proceeded about the middle of 
October on horseback, carrying with them 20 day's rations, to 
Peoria. Capt. Craig was sent with two boats up the Illinois, with 
provisions and tools to build a fort. The little army proceeded to 
Peoria Lake, where was located a Pottawatomie village. They 
arrived late at night, within a few miles of the village, without 
their presence being known to the Indians. Four men were sent 
out that night to reconnoiter the position of the village. The four 
brave men who volunteered for this perilous service were Thomas 
Carlin (afterward Governor), and Robert, Stephen and Davis White- 
side. They proceeded to the village, and explored it and the ap- 
proaches to it thoroughly, without starting an Indian or provoking 
the bark of a dog. The low lands between the Indian village and 
the troops were covered with a rank growth of tall grass, so high 
and dense as to readily conceal an Indian on horseback, until within 
a few feet of him. The ground bad become still more yielding by 
recent rains, rendering it almost impassable by mounted men. To 
prevent detection the soldiers had camped without lighting the 
usual camp-fires. The men lay down in their cold and cheerless 
camp, with many misgivings. They well remembered how the 
skulking savages fell upon Harrison's men at Tippecanoe during 
the night. To add to their fears, a gun in the hands of a soldier 
was carelessly discharged, raising great consternation in the camp. 
Through a dense fog which prevailed the following morning, the 
army took up its line of march for the Indian town, Capt. Judy 
with his corps of spies in advance. In the tall grass they came up 
with an Indian and his squaw, both mounted. The Indian wanted 
to surrender, but Judy observed that he " did not leave home to take 
prisoners," and instantly shot one of them. With the blood 
streaming from his mouth and nose, and in his agony " singing the 
death song," the dying Indian raised his gun, shot and mortally 
wounded a Mr. Wright, and in a few minutes expired! Many guns 
were immediately discharged at the other Indian, not then known 
to be a squaw, all of which missed her. Badly scared, and her hus- 
band killed by her side, the agonizing wails of the squaw were 
heart-rending. She was taken prisoner, and afterward restored 
to her nation. 


On nearing the town a general charge was made, the Indians 
fleeing to the interior wilderness. Some of their warriors made a 
stand, when a sharp engagement occurred, but the Indians were 
routed. In their flight they left behind all their winter's store of 
provisions, which was taken, and their town burned. Some Indian 
children were found who had been left in the hurried flight, also 
some disabled adults, one of whom was in a starving condition, and 
with a voracious appetite partook of the bread given him. He is 
said to have been killed by a cowardly trooper straggling behind, 
after the main army had resumed its retrograde march, who wanted 
to be able to boast that he had killed an Indian. 

September 19, 1812, Gen. Harrison was put in command of the 
Northwestern army, then estimated at 10,000 men, with these 
orders: "Having provided for the protection of the western front- 
ier, you will retake Detroit; and, with a view to the conquest of 
upper Canada, you will penetrate that country as far as the force 
under your command will in your judgment justify." 

Although surrounded by many difficulties, the General began 
immediately to execute these instructions. In calling for volun- 
teers from Kentucky, however, more men offered than could be 
received. At this time there were about 2,000 mounted volunteers 
at Vincennes, under the command of Gen. Samuel Hopkins, of the 
Revolutionary war, who was under instructions to operate against 
the enemy along the Wabash and Illinois rivers. Accordingly, 
early in October, Gen. Hopkins moved from Vincennes towards the 
Kickapoo villages in the Illinois territory, with about 2,000 troops; 
but after four or five days' march the men and officers raised a 
mutiny which gradually succeeded in carrying all back to Vin- 
cennes. The cause of their discontent is not apparent. 

About the same time Col. Russell, with two small companies of 
U. S. rangers, commanded by Capts. Perry aud Modrell, marched 
from the neighborhood of Vincennes to unite with a small force of 
mounted militia under the command of Gov. Edwards, of Illinois, 
and afterward to march with the united troops from Cahokia 
toward Lake Peoria, for the purpose of co-operating with Gen. 
Hopkins against the Indian towns in that vicinity; but not find- 
ing the latter on the ground, was compelled to retire. 

Immediately after the discharge of the mutinous volunteers, 
Gen. Hopkins began to organize another force, mainly of infantry, 
to reduce the Indians up the Wabash as far as the Prophet's town. 
These troops consisted of three regiments of Kentucky militia, 


commanded by Cols. Barbour, Miller and Wilcox; a small company 
of regulars commanded by Capt. Zachary Taylor; a company of 
rangers commanded by Capt. Beckes; and a company of scouts or 
spies under tbe command of Capt. Washburn. The main body of 
this army arrived at Fort Harrison Nov. 5; on the 11th it pro- 
ceeded up the east side of the Wabash into the heart of the Indian 
country, but found the villages generally deserted. Winter set- 
ting in severely, and the troops poorly clad, they had to return to 
Yincennes as rapidly as possible. With one exception the men 
behaved nobly, and did much damage to the enemy. That 
exception was the precipitate chase after an Indian by a detach- 
ment of men somewhat in liquor, until they found themselves sur- 
rounded by an overwhelming force of the enemy, and they had to 
retreat in disorder. 

At the close of this campaign Gen. Hopkins resigned his 

In the fall of 1812 Gen. Harrison assigned to Lieut. Col. John 
B. Campbell, of the 19th U. S. Inf., the duty of destroying the 
Miami villages on the Mississinewa river, with a detachment of 
about 600 men. Nov. 25, Lieut. Col. Campbell marched from 
Franklinton, according to orders, toward the scene of action, cau- 
tiously avoiding falling in with the Delawares, who had been ordered 
by Gen. Harrison to retire to the Shawanee establishment on the 
Auglaize river, and arriving on the Mississinewa Dec. 17, when 
they discovered an Indian town inhabited by Delawares and 
Miamis This and three other villages were destroyed. Soon 
after this, the supplies growing short and the troops in a suffering 
condition, Campbell began to consider the propriety of returning 
to Ohio; but just as he was calling together his officers early one 
morning to deliberate on the proposition, an army of Indians 
rushed upon them with fury. The engagement lasted an hour, 
with a loss of eight killed and 42 wounded, besides about 150 horses 
killed. The whites, however, succeeded in defending themselves 
and taking a number of Indians prisoners, who proved to be Mun- 
sies, of Silver Heel's band. Campbell, hearing that a large force 
of Indians were assembled at Mississinewa village, under Tecum- 
seh, determined to return to Greenville. The privations of his 
troops and the severity of the cold compelled him to send to that 
place for re-enforcements and supplies. Seventeen of the men had 
to be carried on litters. They were met by the re-euforcement 
about 40 miles from Greenville. 


Lieut. Col. Campbell sent two messages to the Delawares, who 
lived on White river and who had been previously directed and 
requested to abandon their towns on that river and remove into 
Ohio. In these messages he expressed his regret at unfortunately 
killing some of their men, and urged them to move to the Shaw- 
anee settlement on the Auglaize river. He assured them that their 
people, in his power, would be compensated by the Government 
for their losses, if not found to be hostile; and the friends of those 
killed satisfied by presents, if such satisfaction would be received. 
This advice was heeded by the main body of the Delawares and a 
few Miamis. The Shawanee Prophet, and some of the principal 
chiefs of the Miamis, retired from the country of the "Wabash, and, 
with their destitute and suffering bands, moved to Detroit, where 
they were received as the friends and allies of Great Britain. 

On the approach of Gen. Harrison with his army in September, 
1813, the British evacuated Detroit, and the Ottawas, Chippewas, 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and Kickapoos sued for peace with the 
United States, which was granted temporarily by Brig. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur, on condition of their becoming allies of the United States 
in case of war. 

In June, 1813, an expedition composed of 137 men, under com- 
mand of Col. Joseph Bartholomew, moved from Valonia toward 
the Delaware towns on the west fork of White river, to surprise 
and punish some hostile Indians who were supposed to be lurking 
about those villages. Most of these places they found deserted; 
some of them burnt. They had been but temporarily occupied for 
the purpose of collecting and carrying away corn. Col. Bartholo- 
mew's forces succeeded in killing one or two Indians and destroy- 
ing considerable corn, and they returned to Valonia on the 21st of 
this month. 

July 1, 1813, Col. William Russell, of the 7th U. S., organized 
a force of 573 effective men at Valonia and marched to the Indian 
villages about the mouth of the Mississinewa. His experience was 
much like that of Col. Bartholomew, who had just preceded him. 
He had rainy weather, suffered many losses, found the villages de- 
serted, destroyed stores of corn, etc. The Colonel reported that he 
went to every place where he expected to find the enemy, but they 
nearly always seemed to have fled the country. The march from 
Valonia to the mouth of the Mississinewa and return was about 
250 miles. 

Several smaller expeditions helped to "checker" the surrounding 


country, and find that the Indians were very careful to keep them- 
selves out of sight, and thus closed this series of campaigns. 


The war with England closed on the 24th of December, 1814, 
when a treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. The 9th article of 
the treaty required the United States to put an end to hostilities 
with all tribes or nations of Indians with whom they had been at 
war; to restore to such tribes or nations respectively all the rights 
and possessions to which they were entitled in 1811, before the 
war, on condition that such Indians should agree to desist from all 
hostilities against the United States. But in February, just before 
the treaty was sanctioned by our Government, there were signs of 
Indians accumulating arms and ammunition, and a cautionary 
order was therefore issued to have all the white forces in readiness 
for an attack by the Indians ; but the attack was not made. During 
the ensuing summer and fall the United States Government ac- 
quainted the Indians with the provisions of the treaty, and entered 
into subordinate treaties of peace with the principal tribes. 

Just before the treaty of Spring Wells (near Detroit) was signed, 
the Shawanee Prophet retired to Canada, but declaring his resolu- 
tion to abide by any treaty which the chiefs might sign. Some 
time afterward he returned to the Shawanee settlement in Ohio, and 
lastly to the west of the Mississippi, where he died, in 1834. The 
British Government allowed him a pension from 1S13 until his 
death. His brother Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the 
Thames, Oct. 5, 1813, by a Mr. Wheatty, as we are positively in- 
formed by Mr. A. J. James, now a resident of La Harpe township, 
Hancock county, III., whose father-in-law, John Pigman, of Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, was an eye witness. Gen. Johnson has gener- 
ally had the credit of killing Tecumseh. 



If one Bhonld inquire who has been the greatest Indian, the most 
noted, the " principal Indian " in North America since its discov- 
ery by Columbus, we would be obliged to answer, Tecumseh. For 
all those qualities which elevate a man far above his race; for talent, 
tact, skill and bravery as a warrior; for high-minded, honorable and 
chivalrous bearing as a man; in a word, for all those elements of 
greatness which place him a long way above his fellows in savage 
life, the name and fame of Tecumseh will go down to posterity in 
the West as one of the most celebrated of the aborigines of this 
continent, — as one who had no equal among the tribes that dwelt 
in the country drained by the Mississippi. Born to command him- 
self, he used all the appliances that would stimulate the courage 
and nerve the valor of his followers. Always in the front rank of 
battle, his followers blindly followed his lead, and as his war-cry 
rang clear above the din and noise of the battle-field, the Shawnee 
warriors, as they rushed on to victory or the grave, rallied around 
him, foemen worthy of the steel of the most gallant commander 
that ever entered the lists in defense of his altar or his home. 

The tribe to which Tecumseh, or Tecumtha, as some write it, be- 
longed, was the Shawnee, or Shawanee. The tradition of the nation 
held that they originally came from the Gulf of Mexico; that they 
wended their way up the Mississippi and the Ohio, and settled at 
or near the present site of Shawneetown, 111., whence they removed 
to the upper Wabash. In the latter place, at any rate, they were 
found early in the 18th century, and were known as the "bravest 
of the brave." This tribe has uniformly been the bitter enemy of 
the white man, and in every contest with our people has exhibited 
a degree of skill and strategy that should characterize the most 
dangerous foe. 

Tecumseh's notoriety and that of his brother, the Prophet, mutu- 
ally served to establish and strengthen each other. While the 
Prophet had unlimited power, spiritual and temporal, he distributed 
his greatness in all the departments of Indian life with a kind of 
fanaticism that magnetically aroused the religious and superstitious 
passions, not only of his own followers, but also of all the tribes in 


this part of the country; but Tecumseh concentrated his greatness 
upon the more practical and business affairs of military conquest. 
It is doubted whether he was really a sincere believer in the preten- 
sions of his fanatic brother; if he did not believe in the pretentious 
feature of them he had the shrewdness to keep his unbelief to him- 
self, knowing that religious fanaticism was ODe of the strongest im- 
pulses to reckless bravery. 

During his sojourn in the Northwestern Territory, it was Tecum- 
seh's uppermost desire of life to confed erate all the Indian tri bes of 
the country together against the whites, to maintain their choice 
hunting-grounds. All his public policy converged toward this sin- 
gle end. In his vast scheme he comprised even all the Indians in 
the Gulf country, — all in America west of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. He held, as a subordinate principle, that the Great Spirit 
had given the Indian race all these hunting-grounds to keep in 
common, and that no Indian or tribe could cede any portion of the 
land to the whites without the consent of all the tribes. Hence, in 
all his councils with the whites he ever maintained that the treaties 
were null and void. 

When he met Harrison at Vincennes in council the last time, 
and, as he was invited by that General to take a seat with him on 
the platform, he hesitated; Harrison insisted, saying that it was the 
"wish of their Great Father, the President of the United States, 
that he should do so." The chief paused a moment, raised his tall 
and commanding form to its greatest height, surveyed the troops 
and crowd around him, fixed his keen eyes upon Gov. Harrison, 
and then turning them to the sky above, and pointing toward 
heaven with his sinewy arm in a manner indicative of supreme 
contempt for the paternity assigned him, said in clarion tones: " My 
father? The sun is my father, the earth is my mother, and on her 
bosom I will recline." He then stretched himself, with his war- 
riors, on the green sward. The effect was electrical, and for 6ome 
moments there was perfect silence. 

The Governor, then, through an interpreter, told him that he un- 
derstood he had some complaints to make and redress to ask, etc., 
and that he wished to investigate the matter and make restitution 
wherever it might be decided it should be done. As soon as the 
Governor was through with this introductory speech, the stately 
warrior arose, tall, athletic, manly, dignified and graceful, and with 
a voice at first low, but distinct and musical, commenced a reply. 
As he warmed up with his subject his clear tones might be heard, 


as if " trumpet-tongued," to the utmost limits of the assembly. 
The most perfect silence prevailed, except when his warriors gave 
their guttural assent to some eloquent recital of the red man's 
wrong and the white man's injustice. Tecumseh recited the wrongs 
which his race had suffered from che of the massacre of the 
Moravian Indians to the present; said he did not know how he 
could ever again be the friend of the white man; that the Great 
Spirit had given to the Indian all the land from the Miami to the 
Mississippi, and from the lakes to the Ohio, as a common property 
to all the tribes in these borders, and that the land could not and 
should not be sold without the consent of all; that all the tribes on 
the continent formed but one nation; that if the United States 
would not give up the iands they had bought of the Miamis and 
the other tribes, those united with him were determined to annihi- 
late those tribes; that they were determined to have no more chiefs, 
but in future to be governed by their warriors; that unless the 
whites ceased their encroachments upon Indian lands, the fate of 
the Indians was sealed; they had been driven from the banks of 
the Delaware across the Alleghanies, and their possessions on the 
Wabash and the Illinois were now to be taken from them; that in 
a few years they would not have ground enough to bury their war- 
riors on this side of the "Father of Waters;" that all would perish, 
all their possessions taken from them by fraud or force, unless they 
stopped the progress of the white man westward; that it must be 
a war of races in which one or the other must perish; that their 
tribes had been driven toward the setting sun like a galloping 
horse (ne-kat a-kush-e ka-top-o-lin-to). 

The Shawnee language, in which this most eminent Indian states- 
man spoke, excelled all other aboriginal tongues in its musical ar- 
ticulation ; and the effect of Tecumseh's oratory on this occasion 
can be more easily imagined than described. Gov. Harrison, 
although as brave a soldier and General as any American, was over- 
come by this speech. He well knew Tecumseh's power and influ- 
ence among all the tribes, knew his bravery, courage and determi- 
nation, and knew that he meant what he said. When Tecumseh 
was done speaking there was a stillness throughout the assembly 
which was really pai nful ; not a whisper was heard, and all eyes were 
turned from the speaker toward Gov. Harrison, who after a few 
moments came to himself, and recollecting many of the absurd 
statements of the great Indian orator, began a reply which was 
more logical, if not so eloquent. The Shawnees were attentive un- 


til Harrison's interpreter began to translate his speech to the Mia- 
mis and Pottawatomies, when Tecurnseh and his warriors sprang 
to their feet, brandishing their war-clubs and tomahawks. "Tell 
him," said Tecurnseh, addressing the interpreter in Shawnee, " he 
lies." The interpreter undertook to convey this message to the 
Governor in smoother language, but Tecurnseh noticed the effort 
and remonstrated, " No, no; tell him he lies." The warriors began 
to grow more excited, when Secretary Gibson ordered the Ameri- 
can troops in arms to advance. This allayed the rising storm, and 
as soon as Tecumseh's " He lies " was literally interpreted to the 
Governor, the latter told Tecurnseh through the interpreter to tell 
Tecurnseh he would hold no further council with him. 

Thus the assembly was broken up, and one can hardly imagine a 
more exciting scene. It would constitute the finest subject for a 
historical painting to adorn the rotunda of the capitol. The next 
day Tecurnseh requested another interview with the Governor, 
which was granted on condition that he should make an apology to 
the Governor for his language the day before. This he made 
through the interpreter. Measures for defense and protection were 
taken, however, lest there should be another outbreak. Two com- 
panies of militia were ordered from the country, and the one in 
town added to them, while the Governor and his friends went into 
council fully armed and prepared for any contingency. On this oc- 
casion the conduct of Tecurnseh was entirely different from that of 
the day before. Firm and intrepid, showing not the slightest fear 
or alarm, surrounded with a military force four times his own, he 
preserved the utmost composure and equanimity. No one would 
have supposed that he could have been the principal actor in. the 
thrilling scene of the previous day. He claimed that half the 
Americans were in sympathy with him. He also said that whites 
had informed him that Gov. Harrison had purchased land from the 
Indians without any authority from the Government; that he, 
Harrison, had but two years more to remain in office, and that if 
he, Tecurnseh, could prevail upon the Indians who sold the lands 
not to receive their annuities for that time, and the present Gover- 
nor displaced by a good man as his successor, the latter would re- 
store to the Indians all the lands purchased from them. 

The Wyaudots, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Ottawas and the Win- 
nebagoes, through their respective spokesmen, declared their 
adherence to the great Shawnee warrior and statesman. Gov. Harri- 
son then told them that he would send Tecumseh's speech to thePresi- 



dent of the United States and return the answer to the Indians as soon 
as it was received. Tecumseh then declared that he and his allies were 
determined that the old boundary line should continue; and that 
if the whites crossed it, it would be at their peril. Gov. Harrison re- 
plied that he would be equally plain with him and state that the 
President would never allow that the lands on the Wabash were the 
property of any other tribes than those who had occupied them 
since the white people first came to America; and as the title to 
the lands lately purchased was derived from those tribes by a fair 
purchase, he might rest assured that the right of the United States 
would be supported by the sword. " So be it," was the stern and 
haughty reply of the Shawnee chieftan, as he and his braves took 
leave of the Governor and wended their way in Indian file to their 
camping ground. 

Thus ended the last conference on earth between the chivalrous 
Tecumseh and the hero of the battle of Tippecanoe. The bones of 
the first lie bleaching on the battle-field of the Thames, and those 
of the last in a mausoleum on the banks of the Ohio; each strug- 
gled for the mastery of his race, apd each no doubt was equally 
honest and patriotic in his purposes. The weak yielded to the 
strong, the defenseless to the powerful, and the hunting-ground of 
the Shawnee is all occupied by his enemy. 

Tecumseh, with four of his braves, immediately embarked in a 
birch canoe, descended the Wabash, and went on to the South to 
unite the tribes of that country in a general system of self-defense 
against the encroachment of the whites. His emblem was a dis- 
jointed snake, with the motto, "Join or die!" In union alone was 

Before Tecumseh left the Prophet's town at the mouth of the 
Tippecanoe river, on his excursion to the South, he had a definite 
understanding with his brother and the chieftains of the other tribes 
in the Wabash country, that they should preserve perfect peace 
with the whites until his arrangements were completed for a con- 
federacy of the tribes on both sides of the Ohio and on the Missis- 
sippi river; but it seems that while he was in the South engaged 
in his work of uniting the tribes of that country some of the North- 
ern tribes showed signs of fight and precipitated Harrison into that 
campaign which ended in the battle of Tippecanoe and the total 
route of the Indians. Tecumseh, on his return from the South, 
learning what had happened, was overcome with chagrin, disappoint- 
ment and anger, and accused his brother of duplicity and coward- 


ice; indeed, it is said that he never forgave him to the day of his 
death. A short time afterward, on the breaking out of the war of 
Great Britain, he joined Proctor, at Maiden, with a party of his 
warriors, and finally suffered the fate mentioned on page 108. 


Owing to the absence of Gov. Harrison on military duty, John 
Gibson, the Secretary of the Territory, acted in the administration 
of civil affairs. In his message to the Legislature convening on the 
1st of February, 1S13, he said, substantially: 

" Did I possess the abilities of Cicero or Demosthenes, I could 
not portray in more glowing colors our foreign and domestic politi- 
cal situation than it is already experienced within our own breasts. 
The United States have been compelled, by frequent acts of injus- 
tice, to declare war against England. For a detail of the causes of 
this war I would refer to the message of President Madison; it 
does honor to his head and heart. Although not an admirer of 
war, I am glad to see our little but inimitable navy riding triumph- 
ant on the seas, but chagrined to find that our armies by land are 
so little successful. The spirit of '76 appears to have fled from our 
continent, or, if not fled, is at least asleep, for it appears not to 
pervade our armies generally. At your last assemblage our politi- 
cal horizon seemed clear, and our infant Territory bid fair for rapid 
and rising grandeur; but, alas, the scene has changed; and whether 
this change, as respects our Territory, has been owing to an over 
anxiety in us to extend our dominions, or to a wish for retaliation 
by our foes, or to a foreign influence, I shall not say. The Indians, 
our former neighbors and friends, have become our most inveterate 
foes. Our former frontiers are now our wilds, and our inner settle- 
ments have become frontiers. Some of our best citizens, and old 
men worn down with age, and helpless women and innocent 
babes, have fallen victims to savage cruelty. I have done my duty 
as well as I can, and hope that the interposition of Providence will 
protect us." 

The many complaints made about the Territorial Government 
Mr. Gibson said, were caused more by default of officers than of the 
law. Said he: "It is an old and, I believe, correct adage, that 
' good officers make good soldiers.' This evil having taken root, I do 
not know how it can be eradicated ; but it may be remedied. In 
place of men searching after and accepting commissions before they 


are even tolerably qualified, thereby subjecting themselves to ridi- 
cule and their country to ruin, barely for the name of the thing, I 
think may be remedied by a previous examination." 

During this session of the Legislature the seat of the Territorial 
Government was declared to be at Corydon, and immediately acting 
Governor Gibson prorogued the Legislature to meet at that place, 
the first Monday of December, 1813. During this year the Terri- 
tory was almost defenseless; Indian outrages, were of common 
occurrence, but no general outbreak was made. The militia-men 
were armed with rifles and long knives, and many of the rangers 
carried tomahawks. 

In 1813 Thomas Posey, who was at that time a Senator in Con- 
gress from Tennessee, and who had been oflicer of the army of the 
Eevolution, was appointed Governor of Indiana Territory, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Harrison. He arrived in Vincennes and entered upon 
the discharge of his duties May 25, 1813. During this year several 
expeditions against the Indian settlements were set on foot. 

In his first message to the Legislature the following December, 
at Corydon, Gov. Posey said: " The present crisis is awful, and big 
with great events. Our land and nation is involved in the common 
calamity of war; but we are under the protecting care of the benefi- 
cent Being, who has on a former occasion brought us safely through 
an arduous struggle and placed us on a foundation of independence, 
freedom and happiness. He will not suffer to be taken from us 
what He, in His great wisdom has thought proper to confer and 
bless us with, if we make a wise and virtuous use of His good 
gifts. * * * Although our affairs, at the commencement of 
the war, wore a gloomy aspect, they have brightened, and promise 
a certainty of success, if properly directed and conducted, of which 
I have no doubt, as the President and heads of departments of the 
general Government are men of undoubted patriotism, talents and 
experience, and who have grown old in the service of their country. 
* * * It must be obvious to every thinking man that we were 
forced into the war. Every measure consistent with honor, both 
before and since the declaration of war, has tried to be on amicable 
terms with our enemy. * * * You who reside in various parts 
of the Territory have it in your power to understand what will tend 
to its local and general advantage. The judiciary system would 
require a revisal and amendment. The militia law is very defective 
and requires your immediate attention. It is necessary to have 


good roads and highways in as many directions through the Terri- 
tory as the circumstances and situation of the inhabitants will 
admit; it would contribute very much to promote the settlement 
and improvement of the Territory. Attention to education is highly 
necessary. There is an appropriation made by Congress, in lands, 
for the purpose of establishing public schools. It comes now with- 
in your province to carry into operation the design of the appro- 

This Legislature passed several very necessary laws for the wel- 
fare of the settlements, and the following year, as Gen. Harrison 
was generally successful in his military campaigns in the North- 
west, the settlements in Indiana began to increase and improve. 
The fear of danger from Indians had in a great measure subsided, 
and the tide of immigration began again to flow. In January, 
1814, about a thousand Miamis assembled at Fort Wayne for the 
purpose of obtaining food to prevent starvation. They met with 
ample hospitality, and their example was speedily followed by 
others. These, with other acts of kindness, won the lasting friend- 
ship of the Indians, many of whom had fought in the interests of 
Great Britain. General treaties between the United States and the 
Northwestern tribes were subsequently concluded, and the way 
was fully opened for the improvement and settlement of the lands. 

population in 1815. 

The population of the Territory of Indiana, as given in the 
official returns to the Legislature of 1815, was as follows, by 


COUNTIES. White males of SI and over. TOTAL. 

Wayne 1,225 6,407 

Franklin 1,430 7,370 

Dearborn 902 4,434 

Switzerland 377 1.832 

Jefferson--- 874 4,270 

Clark 1,387 7.150 

Washington 1,420 7,317 

Harrison 1,056 6,075 

Knox ... 1,391 8,068 

Gibson 1,100 5,3.i0 

Posey 320 1,619 

Warrick 280 , 1,415 

Perry 350 1,720 

Grand Totals 12,112. 


The well-known ordinance of 1787 conferred many " rights and 
privileges " upon the inhabitants of the Northwestern Territory, and 


consequently upon the people of Indiana Territory, but after all it 
came far short of conferring as many privileges as are enjoyed at 
the present day by our Territories. They did not have a full form 
of Republican government. A freehold estate in 500 acres of land 
was one of the necessary qualifications of each member of the legis- 
lative council of the Territory; every member of the Territorial House 
of Representatives was required to hold, in his own right, 200 acres 
of land; and the privilege of voting for members of the House 
of Representatives was restricted to those inhabitants who, in addi- 
tion to other qualifications, owned severally at least 50 acres of 
land. The Governor of the the Territory was invested with the 
power of appointing officers of the Territorial militia, Judges of the 
inferior Courts, Clerks of the Courts, Justices of the Peace, Sheriff?, 
Coroners, County Treasurers and County Surveyors. He was also 
authorized to divide the Territory into districts; to apportion 
among the several counties the members of the House of Represent- 
atives; to prevent the passage of any Territorial law; and to con- 
vene and dissolve the General Assembly whenever he thought best. 
None of the Governors, however, ever exercised these extraordinary 
powers arbitrarily. Nevertheless, the people were constantly agi- 
tating the question of extending the right of suffrage. Five years 
after the organization of the Territory, the Legislative Council, in 
reply to the Governor's Message, said: "Although we are not as 
completely independent in our legislative capacity as we would 
wish to be, yet we are sensible that we must wait with patience for 
that period of time when our population will burst the trammels 
of a Territorial government, and we shall assume the character more 
consonant to Republicanism. * * * The confidence which our 
fellow citizens have uniformly had in your administration has been 
such that they have hitherto had no reason to be jealous of the un- 
limited power which you possess over our legislative proceedings. 
We, however, cannot help regretting that such powers have 
been lodged in the hands of any one, especially when it is recol- 
lected to what dangerous lengths the exercise of those powers may 
be extended." 

After repeated petitions the people of Indiana were empowered 
by Congress to elect the members of the Legislative Council by popu- 
lar vote. This act was passed in 1809, and defined what was known 
as the property qualification of voters. These qualifications were 
abolished by Congress in 1811, which extended the right of voting 
for members of the General Assembly aud for a Territorial delegate 


to Congress to every free white male person who had attained the 
age of twenty -one years, and who, having paid a county or Terri- 
torial tax, was a resident of the Territory and had resided in it for 
a year. In 1814 the voting qualification in Indiana was defined by 
Congress, " to every free white male person having a freehold in 
the Territory, and being a resident of the same." The House of 
Representatives was authorized by Congress to lay off the Territory 
into five districts, in each of which the qualified voters were em- 
powered to elect a member of the Legislative Council. The division 
was made, one to two counties in each district. 

At the session in August, 1814, the Territory was also divided 
into three judicial circuits, and provisions were made for holding 
courts in the same. The Governor was empowered to appoint a 
presiding Judge in each circuit, and two Associate Judges of the 
circuit court in each county. Thoir compensation was fixed at 
$700 per annum. 

The same year the General Assembly granted charters to two 
banking institutions, the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank of Madi- 
son and the Bank of Yincennes. The first was authorized to raise 
a capital of $750,000, and the other $500,000. On the organization 
of the State these banks were merged into the State Bank and its 

Here we close the history of the Territory of Indiana. 


The last regular session of the Territorial Legislature was held at 
Corydon, convening in December, 1815. The message of Governor 
Posey congratulated the people of the Territory upon the general 
success of the settlements and the great increase of immigration, 
recommended light taxes and a careful attention to the promotion 
of education and the improvement of the State roads and highways. 
He also recommended a revision of the territorial laws and an 
amendment of the militia system. Several laws were passed pre- 
paratory to a State Government, and December 14, 1815, a me- 
morial to Congress was adopted praying for the authority to adopt 
a constitution and State Government. Mr. Jennings,the Territorial 
delegate, laid this memorial before Congress on the 28th, and April 
19, 1816, the President approved the bill creating the State of In- 
diana. Accordingly, May 30 following, a general election was held 
for a constitutional convention, which met at Corydon June 10 to 
29, Johathan Jennings presiding and Wm. Hendricks acting as 

"The convention that formed the first constitution of the State 
of Indiana was composed mainly of clear-minded, unpretending 
men of common sense, whose patriotism was unquestionable and 
whose morals were fair. Their familiarity with the theories of the 
Declaration of American Independence, their Territorial experience 
under the provisions of the ordinance of 1787, and their knowledge of 
the principles of the constitution of the United States were sufficient, 
when combined, to lighten materially their labors in the great work 
of forming a constitution for a new State. With such landmarks 
in view, the labors of similar conventions in other States and Ter- 
ritories have been rendered comparatively light. In the clearness 
and conciseness of its style, in the comprehensive and just pro- 
visions which it made for the maintainance of civil and religious 
liberty, in its mandates, which were designed to protect the rights 
of the people collectively and individually, and to provide for the 
public welfare, the constitution that was formed for Indiana in 1816 
was not inferior to any of the State constitutions which were in ex- 
istence at that time." — Dillon's History of Indiana. 


The first State election took place on the first Monday of August, 
1816, and Jonathan Jennings was elected Governor, and Christo- 
pher Harrison, Lieut. Governor. Win. Hendricks was elected to 
represent the new State in the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly elected under the new constitution 
began its session at Corydon, Nov. 4, 1816. John Paul was called 
to the chair of the Senate pro tem., and Isaac Blackford was elected 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

Among other things in. the new Governor's message were the 
following remarks: " The result of your deliberation will be con- 
sidered as indicative of its future character as well as of the future 
happiness and prosperity of its citizens. In the commencement 
of the State government the shackles of the colonial should be for- 
gotten in our exertions to prove, by happy experience, that a uni- 
form adherence to the first principles of our Government and a 
virtuous exercise of its powers will best secure efficiency to its 
measures and stability to its character. Without a frequent recur- 
rence to those principles, the administration of the Government 
will imperceptibly become more and more arduous, until the sim- 
plicity of our Republican institutions may eventually be lost in 
dangerous expedients and political design. Under every free gov- 
ernment the happiness of the citizens must be identified with their 
morals; and while a constitutional exercise of their rights shall 
continue to have its due weight in discharge of the duties required 
of the constituted authorities of the State, too much attention can- 
not be bestowed to the encouragement and promotion of every 
moral virtue, and to the enactment of laws calculated to restrain 
the vicious, and prescribe punishment for every crime commensu- 
rate with its enormity. In measuring, however, to each crime its 
adequate punishment, it will be well to recollect that the certainty 
of punishment has generally the surest effect to prevent crime; 
while punishments unnecessarily severe too often produce the ac- 
quittal of the guilty and disappoint one of the greatest objects of 
legislation and good government. * * * The dissemination of 
useful knowledge will be indispensably necessary as a support to 
morals and as a restraint to vice; and on this subject it will only 
be necessary to direct your attention to the plan of education as 
prescribed by the constitution. * * * I recommend to your 
consideration the propriety of providing by law, to prevent more 
effectually any unlawful attempts to seize and carry into bondage 



persons of color legally entitled to their freedom; and at the same 
time, as far as practicable, to prevent those who rightfully owe ser- 
vice to the citizens of any other State or Territory from seeking 
within the limits of this State a refuge from the possession of their 
lawful owners. Such a measure will tend to secure those who are 
free from any unlawful attempts (to enslave them) and secures the 
rights of the citizens of the other States and Territories as far as 
ought reasonably to be expected." 

This session of the Legislature elected James Noble and Wal lei- 
Taylor to the Senate of the United States; Robert A. New was 
elected Secretary of State; "W. H. Lilley, Auditor of State; and 
Daniel C. Lane, Treasurer of State. The session adjourned Janu- 
ary 3, 1817. 

As the history of the State of Indiana from this time forward is 
best given by topics, we will proceed to give them in the chronolog- 
ical order of their origin. 

The happy close of the war with Great Britain in 1814 was fol- 
lowed by a great rush of immigrants to the great Territory of the 
Northwest, including the new States, all now recently cleared of 
the enemy; and by 1820 the State of Indiana had more than 
doubled her population, having at this time 147,178, and by 1825 
nearly doubled this again, that is to say, a round quarter of a mil- 
lion, — a growth more rapid probably than that of any other section 
in this country since the days of Columbus. 

The period 1825-'30 was a prosperous time for the young State. 
Immigration continued to be rapid, the crops were generally good 
and the hopes of the people raised higher than they had ever been 
before. Accompanying this immigration, however, were paupers 
and indolent people, who threatened to be so numerous as to 
become a serious burden. On this subject Governor Ray called for 
legislative action, but the Legislature scarcely knew what to do 
and they deferred action. 


In 1830 there still lingered within the bounds of the State two 
tribes of Indians, whose growing indolence, intemperate habits, 
dependence upon their neighbors for the bread of life, diminished 
prospects of living by the chase, continued perpetration of murders 
and other outrages of dangerous precedent, primitive igno- 
rance and unrestrained exhibitions of savage customs before the 
children of the settlers, combined to make them subjects for a more 
rigid government. The removal of the Indians west of the Missis- 
sippi was a melancholy but necessary duty. The time having 
arrived for the emigration of the Pottawatomies, according to the 
stipulations contained in their treaty with the United States, they 
evinced that reluctance common among aboriginal tribes on leav- 
ing the homes of their childhood and the graves of their ancestors. 
Love of country is a principle planted in the bosoms of all man- 
kind. The Laplander and the Esquimaux of the frozen north, 
who feed on seals, moose and the meat of the polar bear, would not 
exchange their country for the sunny clime of "Araby the blest." 
Color and shades of complexion have nothing to do with the 
heart's best, warmest emotions. Then we should not wonder that the 
Pottawatomie, on leaving his home on the Wabash, felt as sad as 
^Eschines did when ostracised from his native land, laved by the 
waters of the classic Scamander; and the noble and eloquent Nas- 
waw-kay, on leaving the encampment on Crooked creek, felt his 
banishment as keenly as Cicero when thrust from the bosom of his 
beloved Rome, for which he had spent the best efforts of his life, 
and for which he died. 

On Sunday morning, May 18, 1832, the people on the west side 
of the Wabash were thrown into a state of great consternation, on 
account of a report that a large body of hostile Indians had 
approached within 15 miles of Lafayette and killed two men. The 
alarm soon spread throughout Tippecanoe, Warren, Vermillion, 
Fountain, Montgomery, and adjoining counties. Several brave 
commandants of companies on the west side of the Wabash in 
Tippecanoe county, raised troops to go and meet the enemy, and 
dispatched an express to Gen. Walker with a request that he should 


make a call upon the militia of the county to equip themselves 
instantly and march to the aid of their bleeding countrymen. 
Thereupon Gen. Walker, Col. Davis, Lieut-Col. Jenners, Capt. 
Brown, of the artillery, and various other gallant spirits mounted 
their war steeds and proceeded to the army, and thence upon a 
scout to the Grand Prairie to discover, if possible, the number, 
intention and situation of the Indians. Over 300 old men, women 
and children flocked precipitately to Lafayette and the surrounding 
country east of the Wabash. A remarkable event occurred in this 
stampede, as follows: 

A man, wife and seven children resided on the edge of the 
Grand Prairie, west of Lafayette, in a locality considered particu- 
larly dangerous. On hearing of this alarm he made hurried 
preparations to fly with his family to Lafayette for safety. Imag- 
ine his surprise and chagrin when his wife told him she would not 
go one step; that she did not believe in being scared at trifles, and 
in her opinion there was not an Indian within 100 miles of them. 
Importunity proved unavailing, and the disconsolate and frightened 
husband and father took all the children except the youngest, bade 
his wife and babe a long and solemn farewell, never expecting to 
see them again, unless perhaps he might find their mangled re- 
mains, minus their scalps. On arriving at Lafayette, his acquaint- 
ances rallied and berated him for abandoning his wife and child in 
that way, but he met their jibes with a stoical indifference, avowing 
that he should not be held responsible for their obstinacy. 

As the shades of the first evening drew on, the wife felt lonely; 
and the chirping of the frogs and the notes of the whippoorwill only 
intensified her loneliness, until she half wished she had accom- 
panied the rest of the family in their flight. She remained in the 
house a .ew hours without striking a light, and then concluded 
that " discretion was the better part of valor," took her babe and 
some bed-clothes, fastened the cabin door, and hastened to a sink- 
hole in the woods, in which she afterward said that she and her 
babe slept soundly until sunrise next morning. 

Lal'ayette literally boiled over with people and patriotism. A 
meeting was held at the court-house, speeches were made by 
patriotic individuals, and to allay the fears of the women an armed 
police was immediately ordered, to be called the " Lafayette Guards." 
Thos. T. Benbridge was elected Captain, and John Cox, Lieutenant. 
Capt. Benbridge yielded the active drill of his guards to the 
Lieutenant, who had served two years in the war of 1812. After 


the meeting adjourned, the guards were paraded on the green 
where Purdue's block now stands, and put through sundry evolu- 
tions by Lieut. Cox, who proved to be an expert drill officer, and 
whose clear, shrill voice rung out on the night air as he marched 
and counter-marched the troops from where the paper-mill stands 
to Main street ferry, and over the suburbs, generally. Every old 
gun and sword that could be found was brought into requisition, 
with a new shine on them. 

Gen. Walker, Colonels Davis and Jenners, and other officers 
joined in a call of the people of Tippecanoe county for volunteers to 
inarch to the frontier settlements. A large meeting of the citizens 
assembled in the public square in the town, and over 300 volunteers 
mostly mounted men, left for the scene of action, with an alacrity 
that would have done credit to veterans. 

The first night they camped nine miles west of Lafayette, near 
Grand Prairie. They placed sentinels for the night and retired to 
rest. A few of the subaltern officers very injudiciously concluded 
to try what effect a false alarm would have upon the sleeping sol- 
diers, and a few of them withdrew to a neighboring thicket, and 
thence made a charge upon the picket guards, who , after hailing 
them and receiving no countersign, fired off their guns and ran for 
the Colonel's marquee in the center of the encampment. The aroused 
Colonels and staff sprang to their feet, shouting "To arms! to arms!" 
and the obedient, though panic-stricken soldiers seized their guns 
and demanded to be led against the invading foe. A wild scene of 
disorder ensued, and amid the din of arms and loud commands of 
the officers the raw militia felt that they had already got into the 
red jaws of battle. One of the alarm sentinels, in running to the 
center of the encampment, leaped over a blazing camp fire, and 
alighted full upon the breast and stomach of a sleeping lawyer, who 
was, no doubt, at that moment dreaming of vested and contingent 
remainders, rich clients and good fees, which in legal parlance was 
suddenly estopped by the hob-nails in the stogas of the scared 
sentinel. As soon as the counselor's vitality and consciousness 
sufficiently returned, he put in some strong demurrers to the con- 
duct of the affrighted picket men, averring that he would greatly 
prefer being wounded by the enemy to being run over by a cowardly 
booby. Next morning the organizers of the ruse were severely 

May 28, 1832, Governor Noble ordered General Walker to call 
out his whole command, if necessary, and supply arms, horses and 


provisions, even though it be necessary to seize them. The next 
day four baggage wagons, loaded with camp equipments, stores, 
provisions and other articles, were sent to the little army, who were 
thus provided for a campaign of five or six weeks. The following 
Thursday a squad of cavalry, under Colonel Sigler, passed through 
Lafayette on the way to the hostile region ; and on the 13th of June 
Colonel Russell, commandant of the 40th Regiment, Indiana Militia, 
passed through Lafayette with 340 mounted volunteers from the 
counties of Marion, Hendricks and Johnson. Also, several com- 
panies of volunteers from Montgomery, Fountain and Warren 
counties, hastened to the relief of the frontier settlers. The troops 
from Lafayette marched to Sugar creek, and after a short time, 
there being no probability of finding any of the enemy, were 
ordered to return, They all did so except about 45 horsemen, who 
volunteered to cross Hickory creek, where the Indians had com- 
mitted their depredations. They organized a company by electing 
Samuel McGeorge, a soldier of the war of 1812, Captain, and Amos 
Allen and Andrew W. Ingraham, Lieutenants. 

Crossing Hickory creek, they marched as far as O'Plein river 
without meeting with opposition. Finding no enemy here they 
concluded to return. On the first night of their march home they 
encamped on the open prairie, posting sentinels, as usual. About 
ten o'clock it began to rain, and it was with difficulty that the sen- 
tinels kept their guns dry. Capt. I. H. Cox and a man named Fox 
had been posted as sentinels within 15 or 20 paces of each other. 
Cox drew the skirt of his overcoat over his gun-lock to keep it dry; 
Fox, perceiving this motion, and in the darkness taking him for an 
Indian, fired upon him and fractured his thigh-bone. Several sol- 
diers immediately ran toward the place where the flash of the gun 
had been seen ; but when they cocked and leveled their guns on the 
figure which had fired at Cox, the wounded man caused them to 
desist by crying, " Don't shoot him, it was a sentinel who shot me." 
The next day the wounded man was left behind the company in 
care of four men, who, as soon as possible, removed him on a litter 
to Col. Moore's company of Illinois militia, then encamped on the 
O'Plein, where Joliet now stands. 

Although the main body returned to Lafayette in eight or nine 
days, yet the alarm among the people was so great that they could 
not be induced to return to their farms for some time. The pres- 
ence of the hostiles was hourly expected by the frontier settlements 
of Indiana, from Vincennes to La Porte. In Clinton county the 


inhabitants gathered within the forts and prepared for a regular 
siege, while our neighbors at Crawfordsville were suddenly 
astounded by the arrival of a courier at full speed with the announce- 
ment that the Indians, more than a thousand in number, were then 
crossing the Nine-Mile prairie about twelve miles north of town, 
killing and scalping all. The strongest houses were immediately 
put in a condition of defense, and sentinels were placed at theprin- 
cipal points in the direction of the enemy. Scouts were sent out to 
reconnoitre, and messengers were dispatched in different directions 
to announce the danger to the farmers, and to urge them to hasten 
with their families into town, and to assist in fighting the moment- 
aril}' expected savages. At night-fall the scouts brought in the 
■news that the Indians had not crossed the Wabash, but were hourly 
expected at Lafayette. The citizens of Warren, Fountain and Ver- 
million counties were alike terrified by exaggerated stories of Indian 
massacres, and immediately prepared for defense. It turned out 
that the Indians were not within 100 miles of these temporary 
forts ; but this by no means proved a want of courage in the citizens. 

After some time had elapsed, a portion of the troops were 
marched back into Tippecanoe county and honorably discharged ; 
but the settlers were still loth for a long time to return to their 
farms. Assured by published reports that the Miamis and Potta- 
watomies did not intend to join the hostiles, the people by degrees 
recovered from the panic and began to attend to their neglected 

During this time there was actual war in Illinois. Black Hawk 
and his warriors, well nigh surrounded by a well-disciplined foe, 
attempted to cross to the west bank of the Mississippi, but after 
being chased up into Wisconsin and to the Mississippi again, he 
was in a final battle taken captive. A few years after his liberation, 
about 1837 or 1838, he died, on the banks of the Des Moines river, 
in Iowa, in what is now the county of Davis, where his remains 
were deposited above ground, in the usual Indian style. His re- 
mains were afterward stolen and carried away, but they were re- 
covered by the Governor of Iowa and placed in the museum of the 
Historical Society at Burlington, where they were finally destroyed 
by fire. 


In July, 1837, Col. Abel C. Pepper convened the Pottawatomie 
nation of Indians at Lake Ke-waw-nay for the purpose of remov- 
ing them west of the Mississippi. That fall a small party of some 
80 or 90 Pottawatomies was conducted west of the Mississippi 
river by George Promt, Esq. Among the number were Ke-waw- 
nay, Nebash, Nae-waw-kay, Pash-po-ho and many other leading 
men of the nation. The regular emigration of these poor Indians, 
about 1,000 in number, took place under Col. Pepper and Gen. Tip- 
ton in the summer of 1838. 

It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of 
the forest slowly retiring from the home of their childhood, that 
contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur 
as sunny spots along their pathway through the wilderness. They 
felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams 
of their infancy; the more exciting hunting-grounds of their ad- 
vanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battle-fields where 
they had contended in riper manhood, on which they had received 
wounds, and where many of their friends and loved relatives had 
fallen covered with gore and with glory. All these they were leav- 
ing behind them, to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white 
man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved 
scenes that were rapidly fading in the distance, tears fell from the 
cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrous wept, 
the swarthy maiden's cheek turned pale, and sighs and half-sup- 
pressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and others in wagons, — sad as a 
funeral procession. Several of the aged warriors were seen to cast 
glances toward the sky, as if they were imploring aid from the 
spirits of their departed heroes, who were looking down upon them 
from the clouds, or from the Great Spirit, who would ultimately 
redress the wrongs of the red man, whose broken bow had fallen 
from his hand, and whose sad heart was bleeding within him. 
Ever and anon one of the party would start out into the brush and 
break back to their old encampments on Eel river and on the Tippe- 


canoe, declaring that they would rather die than be banished from 
their country. Thus, scores of discontented emigrants returned 
from different points on their journey ; and it was several years 
before they could be induced to join their countrymen west of the 

Several years after the removal of the Pottawatomies the Miami 
nation was removed to their Western home, by coercive means, un- 
der an escort of United States troops. They were a proud and 
once powerful nation, but at the time of their removal were far 
inferior, in point of numbers, to the Pottawatomie guests whom 
they had permitted to settle and hunt upon their lands, and fish in 
their lakes and rivers after they had been driven southward by 
powerful and warlike tribes who inhabited the shores of the North- 
ern lakes. 


In 1831 a joint resolution of the Legislature of Indiana, request- 
ing an appropriation by Congress for the extinguishment of the 
Indian title to lands within the State, was forwarded to that body* 
which granted the request. The Secretary of "War, by authority, 
appointed a committee of three citizens to carry into effect the pro- 
visions of the recent law. The Miamis were surrounded on all 
sides by American settlers, and were situated almost in the heart 
of the State on the line of the canal then being made. The chiefs 
were called to a council for the purpose of making a treaty; they 
promptly came, but peremptorily refused to go westward or sell 
the remainder of their land. The Pottawatomies sold about 
6,000,000 acres in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, including all 
their claim in this State. 

In 1838 a treaty was concluded with the Miami Indians through 
the good offices of Col. A. C. Pepper, the Indian agent, by which 
a considerable of the most desirable portion of their reserve was 
ceded to the United States. 


As an example of the manner in which land speculators were 
treated by the early Indianians, we cite the following instances 
from Cox's " Itecollections of the Wabash Valley." 

At Crawfordsville, Dec. 24, 1824, many parties were present 
from the eastern and southern portions of the State, as well as from 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee and even Pennsylvania, to attend a 
land sale. There was but little bidding against each other. The 
settlers, or " squatters," as they were called by the speculators, had 
arranged matters among themselves to their general satisfaction. 
If, upon comparing numbers, it appeared that two were after the 
same tract of land, one would ask the other what he would take 
not to bid against him; if neither would consent to be bought off 
they would retire and cast lots, and the lucky one would enter the 
tract at Congress price, $1.25 an acre, and the other would enter the 
second choice on his list. If a speculator made a bid, or showed a 
disposition to take a settler's claim from him, he soon saw the 
white of a score of eyes glaring at him, and he would " crawfish" 
out of the crowd at the first opportunity. 

The settlers made it definitely known to foreign capitalists that 
they would enter the tracts of land they had settled upon before 
allowing the latter to come in with their speculations. The land 
was sold in tiers of townships, beginning at the southern part of 
the district and continuing north until all had been offered at 
public sale. This plan was persisted in, although it kept many on 
the ground for several days waiting, who desired to purchase land 
in the northern part of the district. 

In 1827 a regular Indian scare was gotten up to keep specu- 
lators away for a short time. A man who owned a claim on Tippe- 
canoe river, near Pretty prairie, fearing that some one of the 
numerous land hunters constantly scouring the country might 
enter the laud he had settled upon before he could raise the money 
to buy it, and seeing one day a cavalcade of land hunters riding 
toward where his land lay, mounted his horse and darted off at 
full speed to meet them, swinging his hat and shouting at the top 
of his voice, " Indians! Indians! the woods are full of Indians, 


murdering and scalping all before them!" They paused a moment, 
but as the terrified horseman still urged his jaded animal and cried, 
"Help! Longlois, Cicots, help!" they turned and fled like a troop of 
retreating cavalry, hastening to the thickest settlements and giving 
the alarm, which spread like fire among stubble until the whole 
frontier region was shocked with the startling cry. The squatter 
who fabricated the story and started this false alarm took a cir- 
cuitous route home that evening, and while others were busy 
building temporary block-houses and rubbing up their guns to 
meet the Indians, he was quietly gathering up money and slipped 
down to Crawfordsville and entered his land, chuckling to himself, 
" There's a Yankee trick for you, done up by a Hoosier." 


In 1814 a society of Germans under Frederick Eappe, who had 
originally come from Wirtemberg, Germany, and more recently 
from Pennsylvania, founded a settlement on the Wabash about 50 
miles above its mouth. They were industrious, frugal and honest 
Lutherans.- They purchased a large quantity of land and laid off 
a town, to which they gave the name of " Harmony," afterward 
called "New Harmony." They erected a church and a public 
school-house, opened farms, planted orchards and vineyards, built 
flouring mills, established a house of public entertainment, a public 
store, and carried on all the arts of peace with skill and regularity. 
Their property was "in common," according to the custom of an- 
cient Christians at Jerusalem, but the governing power, both tem- 
poral and spiritual, was vested in Frederick Rappe, the elder, who 
was regarded as the founder of the society. By the year 1821 the 
society numbered about 900. Every individual of proper age con- 
tributed his proper share of labor. There were neither spendthrifts, 
idlers nor drunkards, and during the whole 17 years of their sojourn 
in America there was not a single lawsuit among them. Every 
controversy arising among them was settled by arbitration, expla- 
nation and compromise before sunset of the day, literally according 
to the injunction of the apostle of the New Testament. 

About 1825 the town of Harmony and a considerable quantity 
of land adjoining was sold to Robert Owen, father of David Dale 
Owen, the State Geologist, and of Robert Dale Owen, of later 
notoriety. He was a radical philosopher from Scotland, who had 
become distinguished for his philanthropy and opposition to 


Christianity. He charged the latter with teaching false notions 
regarding human responsibility — notions which have since been 
clothed in the language of physiology, mental philosophy, etc. 
Said he: 

" That which has hitherto been called wickedness in our fellow 
men has proceeded from one of two distinct causes, or from some 
combination of those causes. They are what are termed bad or 

" 1. Because they are born with faculties or propensities which 
render them more liable, under the same circumstances, than other 
men, to commit such actions as are usually denominated wicked; 

" 2. Because they have been placed by birth or other events in 
particular countries, — have been influenced from infancy by par- 
ents, playmates and others, and have been surrounded by those 
circumstances which gradually and necessarily trained them in the 
habits and sentiments called wicked ; or, 

" 3. They have become wicked in consequence of some particu- 
lar combination of these causes. 

" If it should be asked, Whence then has wickedness pro- 
ceeded? I reply, Solely from the ignorance of our forefathers. 

" Every society which exists at present, as well as every society 
which history records, has been formed and governed on a belief 
in the following notions, assumed as first principles: 

" 1. That it is in the power of every individual to form his own 
character. Hence the various systems called by the name of religion, 
codes of law, and punishments; hence, also, the angry passions 
entertained by individuals and nations toward each other. 

" 2. That the affections are at the command of the individual. 
Hence insincerity and degradation of character; hence the miseries 
of domestic life, and more than one-half of all the crimes of man- 

" 3. That it is necessary a large portion of mankind should ex- 
ist in ignorance and poverty in order to secure to the remaining part 
such a degree of happiness as they now enjoy. Hence a system of 
counteraction in the pursuits of men, a general opposition among 
individuals to the interests of each other, and the necessary effects 
of such a system, — ignorance, poverty and vice. 


During the administration of Gov. Whitcomb the war with 
Mexico occurred, which resulted in annexing to the United States 
vast tracts of land in the south and west. Indiana contributed her 
full ratio to the troops in that war, and with a remarkable spirit of 
promptness and patriotism adopted all measures to sustain the gen- 
eral Government. These new acquisitions of territory re-opened 
the discussion of the slavery question, and Governor Whitcomb 
expressed his opposition to a further extension of the " national 

The causes which led to a declaration of war against Mexico in 
1846, must be sought for as far back as the year 1830, when the 
present State of Texas formed a province of New and Independent 
Mexico. During the years immediately preceding 1830, Moses 
Austin, of Connecticut, obtained a liberal grant of lands from the 
established Government, and on his death his son was treated in an 
equally liberal manner. The glowing accounts rendered by Aus- 
tin, and the vivid picture of Elysian fields drawn by visiting jour- 
nalists, soon resulted in the influx of a large tide of immigrants, 
nor did the movement to the Southwest cease until 1830. The 
Mexican province held a prosperous population, comprising 10,00C 
American citizens. The rapacious Government of the Mexicans 
looked with greed and jealousy upon their eastern province, and, 
under the presidency of Gen. Santa Anna, enacted such measures, 
both unjust and oppressive, as would meet their design of goading 
the people of Texas on to revolution, and thus afford an opportu- 
nity for the infliction of punishment upon subjects whose only 
crime was industry and its accompaniment, prosperity. Precisely 
in keeping with the course pursued by the British toward the col- 
onists of the Eastern States in the last century, Santa Anna's 
Government met the remonstrances of the colonists of Texas with 
threats; and they, secure in their consciousness of right quietly 
issued their declaration of independence, and proved its literal 
meaning on the field of Gonzales in 1835, having with a force of 


500 men forced the Mexican army of 1,000 to fly for refuge to their 
strongholds. Battle after battle followed, bringing victory always 
to the Colonists, and ultimately resulting in the total rout of the 
Mexican army and the evacuation of Texas. The routed army 
after a short term of rest reorganized, and reappeared in the Terri- 
tory, 8,000 strong. On April 21, a division of this large force 
under Santa Anna encountered the Texans under General Samuel 
Houston on the banks of the San Jacinto, and though Houston 
could only oppose 800 men to the Mexican legions, the latter were 
driven from the field,nor could they reform their scattered ranks until 
their General was captured next day and forced to sign the declaration 
of 1835. The signature of Santa Anna, though ignored by the 
Congress of the Mexican Eepublic, and consequently left unratified 
on the part of Mexico, was effected in so much, that after the sec- 
ond defeat of the army of that Eepublic all the hostilities of an 
important nature ceased, the Republic of Texas was recognized by 
the powers, and subsequently became an integral part of the United 
States, July 4, 1846. At this period General Herrera was pres- 
ident of Mexico. He was a man of peace, of common sense, and 
very patriotic; and he thus entertained, or pretended to enter- 
tain, the great neighboring Republic in high esteem. For this 
reason he grew unpopular with his people, and General Paredes 
was called to the presidential chair, which he continued to occupy 
until the breaking out of actual hostilities with the United States, 
when Gen. Santa Anna was elected thereto. 

President Polk, aware of the state of feeling in Mexico, ordered 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, in command of the troops in the Southwest, to 
proceed to Texas, and post himself as near to the Mexican border 
as he deemed prudent. At the same time an American squadron was 
dispatched to the vicinity, in the Gulf of Mexico. In November, 
General Taylor had taken his position at Corpus Christi, a Texan 
settlement on a bay of the same name, with about 4,000 men. On 
the 13th of January, 1846, the President ordered him to advance 
with his forces to the Rio Grande; accordingly he proceeded, and 
in March stationed himself on the north bank of that river, with- 
in cannon-shot of the Mexican town of Matamoras. Here he 
hastily erected a fortress, called Fort Brown. The territory ly- 
ing between the river Nueces and the Rio Grande river, about 
120 miles in width, was claimed both by Texas and Mexico; ac- 
cording to the latter, therefore, General Taylor had actually 
invaded her Territory, and had thus committed an open 


act of war. On the 26th of April, the Mexican General, Ampudia, 
gave notice to this effect to General Taylor, and on the same day a 
party of American dragoons, sixty-three in number, being on the 
north side of the Eio Grande, were attacked, and, after the loss of 
sixteen men killed and wounded, were forced to surrender. Their 
commander, Captain Thornton, only escaped. The Mexican forces 
had now crossed the river above Matamoras and were supposed to 
meditate an attack on Point Isabel, where Taylor had established a 
depot of supplies for his army. On the 1st of May, this officer left 
a small number of troops at Fort Brown, and marched with his 
chief forces, twenty-three hundred men, to the defense of Point 
Isabel. Having garrisoned this place, he set out on his return. 
On the 8th of May, about noon, he met the Mexican army, six 
thousand strong, drawn up in battle array, on the prairie near Palo 
Alto. The Americans at once advanced to the attack, and, after an 
action of five hours, in which their artillery was very effective, 
drove the enemy before them, and encamped upon the field. The 
Mexican loss was about one hundred killed; that of the Americans, 
four killed and forty wounded. Major Ringgold, of the artillery, 
an officer of great merit, was mortally wounded. The next day, as 
the Americans advanced, they again met the enemy in a strong 
position near Resaca de la Palma, three miles from Fort Brown. 
An action commenced, and was fiercely contested, the artillery on 
both sides being served with great vigor. At last the Mexicans 
gave way, and fled in confusion, General de la Vega having fallen 
into the hands of the Americans. They also abandoned their guns 
and a large quantity of ammunition to the victors. The remain- 
ing Mexican soldiers speedily crossed the Rio Grande, and the next 
day the Americans took up their position at Fort Brown. This 
little fort, in the absence of General Taylor, had gallantly sustained 
an almost uninterrupted attack of several days from the Mexican 
batteries of Matamoras. 

When the news of the capture of Captain Thornton's party was 
spread over the United States, it produced great excitement. The 
President addressed a message to Congress, then in session, declar- 
ing " that war with Mexico existed by her own act;" and that body, 
May, 1S46, placed ten millions of dollars at the President's dispo- 
sal, and authorized him to accept the services of fifty thousand 
volunteers. A great part of the summer of 1S46 was spent in prep- 
aration for the war, it being resolved to invade Mexico at several 
points. In pursuance of this plan, General Taylor, who had taken 


possession of Matamoras, abandoned by the enemy in May, marched 
northward in the enemy's country in August, and on the 19th of 
September he appeared before Monterey, capital of the Mexican 
State of New Leon. His army, after having garrisoned several 
places along his route, amounted to six thousand men. The attack 
began on the 21st, and after a succession of assaults, during the 
period of four days, the Mexicans capitulated, leaving the town 
in possession of the Americans. In October, General Taylor 
terminated an armistice into which he had entered with the 
Mexican General, and again commenced offensive operations. 
Various towns and fortresses of the enemy now rapidly fell into 
our possession. In November, Saltillo, the capital of the State 
of Coahuila was occupied by the division of General Worth; 
in December, General Patterson took possession of Yictoria, 
the capital of Taraaulipas, and nearly at the same period, 
Commodore Perry captured the fort of Tampico. Santa Fe, 
the capital of New Mexico, with the whole territory of the State 
had been subjugated by General Harney, after a march of one 
thousand miles through the wilderness. Events of a startling char- 
acter had taken place at still earlier dates along the Pacific coast. On 
the 4th of July, Captain Fremont, having repeatedly defeated su- 
perior Mexican forces with the small band under his command, de- 
clared California independent of Mexico. Other important places 
in this region had yielded to the American naval force, and in Au- 
gust, 1846, the whole of California was in the undisputed occupa- 
tion of the Americans. 

The year 1847 opened with still more brilliant victories on the 
part of our armies. By the drawing off of a large part of 
General Taylor's troops for a meditated attack on Yera Cruz, he 
was left with a comparatively small force to meet the great body of 
Mexican troops, now marching upon him, under command of the 
celebrated Santa Anna, who had again become President of Mexico. 

Ascertaining the advance of this powerful army, twenty thou- 
sand strong, and consisting of the best of the Mexican soldiers, 
General Taylor took up his position at Buena Vista, a valley a few 
miles from Saltillo. His whole troops numbered only four thousand 
seven hundred and fifty-nine, and here, on the 23d of February, he 
was vigorously attacked by the Mexicans. The battle was very 
severe, and continued nearly the whole da} 7 , when the Mexicans fled 
from the field in disorder, with a loss of nearly two thousand men. 
Santa Anna speedily withdrew, and thus abandoned the region of 


the Rio Grande to the complete occupation of our troops. This left 
our forces at liberty to prosecute the grand enterprise of the cam- 
paign, the capture of the strong town of Yera Cruz, with its re- 
nowned castle of San Juan d'UIloa. On the 9th of March, 1847, 
General Scott landed near the city with an army of twelve thousand 
men, and on the 18th commenced an attack. For four days and 
nights an almost incessant shower of shot and shells was poured 
upon the devoted town, while the batteries of the castle and the city 
replied with terrible energy. At last, as the Americans were pre- 
paring for an assault, the Governor of the city offered to surrender, 
and on the 26th the American flag floated triumphantly from the 
walls of the castle and the city. General Scott now prepared to 
march upon the city of Mexico, the capital of the country, situated 
two hundred miles in the interior, and approached only through a 
series of rugged passes and mountain fastnesses, rendered still more 
formidable by several strong fortresses. On the 8th of April the 
army commenced their march. At Oerro Gordo, Santa Anna had 
posted himself with fifteen thousand men. On the 18th the Amer- 
icans began the daring attack, and by midday every intrenchment 
of the enemy had been carried. The loss of the Mexicans in this 
remarkable battle, besides one thousand killed and wounded, was 
three thousand prisoners, forty-three pieces of cannon, five 
thousand stand of arms, and all their amunitions and mate- 
rials of war. The loss of the Americans was four hundred 
and thirty-one in killed and wounded. The next day our forces 
advanced, and, capturing fortress after fortress, came on the 
18th of August within ten miles of Mexico, a city of two hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, and situated in one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world. On the 20th they attacked and 
carried the strong batteries of Contreras, garrisoned by 7,000 men, 
in an impetuous assault, which lasted but seventeen minutes. On 
the same day an attack was made by the Americans on the fortified 
post of Churubusco, four miles northeast of Contreras Here 
nearly the entire Mexican army — more than 20,000 in number — 
were posted; but they were defeated at every point, and obliged to 
seek a retreat in the city, or the still remaining fortress of Chapul- 
tepec. While preparations were being made on the 21st by Gen- 
eral Scott, to level his batteries against the city, prior to summon- 
ing it to surrender, he received propositions from the enemy, which 
terminated in an armistice. This ceased on the 7th of September. 
On the 8th the outer defense of Chapul tepee was successfully 


stormed by General Worth, though he lost one-fourth of his men 
in the desperate struggle. The castle of Chapultepec, situated on 
an abrupt and rocky eminence, 150 feet above the surrounding 
country, presented a most formidable object of attack. On the 
12th, however, the batteries were opened against it, and on the 
next day the citadel was carried by storm. The Mexicans still strug- 
gled along the great causeway leading to the city, as the Americans 
advanced, but before nightfal a part of our army was within the 
gates of the city. Santa Anna and the officers of the Government 
fled, and the next morning, at seven o'clock, the flag of the Ameri- 
cans floated from the national palace of Mexico. This conquest of 
the capital was the great and final achievement of the war. The 
Mexican republic was in fact prostrate, her sea-coast and chief 
cities being in the occupation of our troops. On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, terms of peace were agreed upon by the American 
commissioner and the Mexican Government, this treaty being rati- 
fied by the Mexican Congress on the 30th ot May following, and 
by the United States soon after. President Polk proclaimed peace 
on the 4th of July, 1848. In the preceding sketch we have given 
only a mere outline of the war with Mexico. We have necessarily 
passed over many interesting events, and have not even named 
many of our soldiers who performed gallant and important ser- 
vices. General Taylor's successful operations in the region of the 
Rio Grande were duly honored by the people of the United States, 
by bestowing upon him the Presidency. General Scott's campaign, 
from the attack on Vera Cruz, to the surrender of the city of 
Mexico, was far more remarkable, and, in a military point of view, 
must be considered as one of the most brilliant of modern times. It 
is true the Mexicans are not to be ranked with the great nations of 
the earth; with a population of seven or eight millions, they have 
little more than a million of the white race, the rest being half-civ- 
ilized Indians and mestizos, that is, those of mixed blood. Their 
government is inefficient, and the people divided among them- 
selves. Their soldiers often fought bravely, but they were badly 
officered. While, therefore, we may consider the conquest of so 
extensive and populous a country, in so short a time, and attended 
with such constant superiority even to the greater numbers of the 
enemy, as highly gratifying evidence of the courage and capacity 
of our army, still we must not, in judging of our achievements, fail 
to consider the real weakness of the nation whom we vanquished. 


One thing we may certainly dwell upon with satisfaction — the ad- 
mirable example, not only as a soldier, but as a man, set by our com- 
mander, Gen. Scott, who seems, in the midst of war and the ordinary 
license of the camp, always to have preserved the virtue, kindness, 
and humanity belonging to a state of peace. These qualities 
secured to him the respect, confidence and good-will even of the 
enemy he had conquered. Among the Generals who effectually 
aided General Scott in this remarkable campaign, we must not 
omit to* mention the names of Generals Wool, Twiggs, Shields, 
Worth, Smith, and Quitman, who generally added to the high 
qualities of soldiers the still more estimable characteristics of 
good men. The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo stipulated that the 
disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande should 
belong to the United States, and it now forms a part of Texas, as 
has been already stated; that the United States should assume and 
pay the debts due from Mexico to American citizens, to the amount 
of $3,500,000; and that, in consideration of the sum of $15,000,000 
to be paid by the United States to Mexico, the latter should 
relinquish to the former the whole of New Mexico and Upper 

The soldiers of Indiana who served in this war were formed into 
five regiments of volunteers, numbered respectively, 1st, 2d, 3rd, 
4th and 5th. The fact that companies of the three first-named reg- 
iments served at times with the men of Illinois, the New York 
volunteers, the Palmettos of South Carolina, and United States 
marines, under Gen. James Shields, makes for them a history; be- 
cause the campaigns of the Rio Grande and Chihuahua, the siege 
of Vera Cruz, the desperate encounter at Cerro Gordo, the tragic 
contests in the valley, at Contreras and Churubusco, the storming 
of Chapultepec, and the planting of the stars and stripes upon 
every turret and spire within the conquered city of Mexico, were 
all carried out by the gallant troops under the favorite old General, 
and consequently each of them shared with him in the glories at- 
tached to such exploits. The other regiments under Cols. Gorman 
and Lane participated in the contests of the period under other com- 
manders. The 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers, comprising 
ten companies, was formally organized at Jeffersonville, Indiana, 
by Capt. R. C. Gatlin, June 15, 1847, and on the 16th elected 
Major Willis A. Gorman, of the 3rd Regiment, to the Colonelcy; 
Ebenezer Dumont, Lieutenant-Colonel, and W. McCoy, Major. On 
the 27th of June the regiment left Jeffersonville for the front, and 



subsequently was assigned to Brigadier-General Lane's command, 
which then comprised a battery of five pieces from the 3rd Regi- 
ment U. S. Artillery; a battery of two pieces from the 2nd Regiment 
U. S. Rrtillery, the 4th Regiment of Indiana Volunteers and the 4th 
Regiment of Ohio, with a squadron of mounted Louisianians and 
detachments of recruits for the U. S. army. The troops of this 
brigade won signal honors at Passo de Ovegas, August 10, 1S47; 
National Bridge, on the 12th; Cerro Gordo, on the 15th; Las Ani- 
mas, on the 19th, under Maj. F. T. Lally, of General Lane's staff, 
and afterward under Lane, directly, took a very prominent part in 
the siege of Pnebla, which began on the 15th of September and 
terminated on the 12th of October. At Atlixco, October 19th; 
Tlascala, November 10th; Matamoras and Pass Galajara, Novem- 
ber 23rd and 24th; Guerrilla Ranche, December 5th; Napaloncan, 
December 10th, the Indiana volunteers of the 4th Regiment per- 
formed gallant service, and carried the campaign into the following 
year, representing their State at St. Martin's, February 27, 184S; 
Cholula, March 26th; Matacordera, February 19th; Sequalteplan, 
February 25th; and on the cessation of hostilities reported at 
Madison, Indiana, for discharge, July 11, 1848; while the 5th In- 
diana Regiment, under Col. J. H. Lane, underwent a similar round 
of duty during its service with other brigades, and gained some 
celebrity at Yera Cruz, Churubusco and with the troops of Illinois 
under Gen. Shields at Chapultepec. 

This war cost the people of the United States sixty-six millions 
of dollars. This very large amount was not paid away for the at- 
tainment of mere glory; there was something else at stake, and 
this something proved to be a country larger and more fertile than 
the France of the Napoleons, and more steady and sensible than 
the France of the Republic. It was the defense of the great Lone 
Star State, the humiliation and chastisement of a quarrelsome 


We have already referred to the prohibition of slavery in the 
IS orth western Territory, and Indiana Territory by the ordinance of 
1787; to the imperfection in the execution of this ordinance and the 
troubles which the authorities encountered; and the complete estab- 
lishment of the principles of freedom on the organization of the State. 
The next item of significance in this connection is the following lan- 
guage in the message of Gov. Ray to the Legislature of 1828: "Since 
onr last separation, while we have witnessed with anxious solicitude 
the belligerent operations of another hemisphere, the cross contend- 
ing against the crescent, and the prospect of a general rupture among 
the legitimates of other quarters of the globe, our attention has 
been arrested by proceedings in our own country truly dangerous 
to liberty, seriously premeditated, and disgraceful to its authors 
if agitated only to tamper with the American people. If such ex- 
periments as we see attempted in certain deluded quarters do not 
tall with a burst of thunder upon the heads of their seditious pro- 
jectors, then indeed the Republic has begun to experience the days 
of its degeneracy. The union of these States is the people's only 
sure charter for their liberties and independence. Dissolve it and 
each State will soon be in a condition as deplorable as Alexander's 
conquered countries after they were divided amongst his victorious 
military captains." 

In pursuance of a joint resolution of the Legislature of 1850, a 
block of native marble was procured and forwarded to Washington, 
to be placed in the monument then in the course of erection at the 
National Capital in memory of George Washington. In the 
absence of any legislative instruction concerning the inscription 
npon this emblem of Indiana's loyalty, Gov. Wright ordered the 
following words to be inscribed upon it: Indiana Knows No 
North, No South, Nothing but the Union. Within a dozen 
years thereafter this noble State demonstrated to the world her loy- 
alty to the Union and the principles of freedom by the sacrifice of 
blood and treasure which she made. In keeping with this senti- 
ment Gov. Wright indorsed the compromise measures of Congress 
on the slavery question, remarking in his message that " Indiana 
takes her stand in the ranks, not of Southern destiny, nor yet of 


Northern destiny: she plants herself on the basis of the Consti- 
tution and takes her stand in the ranks of American destiny." 


At the session of the Legislature in January, 1869, the subject 
of ratifying the fifteenth amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
allowing negro suffrage, came up with such persistency that neither 
party dared to undertake any other business lest it be checkmated 
in some way, and being at a dead lock on this matter, they adjourn- 
ed in March without having done much important business. The 
Democrats, as well as a portion of the conservative Eepublicans, 
opposed its consideration strongly on the ground that it would be 
unfair to vote on the question until the people of the State had had 
an opportunity of expressing their views at the polls; but most of 
the Republicans resolved to push the measure through, while the 
Democrats resolved to resign in a body and leave the Legislature 
without a quorum. Accordingly, on March 4, 17 Senators and 36 
Representatives resigned, leaving both houses without a quorum. 

As the early adjournment of the Legislature left the benevolent 
institutions of the State unprovided for, the Governor convened 
that body in extra session as soon as possible, and after the neces- 
sary appropriations were made, on the 19th of May the fifteenth 
amendment came up; but in anticipation of this the Democratic 
members had all resigned and claimed that there was no quorum 
present. There was a quorum, however, of Senators in office, 
though some of them refused to vote, declaring that they were no 
longer Senators ; but the president of that body decided that as he 
had not been informed of their resignation by the Governor, they 
were still members. A vote was taken and the ratifying resolution 
was adopted. When the resolution came up in the House, the 
chair decided that, although the Democratic members had resigned, 
there was. a quorum of the de-facto members present, and the 
House proceeded to pass the resolution. This decision of the chair 
was afterward sustained by the Supreme Court. 

At the next regular session of the Legislature, in 1871, the 
Democrats undertook to repeal the ratification, and the Republican 
members resigned to prevent it. The Democrats, as the Republi- 
cans did on the previous occasion, proceeded to pass their resolu- 
tion of repeal; but while the process was under way, before the 
House Committee had time to report on the matter, 34 Republican 
members resigned, thereby preventing its passage and putting a 
stop to further legislation. 


The events of the earlier years of this State have been reviewed 
down to that period in the nation's history when the Republic de- 
manded a first sacrifice from the newly erected States; to the time 
when the very safety of the glorious heritage, bequeathed by the 
fathers as a rich legacy, was threatened with a fate worse than death 
— a life under laws that harbored the slave— a civil defiance of .he 
first principles of the Constitution. 

Indiana was among the first to respond to the summons of patri- 
otism, and register itself on the national roll of honor, even as she 
was among the first to join in that song of joy which greeted a Re- 
public made doubly glorious within a century by the dual victory 
which won liberty for itself, and next bestowed the precious boon 
upon the colored slave. 

The fall of Fort Sumter was a signal for the uprising of the State. 
The news of the calamity was flashed to Indianapolis on the 14th of 
April, 1861, and early the next morning the electric wire brought 
the welcome message to Washington: — 

Executive Department of Indiana, > 
Indianapolis, April 15, 1861. J 
To Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States:— On behalf of the State 
of Indiana, I tender to you for the defense of the Nation, and to uphold the au- 
thority of the Government, ten thousand men. 

Governor of Indiana. 

This may be considered the first official act of Governor Morton, 
who had just entered on the duties of his exalted position. The 
State was in an almost helpless condition, and yet the faith of the 
" War Governor " was prophetic, when, after a short consultation 
with the members of the Executive Council, he relied on the fidelity 
of ten thousand men and promised their services to the Protectorate 
at Washington. This will be more apparent when the military 
condition of the State at the beginning of 1S61 is considered. At 
that time the armories contained less than five hundred stand of 
serviceable small arms, eight pieces of cannon which might be use- 
ful in a museum of antiquities, with sundry weapons which would 
merely do credit to the aborigines of one hundred years ago. The 
financial condition of the State was even worse than the military. 


The sum of $10,368.58 in trust funds was the amount of cash in the 
hands of the Treasurer, and this was, to all intents and purpo ses 
unavailable to meet the emergency, since it could not be devoted 
to the military requirements of the day. This state of affairs was 
dispiriting in the extreme, and would doubtless have militated 
against the ultimate success of any other man than Morton; yet 
he overleaped every difficulty, nor did the fearful realization of 
Floyd's treason, discovered during his visit to Washington, damp 
his indomitable courage and energy, but with rare persistence he 
urged the claims of his State, and for his exertions was requited 
with an order for five thousand muskets. The order was not exe- 
cuted until hostilities were actually entered upon, and consequently 
for some days succeeding the publication of the President's procla- 
mation the people labored under a feeling of terrible anxiety min- 
gled with uncertainty, amid the confusion which followed the crim- 
inal negligence that permitted the disbandment of the magnificent 
corps oV armee (51,000 men) of 1832 two years later in 1S31, Great 
numbers of the people maintained their equanamity with the result 
of beholding within a brief space of time every square mile of their 
State represented by soldiers prepared to fight to the bitter end in 
defense of cherished institutions, and for the extension of the prin- 
ciple of human liberty' to all States and classes within the limits of 
the threatened Union. This, their zeal, was not animated by hos- 
tility to the slave holders of the Southern States, but rather by a 
fraternal spirit, akin to that which urges the eldest brother to cor- 
rect the persistent follies of his juniors, and thus lead them from 
crime to the maintenance of family honor; in this correction, to 
draw them away from all that was cruel, diabolical and inhuman in 
the Republic, to all that is gentle, holy and sublime therein. Many 
of the raw troops were not only unimated by a patriotic feeling, 
but also by that beautiful idealization of the poet, who in his un- 
conscious Republicanism, said: 

" I would not have a slave to till my ground, 

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned 

No: dear as freedom is — and, in my heart's 

Just estimation, prized above all price — 

I had much rather be myself the slave, 

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him." 

Thus animated, it is not a matter for surprise to find the first 
call to arms issued by the President, and calling for 75,000 men, 


answered nobly by the people of Indiana. The quota of troops to 
be furnished by the State on the first call was 4,683 men for three 
years' service from April 15, 1860. On the 16th of April, Gov- 
ernor Morton issued his proclamation calling on all citizens of the 
State, who had the welfare of the Eepublic at heart, to organize 
themselves into six regiments in defense of their rights, and in 
opposition to the varied acts of rebellion, charged by him against 
the Southern Confederates. To this end, the Hon. Lewis Wallace, 
a soldier of the Mexican campaign was appointed Adjutant-General, 
Col. Thomas A. Morris of the United States Military Academy, 
Quartermaster- General, and Isaiah Mansur, a merchant of Indian- 
apolis, Commissary-General. These general officers converted the 
grounds and buildings of the State Board of Agriculture into a 
military headquarters, and designated the position Camp Morton, 
as the beginning of the many honors which were to follow the pop- 
ular Governor throughout his future career. Now the people, im- 
bued with confidence in their Government and leaders, rose to the 
grandeur of American freemen, and with an enthusiasm never 
equaled hitherto, flocked to the standard of the nation ; so that 
within a few days (19th April) 2,400 men were ranked beneath 
their regimental banners, until as the official report testifies, the 
anxious question, passing from mouth to mouth, was, " Which of 
us will be allowed to go? " It seemed as if Indiana was about to 
monopolize the honors of the period, and place the 75.000 men 
demanded of the Union by the President, at his disposition. Even 
now under the genial sway of guaranteed peace, the features of 
Indiana's veterans flush with righteous pride when these days — re- 
membrances of heroic sacrifice — are named, and freemen, still un- 
born, will read their history only to be blessed and glorified in the 
possession of such truly, noble progenitors. Nor were the ladies 
of the State unmindful of their duties. Everywhere they partook 
of the general enthusiasm, and made it practical so far as in their 
power, by embroidering and presenting standards and regimental 
colors, organizing aid and relief societies, and by many other acts 
of patriotism and humanity inherent in the high nature of woman. 
During the days set apart by the military authorities for the or- 
ganization of the regiments, the financiers of the State were en- 
gaged in the reception of munificent grants of money from pri- 
vate citizens, while the money merchants within and without the 
State offered large loans to the recognized Legislature without even 
imposing a condition of payment. This most practical generosity 


strengthened the hands of the Executive, and within a very few days 
Indiana had passed the crucial test, recovered some of her military 
prestige lost in 1834, and so was prepared to vie with the other 
and wealthier States in making sacrifices for the public welfare. 

On the 20th of April, Messrs-. I. S. Dobbs and Alvis D. Gall re- 
ceived their appointments as Medical Inspectors of the Division, 
while Major T. J. Wood arrived at headcpuarters from "Washington 
to receive the newly organized regiments into the service of the 
Union. At the moment this formal proceeding took place, Morton, 
unable to restrain the patriotic ardor of the people, telegraphed to 
the capitol that he could place six regiments of infantry at the dis- 
posal of the General Government within six days, if such a pro- 
ceeding were acceptable; but in consequence of the wires being cut 
between the State and Federal capitols, no answer came. Taking 
advantage of the little doubt which may have had existence in re- 
gard to future action in the matter and in the absence of general 
orders, he gave expression to an intention of placing the volunteers 
in camp, and in his message to the Legislature, who assembled three 
days later, he clearly laid down the principle of immediate action 
and strong measures, recommending a uote of $1,000,000 for there- 
organization of the volunteers, for the purchase of arms and supplies, 
and for the punishment of treason. The message was received most 
enthusiastically. The assembly recognized the great points made 
by the Governor, and not only yielded to them in toto, but also made 
the following grand appropriations: 

General military purposes $1,000,000 

Purchase of arms 500.000 

Contingent military expenses 100,000 

Organization and support of militia for two years 140,000 

These appropriations, together with the laws enacted during the 
session of the Assembly, speak for the men of Indiana. The celerity 
with which these laws were put in force, thediligince and economy 
exercised by the officers, entrusted with their administration, and 
that systematic genius, under which all the machinery of Govern- 
ment seemed to work in harmony, — all, all, tended to make for the 
State a spring-time of noble deeds, when seeds might be cast along 
her fertile fields and in the streets of her villages of industry to 
grow up at once and blossom in the ray of fame, and after to bloom 
throughout the ages. Within three days after the opening of the 
extra session of the Legislature (27th April) six new regiments were 
organized, and commissioned for three months' service. These reg- 


iments, notwithstanding the fact that the first six regiments were 
already mustered into the general service, were known as ''The 
First Brigade, Indiana Volunteers," and with the simple object of 
making the way of the future student of a brilliant history clear, 
were numbered respectively 

Sixth Regiment, commanded by Col. T. T. Crittenden. 

Seventh " " " " Ebenezer Dumont. 

Eighth " " " " W. P. Benton. 

Ninth " " " " R. H. Milroy. 

Tenth " " " " T. T. Reynolds. 

Eleventh " " " " Lewis Wallace. 

The idea of these numbers was suggested by the fact that the 
military representation of Indiana in the Mexican Campaign was 
one brigade of five regiments, and to observe consecutiveness the 
regiments comprised in the first division of volunteers were thus 
numbered, and the entire force placed under Brigadier General T. 
A. Morris, with the following staff: John Love, Major-, Cyrus C- 
Hines, Aid-de-camp; and J. A. Stein, Assistant Adjutant General. 
To follow the fortunes of these volunteers through all the vicissi- 
tudes of war would prove a special work; yet their valor and endur- 
ance during their first term of service deserved a notice of even more 
value than that of the historian, since a commander's opinion has 
to be taken as the basis upon which the chronicler may expatiate. 
Therefore the following dispatch, dated from the headquarters of the 
Army of Occupation, Beverly Camp, W. Virginia, July 21, 1861, 
must be taken as one of the first evidences of their utility and 

"Governor O. P. Morton, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Governor:— I have directed the three months' regiments from Indiana to 
move to Indianapolis, there to be mustered out and reorganized for three years' 

I cannot permit them to return to you without again expressing my high 
appreciation of the distinguished valor and endurance of the Indiana troops, and 
my hope that but a short time will elapse before I have the pleasure of knowing 
that they are again ready for the field. ******* 
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
George B. McC'lellan, 
Major- General, U. 8. A. 

On the return of the troops to Indianapolis, July 29, Brigadier 
Morris issued a lengthy, logical and well-deserved congratulatory 
address, from which one paragraph may be extracted to characterize 


the whole. After passing a glowing eulogium on their military 
qualities and on that unexcelled gallantry displayed at Laurel Hill, 
Phillipi and Carrick's Ford, he says: — 

" Soldiers ! You have now returned to the friends whose prayers went with you | 
to the field of strife. They welcome you with pride and exultation. Your State 
and country acknowledge the value of your labors. May your future career be as 
your past has been, — honorable to yourselves and serviceable to your country." 

The six regiments forming Morris' brigade, together with one 
composed of the surplus volunteers, for whom there was no regi- 
ment in April, now formed a division of seven regiments, all reor- 
ganized for three years' service, between the 20 th August and 20th 
September, with the exception of the new or 12th, which was ac- 
cepted for one year's service from May 11th, under command of 
Colonel John M. Wallace, and reorganized May 17, 1862, for three 
years' service under Col. W. H. Link, who, with 172 officers and 
men, received their mortal wounds during the Richmond (Ken- 
tucky) engagement, three months after its reorganization. 

The 13th Regiment, under Col. Jeremiah Sullivan, was mus- 
tered into the United States in 1861 and joined Gen. McClellan's 
command at Rich Mountain on the 10th July. The day following it 
was present under Gen. Rosencrans and lost eight men killed; three j 
successive days it was engaged under Gen. I. I. Reynolds, and won 
its laurels at Cheat Mountain summit, where it participated in the 
decisive victory over Gen. Lee. 

The 14th Regiment, organized in 1861 for one year's service, and I 
reorganized on the 7th of June at Terre Haute for three years' ser- 
vice. Commanded by Col. Kimball and showing a muster roll of 
1,134 men, it was one of the finest, as it was the first, three years' 
regiment organized in the State, with varying fortunes attached to 
its never ending round of duty from Cheat Mountain, September, 
1861, to Morton's Ford in 1864, and during the movement South in 
May of that year to the last of its labors, the battle of Cold Har- 

The 1'5th Regiment, reorganized at La Fayette 14th June, 1861, 
under Col. G. D. "Wagner, moved on Rich Mountain on the 11th 
of July in time to participate in the complete rout of the enemy. 
On the promotion of Col. Wagner, Lieuteuant-Col. G. A. Wood 
became Colonel of the regiment, November, 1862, and during the 
first days of January, 1S63, took a distinguished part in the severe 
action of Stone River. From this period down to the battle of Mis- 
sion Ridge it was in a series of destructive engagements, and was, 


after enduring terrible hardships, ordered to Chattanooga, and 
thence to Indianapolis, where it was mustered out the 18th June, 
1S64, — four days after the expiration of its term of service. 

The 16th Regiment, organized under Col. P. A. Hackleman at 
Richmond for one year's service, after participating in many minor 
military events, was mustered out at Washington, D.C., on the 14th 
of May, 1862. Col. Hackleman was killed at the battle of Iuka, 
and Lieutenant-Col. Thomas I. Lucas succeeded to the command. 
It was reorganized at Indianapolis for three years' service, May 27, 
1862, and took a conspicuous part in all the brilliant engagements 
of the war down to June, 1865, when it was mustered out at New 
Orleans. The survivors, numbering 365 rank and file, returned to 
Indianapolis the 10th of July amid the rejoicing of the populace. 

The 17th Regiment was mustered into service at Indianapolis 
the 12th of June, 1S61, for three years, under Col. Hascall, who 
on being promoted Brigadier General in March, 1S62, left the 
Colonelcy to devolve on Lieutenant Colonel John T. Wilder. This 
regiment participated in the many exploits of Gen. Reynold's army 
from Green Brier in 1862, to Macon in 1865, under Gen. Wilson. 
Returning to Indianapolis the 16th of August, in possession of a 
brilliant record, the regiment was disbanded. 

The 18th Regiment, under Colonel Thomas Pattison, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis, and mustered into service on the 16th of 
August, 1861. Under Gen. Pope it gained some distinction at 
Blackwater, and succeeded in retaining a reputation made there, 
by its gallantry at Pea Ridge, February, 1862, down to the moment 
when it planted the regimental flag on the arsenal of Augusta, 
Georgia, where it was disbanded August 28, 1865. 

The 19th Regiment, mustered into three years' service at the 
State capital July 29, 1861, was ordered to join the army of the 
Potomac, and reported its arrival at Washington, August 9. Two 
days later it took part in the battle of Lewinsville, under Colonel 
Solomon Meredith. Occupying Falls Church in September, 1861, 
it continued to maintain a most enviable place of honor on the 
military roll until its consolidation with the 20th Regiment, October, 
1864, under Colonel William Orr, formerly its Lieutenant Colonel. 

The 20th Regiment of La Fayette was organized in July, 1861, 
mustered into three years' service at Indianapolis on the 22d of the 
same month, and reached the front at Cockeysville, Maryland, 
twelve days later. Throughout ail its orilliant actions from Hat- 
teras Bauk, on the 4th of October, to Clover Hill, 9th of April, 1S65, 


including the saving of the United States ship Congress, at New- 
port News, it added daily some new name to its escutcheon. This 
regiment was mustered out at Louisville in July, 1865, and return- 
ing to Indianapolis was welcomed by the great war Governor of 
their State. 

The 21st Regiment was mustered into service under Colonel I. 
W. McMillan, July 24, 1861, and reported at the front the third 
day of August. It was the first regiment to enter New Orleans. 
The fortunes of this regiment were as varied as its services, so that 
its name and fame, grown from the blood shed by its members, are 
destined to live and flourish. In December, 1863, the regiment 
was reorganized, and on the 19th February, 1864, many of its 
veterans' returned to their State, where Morton received them with 
that spirit of proud gratitude which he was capable of showing to 
those who deserve honor for honors won. 

The 22d Regiment, under Colonel Jeff. C. Davis, left Indian- 
apolis the 15th of August, and was attached to Fremont's Corps at 
St. Louis on the 17th. From the day it moved to the support of 
Colonel Mulligan at Lexington, to the last victory, won under 
General Sherman at Bentonville, on the 19th of March, 1865, it 
gained a high military reputation. After the fall of Johnston's 
southern army, this regiment was mustered out, and arrived at 
Indianapolis on the 16th June. 

The 23d Battalion, commanded by Colonel W. L. Sanderson, 
was mustered in at New Albany, the 29th July, 1861, and moved 
to the front early in August. From its unfortunate marine ex- 
periences before Fort Henry to Bentonville it won unusual honors, 
and after its disbandment at Louisville, returned to Indianapolis 
July 24, 1865, where Governor Morton and General Sherman 
reviewed and complimented the gallant survivors. 

The 24th Battalion, under Colonel Alvin P. Hovey, was 
mustered at Vincennes the 31st of July, 1861. Proceeding imme- 
diately to the front it joined Fremont's command, and participated 
under many Generals in important affairs during the war. Three 
hundred and ten men and officers returned to their State in August, 
1865, and were received with marked honors by the people and 

The 25th Regiment, of Evansville mustered into service there 
for three years under Col. J. C. Veatch, arrived at St. Louis on the 
26th of August, 1861. During the war this regiment was present 
at 18 battles and skirmishes, sustaining therein a loss of 352 men 


and officers. Mustered out at Louisville, July 17, 1865, it returned 
to Indianapolis on the 21st amid universal rejoicing. 

The 26th Battalion, under W. M. "Wheatley, left Indianapolis 
for the front the 7th of September, 1861, and after a brilliant cam- 
paign under Fremont, Grant, Heron and Smith, may be said to 
disband the ISth of September, 1865, when the non-veterans and 
recruits were reviewed by Morton at the State capital. 

The 27th Regiment, uuder Col. Silas Colgrove, moved from 
Indianapolis to Washington City, September 15th, 1861, and in 
October was allied to Gen. Banks' army. From Winchester 
Heights, the 9th of March 1862, through all the affairs of General 
Sherman's campaign, it acted a gallant and faithful part, and was 
disbanded immediately after returning to their State. 

The 28th ob 1st Cavalry was mustered into service at Evans- 
ville on the 20th of August, 1861, under Col. Conrad Baker. From 
the skirmish at Ironton, on the 12th of September, wherein three 
companies under Col. Gavin captured a position held by a 
few rebels, to the battle of the Wilderness, the First Cavalry per- 
formed prodigies of valor. In June and July, 1865, the troops 
were mustered out at Indianapolis. 

The 29th Battalion of La Porte, under Col. J. F. Miller, left 
on the 5th of October, 1861, and reaching Camp Nevin, Kentucky, 
on the 9th, was allied to Rosseau's Brigade, serving with McCook's 
division at Shiloh, with Buell's army in Alabama, Tennessee and 
Kentucky, with Rosencrans at Murfreesboro, at Decatur, Alabama, 
and at Dalton, Georgia. The Twenty-ninth won many laurels, 
and had its Colonel promoted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
This officer was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant-Col. 

The 30th Regiment of Fort Wayne, under Col. Sion S. Bass, 
proceeded to the front via Indianapolis, and joined General Rosseau 
at Camp Nevin on the 9th of October, 1861. At Shiloh, Col. 
Bass received a mortal wound, and died a few days later at 
Paducah, leaving the Colonelcy to devolve upon Lieutenant-Col. J. 
B. Dodge. In October 1865, it formed a battalion of General Sheri- 
dan's army of observation in Texas. 

The 31st Regiment, organized at Terre Haute, under Col. Charles 
Craft, in September 1861, was mustered in, and left in a few days 
for Kentucky. Present at the reduction of Fort Douelson on the 
13th, 14th, and 15th of February, 1862, its list of killed and 
wounded proves its desperate fighting qualities. The organization 


was subjected to many changes, but in all its phases maintained a 
fair fame won on many battle fields. Like the former regiment, 
it passed into Gen. Sheridan's Army of Observation, and held the 
district of Green Lake, Texas. 

The 32d Regiment of German Infantry, under Col. August 
Willich, organized at Indianapolis, mustered on the 24th of August, 

1861, served with distinction throughout the campaign Col. 
"Willich was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and Lieut. - 
Col. Henry Yon Trebra commissioned to act, under whose com 
mand the regiment passed into General Sheridan's Army, hold- 
ing the post of Salado Creek, until the withdrawal of the corps of 
observation in Texas. 

The 33d Regiment of Indianapolis possesses a military history 
of no small proportions. The mere facts that it was mustered in 
under Col. John Coburn, the 16th of September, won a series of 
distinctions throughout the war district and was mustered out at 
Louisville, July 21, 1865, taken with its name as one of the most 
powerful regiments engaged in the war, are sufficient here. 

The 34th Battalion, organized at Anderson on the 16th Sep- 
tember, 1861, under Col. Ashbury Steele, appeared among the in- 
vesting battalions before New Madrid on the 30th of March, 1862. 
From the distinguished part it took in that siege, down to the 
13th of May, 1865, when at Palmetto Ranche, near Palo Alto, it 
fought for hours against fearful odds the last battle of the war for 
the Union. Afterwards it marched 250 miles up the Rio Grande, 
and was the first regiment to reoccupy the position, so long in 
Southern hands, of Ringold barracks. In 1865 it garrisoned Bea- 
consville as part of the Army of Observation. 

The 35th or Fikst Irish Regiment, was organized at Indian- 
apolis, and mustered into service on the 11th of December, 1861, 
under Col. John C. Walker. At Nashville, on the 22d of May, 

1862, it was joined by the organized portion of the Sixty-first or 
Second Irish Regiment, and unassigned recruits. Col. Mullen now 
became Lieut.-Colonel of the 35th, and shortly after, its Colonel. 
From the pursuit of Gen. Bragg through Kentucky and the affair 
at Perryville on the 8th of October, 1862, to the terrible hand to 
hand combat at Kenesaw mountain, on the night of the 20th of 
June, 1864, and again from the conclusion of the Atlanta campaign 
to September, 1865, with Gen. Sheridan's array, when it was mus- 
tered out, it won for itself a name of reckless daring and unsur- 
passed gallantry. 

\ e ^ 


The 36th Eegiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. William 
Grose, mustered into service for three years on the 16th of Sep- 
tember, 1861, went immediately to the front, and shared the for- 
tunes of the Army of the Ohio until the 27th of February, 1862, 
when a forward movement led to its presence on the battle-field of 
Sliiloh. Following up the honors won at Shiloh, it participated in 
some of the most important actions of the war, and was, in October, 
1865, transferred to Gen. Sheridan's army. Col. Grose was pro- 
moted in 1S64 to the position of Brigadier-General, and the 
Colonelcy devolved on Oliver H. P. Carey, formerly Lieut.-Colonel 
of the regiment. 

The 37th Battalion, of Lawrenceburg, commanded by Col. 
Geo. W. Hazzard, organized the 18th of September, 1861, left for 
the seat of war early in October. From the eventful battle of 
Stone river, in December, 1S62, to its participation in Sherman's 
march through Georgia, it gained for itself a splendid reputation. 
This regiment retnrned to, and was present at, Indianapolis, on the 
30th of July, 1865, where a public reception was tendered to men 
and officers on the grounds of the Capitol. 

The 3Sth Regiment, under Col. Benjamin F. Scribner, was mus- 
tered in at New Albany, on the 18th of September, 1861, and 
in a few days were en route for the front. To follow its continual 
round of duty, is without the limits of this sketch; therefore, it 
will suffice to say, that on every well-fought field, at least from 
February, 1862, until its dissolution, on the 15th of July, 1865, it 
earned an enviable renown, and drew from Gov. Morton, on return- 
ing to Indianapolis the 18th of the same month, a congratulatory 
address couched in the highest terms of praise. 

The 39th Regiment, ok Eighth Cavalry, was mustered in as 
an infantry regiment, under Col. T. J. Harrison, on the 28th of 
August, 1861, at the State capital. Leaving immediately for the 
front it took a conspicuous part in all the engagements up to April, 
1S63, when it was reorganized as a cavalry regiment. The record of 
this organization sparkles witli great deeds which men will extol 
while language lives; its services to the Union cannot be over esti- 
mated, or the memory of its daring deeds be forgotten by the un- 
happy people who raised the tumult, which culminated in their 
second shame. 

The 40th Regiment, of Lafayette, under Col. W. C. Wilson, 
subsequently commanded by Col. J. W. Blake, and again by Col. 
Henry Learning, was organized on the 30th of December, 1861, and 



at once proceeded to the front,where some time was necessarily spent 
in the Camp of Instruction at Bardstown, Kentucky. In February, 
1862, it joined in Buell's forward movement. During the war the 
regiment shared in all its hardships, participated in all its honors, 
and like many other brave commands took service under Gen. 
Sheridan in his Army of Occupation, holding the post of Port 
Lavaca, Texas, until peace brooded over the land. 

The 41st Eegiment oe Second Cavalry, the first complete regi- 
ment of horse ever raised in the State, was organized on the 3d of 
September, 1861, at Indianapolis, under Col. John A. Bridgland, 
and December 16 moved to the front. Its first war experience was 
gained en route to Corinth on the 9th of April, 1862, and at Pea 
Ridge on the 15th. Gallatin, Vinegar Hill, and Perryville, and 
Talbot Station followed in succession, each battle bringing to the 
cavalry untold honors. In May, 1864, it entered upon a glorious 
career under Gen. Sherman in his Atlanta campaign, and again 
under Gen. Wilson in the raid through Alabama during April, 
1865. On the 22d of July, after a brilliant career, the regiment was 
mustered out at Nashville, and returned at once to Indianapolis for 

The 42d, under Col J. G. Jones, mustered into service at Evans- 
ville, October 9, 1861, and having. participated in the principal 
military affairs of the period, Wartrace, Mission Ridge, Altoona, 
Kenesaw, Savannah, Charlestown and Bentonville, was discharged 
at Indianapolis on the 25th of July, 1865. 

The 43d Battalion was mustered in on the 27th of September, 
1861, under Col. George K. Steele, and left Terre Haute en route to 
the front within a few days. Later it was alMed to Gen. Pope's 
corps, and afterwards served with Commodore Foote's marines in 
the reduction of Fort Pillow. It was the first Union regiment to 
enter Memphis. From that period until the close of the war it was 
distinguished for its unexcelled qualifications as a military body, 
and fully deserved the encomiums passed upon it on its return to 
Indianapolis in March, 1S65. 

The 44th or the Regiment of the 10th Congressional District 
was organized at Fort Wayne on the 24th of October, 1861, under 
Col. Hugh B. Reed. Two mouths later it was ordered to the front, 
and arriving in Kentucky, was attached to Gen. Cruft's Brigade, 
then quartered at Calhoun. After years of faithful service it was 
mustered out at Chattanooga, the 14th of September, 1S65. 

The 45th, or Third Cavalry, comprised ten companies 


organized at different periods and for varied services in 1861- 
'62, under Colonel Scott Carter and George H. Chapman. The 
distinguished name won by the Third Cavalry is established in 
every village within the State. Let it suffice to add that after its 
brilliant participation in Gen. Sheridan's raid down the James' 
river canal, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 1S65. 

The 46th Regiment, organized at Logansport under Colonel 
Graham N. Fitch, arrived in Kentucky the 16th of February, 1862, 
and a little later became attached to Gen. Pope's army, then quar- 
tered at Commerce. The capture of Fort Pillow, and its career 
under Generals Curtis, Palmer, Hovey, Gorman, Grant, Sherman, 
Banks and Burbridge are as truly worthy of applause as ever fell to 
the lot of a regiment. The command was mustered out at Louis- 
ville on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 47th was organized at Anderson, under Col. I. R. Slack, early 
in October, 1S62. Arriving at Bardstown, Kentucky, on the 21st 
of December, it was attached to Gen. Buell's army; bat within two 
months was assigned to Gen. Pope, under whom it proved the first 
regiment to enter Fort Thompson near New Madrid. In 1S64 the 
command visited Indianapolis on veteran furlough and was enthu- 
siastically received by Governor- Morton and the people. Return- 
ing to the front it engaged heartily in Gen. Banks' company. In 
December, Col. Slack received his commission as Brigadier-General, 
and was succeeded on the regimental command by Col. J. A. Mc- 
Laughton ; at Shreveport under General Heron it received the sub- 
mission of General Price and his army, and there also was it mus- 
tered out of service on the 23d of October, 1865. 

The 48th Regiment, organized at Goshen the 6th of December, 
1861, under Col. Norman Eddy, entered on its duties during the 
siege of Corinth in May, and again in October, 1862. The record 
of this battalion may be said to be unsurpassed in its every feature, 
so that the grand ovation extended to the returned soldiers in 
1S65 at Indianapolis, is not a matter for surprise. 

The 49th Regiment, organized at Jeffersonville, under Col. J. W 
Ray, and mustered in on the 21st of November, 1861, for service, 
left en route for the camp at Bardstown. A month later it arrived 
at the unfortunate camp-ground of Cumberland Ford, where dis- 
ease carried off a number of gallant soldiers. The regiment, how- 
ever, survived the dreadful scourge and won its laurels on many 


a well-fought field until September, 1865, when it was mustered out 
at Louisville. 

The 50th Regiment, under Col. Cyrus L. Dunham, organized 
during the month of September, 1861, at Seymour, left en route to 
Bardstown for a course of military instruction. On the 20th of 
August, 1862, a detachment of the 50th, under Capt. Atkinson, was 
attacked by Morgan's Cavalry near Edgefield Junction ; but the 
gallant few repulsed their oft-repeated onsets and finally drove 
them from the field. The regiment underwent many changes in 
organization, and may be said to muster out on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1S65. 

The 51st Regiment, under Col. Abel. D. Streight, left Indianap- 
olis on the 11th of December, 1861, for the South. After a short 
course of instruction at Bardstown, the regiment joined General 
Buell's and acted with great effect during the campaign in Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. Ultimately it became a participator in the 
work of the Fourth Corps, or Army of Occupation, and held the post 
of San Antonio until peace was doubly assured. 

The 52d Regiment was partially raised at Rushville, and the 
organization completed at Indianapolis, where it was consolidated 
with the Railway Brigade, or 56th Regiment, on the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1862. Going to the front immediately after, it served with 
marked distinction throughout the war, and was mustered out at 
Montgomery on the 10th of September, 1865. Returning to Indian- 
apolis six days later, it was welcomed by Gov. Morton and a most 
enthusiastic reception accorded to it. 

The 53rd Battalion was raised at New Albany, and with the 
addition of recruits raised at Rockport formed a standard regi- 
ment, under command of Col. W. Q. Gresham. Its first duty was 
that of guarding the rebels confined on Camp Morton, but on 
going to the front it made for itself an endurable name. It was mus- 
tered out in July, 1865, and returned to Indiananoplis on the 25th 
of the same month. 

The 54th Regiment was raised at Indianapolis on the 10th of 
June, 1862, for three months' service under Col. D. G. Rose. The 
succeeding two months saw it in charge of the prisoners at Camp 
Morton, and in August it was pushed forward to aid in the defense 
of Kentucky against the Confederate General, Kirby Smith. The 
remainder of its short term of service was given to the cause. On the 
muster out of the three months' service regiment it was reorgan- 


ized for one year's service and gained some distinction, after which 
it was mustered out in 1S63 at New Orleans. 

The 55th Regiment, organized for three months' service, retains 
the brief^ history applicable to the first organization of the 54th. 
It was mustered in on the 16th of June, 1S62, under Col. J. R. 
Mabon, disbanded on the expiration of its term and was not reor- 

The 56th Regiment, referred to in the sketch of the 52nd, was 
designed to be composed of railroad men, marshalled under J. M. 
Smith as Colonel, but owing to the fact that many railroaders had 
already volunteered into other regiments, Col. Smith's volunteers 
were incorporated with the 52nd, and this number left blank in the 
army list. 

The 57th Battalion, actually organized by two ministers of the 
gospel, — the Rev. I. W. T. McMullen and Rev. F. A. Hardin, of 
Richmond, Ind., mustered into service on the ISth of Novem- 
ber, 1861, under the former named reverend gentleman as Colonel, 
who was, however, succeeded by Col. Cyrus C. Haynes, and he in 
turn by G. W. Leonard, Willis Blanch and John S. McGrath, the 
latter holding command until the conclusion of the war. The 
history of this battalion is extensive, and if participation in a num- 
ber of battles with the display of rare gallantry wins fame, the 57th 
may rest assured of its possession of this fragile yet coveted prize. 
Like many other regiments it concluded its military labors in the 
service of General Sheridan, and held the post of Port Lavaca in 
conjunction with another regiment until peace dwelt in the land. 

The 58th Regiment, of Princeton, was organized there early in 
October, 1S61, and was mustered into service under the Colonelcy 
of Henry M. Carr. In December it was ordered to join Gen- 
eral Buell's army, after which it took a share in the various 
actions of the war, and was mustered out on the 25th of July, 1865, 
at Louisville, having gained a place on the roll of honor. 

The 59th Battalion was raised under a commission issued by 
Gov. Morton to Jesse I. Alexander, creating him Colonel. Owing 
to the peculiarities hampering its organization, Col. Alexander could 
not succeed in having his regiment prepared to muster in before 
the 17th of February, 1862. However, on that day the equipment 
was complete, and on the ISth it left en route to Commerce, where 
on its arrival, it was incorporated under General Pope's command. 
The list of its casualties speaks a history, — no less than 793 men 
were lost during the campaign. The regiment, after a term char- 


acterized by distinguished service, was mustered out at Louisville 
on the 17th of July, 1S65. 

The 60th .Regiment was partially organized under Lieut .-Col. 
Richard Owen at Evansville during November 1861, and perfected 
at Camp Morton during March, 1862. Its first experience was its 
gallant resistance to Bragg's army investing Munfordsville, which 
culminated in the unconditional surrender of its first seven com- 
panies on the 14th of September. An exchange of prisoners took 
place in November, which enabled it to joine the remaining com- 
panies in the field. The subsequent record is excellent, and forms, 
as it were, a monument to their fidelity and heroism. The main 
portion of this battalion was mustered out at Indianapolis, on the 
21st of March, 1S65. 

The 61st was partially organized in December, 1861, under Col. 
B. F. Mullen. The failure of thorough organization on the 22d of 
May, 1S62, led the men and officers to agree to incorporation with 
the 35th Kegiment of Volunteers. 

The 62d Battalion, raised under a commission issued to Wil- 
liam Jones, of Kockport, authorizing him to organize this regiment 
in the First Congressional District was so unsuccessful that consoli- 
dation with the 53d Regiment was resolved upon. 

The 63d Regiment, of Covington, under James McManomy, 
Commandant ot Camp, and J. S. Williams, Adjutant, was partially 
organized on the 31st of December, 1861, and may be considered 
on duty from its very formation. After guarding prisoners at 
Camp Morton and Lafayette, and engaging in battle on Manassas 
Plains on the 30th of August following, the few companies sent 
out in February, 1862, returned to Indianapolis to find six new 
companies raised under the call of July, 1862, ready to embrace 
the fortunes of the 63d. So strengthened, the regiment went forth 
to battle, and continued to lead in the paths of honor and fidelity 
until mustered out in May and June, 1865. 

The 64th Regiment failed in organization as an artillery corps; 
but orders received from the War Department prohibiting the con- 
solidation of independent batteries, put a stop to auy further move 
in the matter. However, an infantry regiment bearing the same 
number was afterward organized. 

The 65th was' mustered in at Princeton and Evansville, in July 
and August, 1862, under Col. J. W. Foster, and left at once en 
route for the front. The record of this battalion is creditable, not 
only to its members, but also to the State which claimed it. Its 


last action during the war was on the 18th and 20th of February, 
1865, at Fort Anderson and Town creek, after which, on the 22d 
June, it was disbanded at Greensboro. 

The 66th Regiment partially organized at New Albany, under 
Commandant Roger Martin, was ordered to leave for Kentucky on 
the 19th of August, 1862, for the defense of that State against the 
incursions of Kirby Smith. After a brilliant career it was mus- 
tered out at Washington on the 3d of June, 1865, after which it 
returned to Indianapolis to receive the thanks of a grateful people. 

The 67th Regiment was organized within the Third Congressional 
District under Col. Frank Emerson, and was ordered to Louisville 
on the 20th of August, 1S62, whence it marched to Munfordville, 
only to share the same fate with the other gallant regiments en- 
gaged against Gen. Bragg's advance. Its roll of honor extends 
down the years of civil disturbance, — always adding garlands, un- 
til Peace called a truce in the fascinating race after fame, and insured 
a term of rest, wherein its members could think on comrades forever 
vanished, and temper the sad thought with the sublime mem- 
ories born of that chivalrous fight for the maintenance and integri- 
ty of a great Republic. At Galveston on the 19th of July, 1865, the 
gallant 67th Regiment was mustered out, and returning within a 
few days to its State received the enthusiastic ovations of her citi- 

The 68th Regiment, organized at Greensburg under Major Ben- 
jamin C. Shaw, was accepted for general service the 19th of August, 
1862, under Col. Edward A. King, with Major Shaw as Lieutenant 
Colonel; on the 25th its arrival at Lebanon was reported and with- 
in a few days it appeared at the defense of Munfordville; but shar- 
ing in the fate of all the defenders, it surrendered unconditionally to 
Gen. Bragg and did not participate further in the actions of that 
year, nor until after the exchange of prisoners in 1863. From this 
period it may lay claim to an enviable history extending to the end 
of the war, when it was disembodied. 

The 69th Regiment, of Richmond, Ind., under Col. A. Bickle, 
left for the front on the 20th of August, 1862, and ten days later 
made a very brilliant stand at Richmond, Kentucky, against 
the advance of Gen. Kirby Smith, losing in the engagement two 
hundred and eighteen men and officers together with its liberty. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was reorganized under 
Col. T. W. Bennett and took the field in December, 1862, under 


Generals Sheldon, Morgan and Sherman of Grant's army. Chick- 
asaw, Vicksburg, Blakely and many other names testify to the valor 
of the 69th. The remnant of the regiment was in January, 1865, 
formed into a battalion under Oran Perry, and was mustered out in 
July following. 

The 70th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 12th of 
August, 1S62, under Col. B. Harrison, and leaving for Louisville on 
the 13th, shared in the honors of Bruce's division at Franklin 
and Russellville. The record of the regiment is brimful of honor. 
It was mustered out at "Washington, June 8, 1865, and received at 
Indianapolis with public honors. 

The 71st or Sixth Cavalet was organized as an infantry regi- 
ment, at Terre Haute, and mustered into general service at Indian- 
apolis on the 18th of August, 1862, under Lieut. -Col. Melville D. 
Topping. Twelve days later it was engaged outside Richmond, 
Kentucky, losing two hundred and fifteen officers and men, includ- 
ing Col. Topping and Major Conklin, together with three hundred 
and forty-seven prisoners, only 225 escaping death and capture. 
After an exchange of prisoners the regiment was re-formed under 
Col. I. Bittle, but on the 28th of December it surrendered to Gen. 
J. H. Morgan, who attacked its position at Muldraugh's Hill with a 
force of 1,000 Confederates. During September and October, 1863, 
it was organized as a cavalry regiment, won distinction throughout 
its career, and was mustered out the 15th of September, 1S65, at 

The 77th Regiment was organized at Lafayette, and left en route 
to Lebanon, Kentucky, od the 17th of August, 1862. Under Col. 
Miller it won a series of honors, and mustered out at Nashville on 
the 26th of June, 1865. 

The 73rd Regiment, under Col. Gilbert Hathaway, was mustered 
in at South Bend on the 16th of August, 1S62, and proceeded im- 
mediately to the front. Day's Gap, Crooked Creek, and the high 
eulogies of Generals Rosencrans and Granger speak its long and 
brilliant history, nor were the welcoming shouts of a great people 
and the congratulations of Gov. Morton, tendered to the regiment 
on its return home, in July, 1865, necessary to sustain its well won 

The 74th Regiment, partially organized at Fort Wayne and made 
almost complete at Indianapolis, left for the seat of war on the 22d 
of August, 1862, under Col. Charles W. Chapman. The desperate 
opposition to Gen. Bragg, and the magnificent defeat of Morgan, 


together with the battles of Dallas, Chattahoochie river, Kenesaw 
and Atlanta, where Lieut. Col. Myron Baker was killed, all bear evi- 
dence of its never surpassed gallantry. It was mustered out of ser- 
vice on the 9th of June, 1865, at Washington. On the return of the 
regiment to Indianapolis, the war Governor and people tendered it 
special honors, and gave expression to the admiration and regard 
in which it was held. 

The 75th Regiment was organized within the Eleventh Congress- 
ional District, and left Wabash, on the 21st of August, 1862, for the 
front, under Col. I. W. Petit. It was the first regiment to enter 
Tullahoma, and one of the last engaged in the battles of the Repub- 
lic. After the submission of Gen. Johnson's army, it was mustered 
out at Washington, on the 8th of June 1S65. 

The 76th Battalion was solely organized for thirty days' service 
under Colonel James Gavin, for the purpose of pursuing the rebel 
guerrilas, who plundered Newburg on the 13th July, 1S62. It was 
organized and equipped within forty-eight hours, and during its 
term of service gained the name, " The Avengers of Newburg." 

The 77th, or Fourth Cavalry, was organized at the State capi- 
tal in August, 1862, under Colonel Isaac P. Gray. It carved its 
way to fame over twenty battlefields, and retired from service at 
Edgefield, on the 29th June, 1865. 

The 79th Regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis on the 2nd 
September, 1862, under Colonel Fred Knefler. Its history may be 
termed a record of battles, as the great numbers of battles, from 
1862 to the conclusion of hostilities, were participated in by it. 
The regiment received its discharge on the 11th June, 1865, at 
Indianapolis. During its continued round of field duty it captured 
eighteen guns and over one thousand prisoners. 

The 80th Regiment was organized within the First Congress- 
ional District under Col. C. Denby, and equipped at Indianapolis, 
when, on the 8th of September, 1862, it left for the front. During 
its term it lost only two prisoners; but its list of casualties sums 
up 325 men and officers killed and wounded. The regiment may 
be said to muster out on the 22nd of June, 1865, at Saulsbury. 

The 81st Regiment, of New Albany, under Colonel W. W. 
Caldwell, was organized on the 29th August, 1862, and proceeded 
at once to join Buell's headquarters, and join in the pursuit of 
General Bragg. Throughout the terrific actions of the war its 
influence was felt, nor did its labors cease until it aided in driving 
the rebels across the Tennessee. It was' disembodied at Nashville 


on the 13th June, 1S65, and returned to Indianapolis on the 15th, 
to receive the well-merited congratulations of Governor Morton 
and the people. 

The 82nd Regiment, under Colonel Morton C. Hunter, was 
mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 30th August, 1S62, and 
leaving immediately for the seat of war, participated in many of 
the great battles down to the return of peace. It was mustered out 
at Washington on the 9th June, 1865, and soon returned to its 
State to receive a grand recognition of its faithful service. 

The 83rd Regiment, of Lawrenceburg, under Colonel Ben. J. 
Spooner, was organized in September, 1S62, and soon left en route 
to the Mississippi. Its subsequent history^ the fact of its being 
under fire for a total term of 4,800 hours, and its wanderings over 
6,285 miles, leave nothing to be said in its defense. Master of a 
thousand honors, it was mustered out at Louisville, on the 15th 
July, 1865, and returned home to enjoy a well-merited repose. 

The 84th Regiment was mustered in at Richmond, Ind., on the 
8th September, 1862, under Colonel Nelson Trusler. Its first 
military duty was on the defenses of Covington, in Kentucky, and 
Cincinnati; but after a short time its labors became more con- 
genial, and tended to the great disadvantage of the slaveholding 
enemy on many well-contested fields. This, like the other State 
regiments, won many distinctions, and retired from the service on 
the 14th of June, 1865, at Nashville. 

The 85th Regiment was mustered at Terre Haute, under Colonel 
John P. Bayard, on the 2d September, 1862. On the 4th March, 
1863, it shared in the unfortunate affair at Thompson's Station, 
when in common with the other regiments forming Coburn's Bri- 
gade, it surrendered to the overpowering forces of the rebel 
General, Forrest. In June, 1863, after an exchange, it again took 
the field, and won a large portion .of that renown accorded to 
Indiana. It was mustered out on the 12th of June, 1865. 

The 86th Regiment, of La Fayette, left for Kentucky on the 26th 
August, 1S62, under Colonel OrvilleS. Hamilton, and shared in the 
duties assigned to the 84th. Its record is very creditable, particu- 
larly that portion dealing with the battles of Nashville on the loth 
and 16th December, 1864. It was mustered out on the 6th of June, 
1865, and reported within a few days at Indianapolis for discharge. 

The S7th Regiment, organized at South Bend, under Colonels 
Kline G. Sherlock and N. Gleason, was accepted at Indianapolis 
on the 31st of August, 1862, and left on the same day en route to 


the front. From Springfield and Ferryville on the 6th and 8th of 
October, 1862, to Mission Ridge, on the 25th of November, 1863, 
thence through the Atlanta campaign to the surrender of the South- 
ern armies, it upheld a gallant name, and met with a true and en- 
thusiastic welcome- home on the 21st of June, 1865, with a list of 
absent comrades aggregating 451. 

The 88th Regiment, organized within the Fourth Congressional 
District, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, entered the service on the 
29th of August, 1862, and presently was found among the front 
ranks in war. It passed through the campaign in brilliant form 
down to the time of Gen. Johnson's surrender to Gen. Grant, after 
which, on the 7th of June, 1865, it was mustered out at Washing- 

The 89th Regiment, formed from the material of the 
Eleventh Congressional District, was mustered in at Indianapolis, 
on the 2Sth of August, 1862, under Col. Chas. D. Murray, and 
after an exceedingly brilliant campaign was discharged by Gov. 
Morton on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 90th Regiment, or Fifth Cavalry, was organized at 
Indianapolis under the Colonelcy of Felix W. Graham, between 
August and November, 1862. The different companies, joining 
headquarters at Louisville on the 11th of March, 1863, engaged in 
observing the movements of the enemy in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land river until the 19th of April, when a first and successful 
brush was had with the rebels. The regiment had been in 22 en- 
gagements during the term of service, captured 640 prisoners, and 
claimed a list of casualties mounting up to the number of 829. 
It was mustered out on the 16th of June, 1865, at Pulaski. 

The 91st Battalion, of seven companies, was mustered into 
service at Evansville, the 1st of October, 1862, under Lieut.-Colonel 
John Mehringer, and in ten days later left for the front. In 
1863 the regiment was completed, and thenceforth took a very 
prominent position in the prosecution of the war. During its ser- 
vice it lost 81 men, and retired from the field on the 26th of June, 

The 92d Regiment failed in organizing. 

The 93d Regiment was mustered in at Madison, Ind., on the 
20th of October, 1862, under Col. De Witt C. Thomas and Lieut.- 
Col. Geo. W. Carr. On the 9th of November it began a move- 
ment south, and ultimately allied itself to Buckland's Brigade of 



Gen. Sherman's. On the 14th of May it was among the first regi- 
ments to enter Jackson, the capital of Mississippi; was next pres- 
ent at the assault on Vicksburg, and made a stirring campaign 
down to the storming of Fort Blakely on the 9th of April, 1S65. 
It was discharged on the 11th of August, that year, at Indianapo- 
lis, after receiving a public ovation. 

The 94th and 95th Regiments, authorized to be formed within 
the Fourth and Fifth Congressional Districts, respectively, were 
only partially organized, and so the few companies that could be 
mustered were incorporated with other regiments. 

The 96th Regiment could only bring together three companies, 
in the Sixth Congressional District, and these becoming incorpo- 
rated with the 99th then in process of formation at South Bend, the 
number was left blank. 

The 97th Regiment, raised in the Seventh Congressional Dis- 
trict, was mustered into service at Terre Haute, on the 20th of 
September, 1861, under Col. Robert F. Catterson. Reaching the 
front within a few days, it was assigned a position near Memphis, 
and subsequently joined in Gen. Grant's movement on Yicksburg, 
by overland route. After a succession of great exploits with the 
several armies to which it was attached, it completed its list of 
battles at Bentonville, on the 21st of March, 1865, and was dis- 
embodied at Washington on the 9th of June following. During its 
term of service the regiment lost 341 men, including the three 
Ensigns killed during the assaults on rebel positions along the 
Augusta Railway, from the 15th to the 27th of June, 1864. 

The 9Sth Regiment, authorized to be raised within the Eighth 
Congressional District, failed in its organization, and the number 
was left blank in the army list. The two companies answering to 
the call of July, 1862, were consolidated with the 100th Regiment 
then being organized at Fort Wayne. 

The 99th Battalion, recruited within the Ninth Congressional 
District, completed its muster on the 21st of October, 1862, under 
Col. Alex. Fawler, and reported for service a few days later at 
Memphis, where it was assigned to the 16th Army Corps. The va- 
ried vicissitudes through which this regiment passed and its remark- 
able gallantry upon all occasions, have gained for it a fair fame. 
It was disembodied on the 5th of June, 1865, at Washington, and 
returned to Indianapolis on the 11th of the same month. 

The 100th Regiment, recruited from the Eighth and Tenth 
Congressional Districts, under Col. Sandford J. Stoughton, mustered 



into the service on the 10th of September, left for the front on the 
11th of November, and became attached to the Army of Tennessee 
on the 26th of that month, 1862. The regiment participated in 
twenty-five battles, together with skirmishing during fully one-third 
of its term of service, and claimed a list of casualties mounting up 
to four hundred and sixty-four. It was mustered out of the ser- 
vice at Washington on the 9th of June, and reported at Indianapolis 
for discharge on the 14th of June, 1865. 

The 101st Regiment was mustered into service at Wabash on 
the 7th of September, 1862, under Col. William Garver, and pro- 
ceeded immediately to Covington, Kentucky. Its early experiesces 
were gained in the pursuit ofBragg's army and John Morgan's 
cavalry, and these experiences tendered to render the regiment one 
of the most valuable in the war for the Republic. From the defeat 
of John Morgan at Milton on the 18th of March, 1S63, to the fall 
of Savannah on the 23rd of September, 1863, the regiment won 
many honors, and retired from the service on the 25th of June, 
1865, at Indianapolis. 


The 102d Regiment, organized under Col. Benjamin M. Gregory 
from companies of the Indiana Legion, and numbering six hun- 
dred and twenty-three men and officers, left Indianapolis for the 
front early in July, and reported at North Vernon on the 12th of 
July, 1863, and having completed a round of duty, returned to In- 
dianapolis on the 17th to be discharged. 

The 103d, comprising seven companies from Hendricks county, 
two from Marion and one from Wayne counties, numbering 681 
men and officers, under Col. Lawrence S. Shuler, was contemporary 
with the 102d Regiment, varying only in its service by being mus- 
tered out one day before, or on the 16th of July, 1863. 

The 104th Regiment of Minute Men was recruited from mem- 
bers of the Legion of Decatur, La Fayette, Madison, Marion and Rush 
counties. It comprised 71-4 men and officers under the command 
of Col. James Gavin, and was organized within forty hours after the 
issue of Governor Morton's call for minute men to protect Indiana 
and Kentucky against the raids of Gen. John H Morgan's rebel 
forces. After Morgan's escape into Ohio the command returned 
and was mustered out on the 18th of July, 1863. 

The 105th Regiment consisted of seven companies of the Legion 
and three of Minute Men, furnished by Hancock, Union, Randolph, 


Putnam, "Wayne, Clinton and Madison counties. The command 
numbered seven hundred and thirteen men and officers, under Col. 
Sherlock, and took a leading part in the pursuit of Morgan. Re- 
turning on the 18th of July to Indianapolis it was mustered out. 

The 106th Regiment, under Col. Isaac P. Gray, consisted of 
one company of the Legion and nine companies of Minute Men, 
aggregating seven hundred and ninety-two men and officers. The 
counties of Wayne, Randolph, Hancock, Howard, and Marion were 
represented in its rank and file. Like the other regiments organized 
to repel Morgan, it was disembodied in July, 1863. 

The 107th Regiment, under Col. De "Witt C. Rugg, was organ- 
ized in the city of Indianapolis from the companies' Legion, or 
"Ward Guards. The successes of this promptly organized regiment 
were unquestioned. 

The 108th Regiment comprised five companies of Minute Men, 
from Tippecanoe county, two from Hancock, and one from each of 
the counties known as Carroll, Montgomery and "Wayne, aggregat- 
ing 710 men and officers, and all under the command of Col. W. C. 
"Wilson. After performing the only duties presented, it returned 
from Cincinnati on the 18th of July, and was mustered out. 

The 109th Regiment, composed of Minute Men from Coles 
county, 111., La Porte, Hamilton, Miami and Randolph counties, 
Ind., showed a roster of 709 officers and men, under Col. J. R. 
Mahon. Morgan having escaped from Ohio, its duties were at an 
end, and returning to Indianapolis was mustered out on the 17th 
of July, 1863, after seven days' service. 

The 110th Regiment of Minute Men comprised volunteers from 
Henry, Madison, Delaware, Cass, and Monroe counties. The men 
were ready and willing, if not really anxious to go to the front. But 
happily the swift-winged Morgan was driven away, and conse- 
quently the regiment was not called to the field. 

The 111th Regiment, furnished by Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Rush, Miami, Monroe, Delaware and Hamilton counties, number- 
ing 733 men and officers, under Col. Robert Canover, was not 

The 112th Regiment was formed from nine companies of Min- 
ute Men, and the Mitchell Light Infantry Company of the Legion. 
Its strength was 703 men and officers, under Col. Hiram F. Brax- 
ton. Lawrence, "Washington, Monroe and Orange counties were 
represented on its roster, and the historic names of North Vernon 
and Sunman's Station on its banner. Returning from the South 


after seven days' service, it was mustered out on the 17th of 
July, 1863. 

The 113th Begiment, furnished by Daviess, Martin, "Washington, 
and Monroe counties, comprised 526 rank and file under Col. Geo. 
W. Burge. Like the 112th, it was assigned to Gen. Hughes' 
Brigade, and defended North Vernon against the repeated attacks 
of John EL Morgan's forces. 

The 114th Begiment was wholly organized in Johnson county, 
under Col. Lambertson, and participated in the affair of North 
Vernon. Returning on the 21st of July, 1863, with its brief but 
faithful record, it was disembodied at Indianapolis, 11 days after 
its organization. 

All these regiments were brought into existence to meet an 
emergency, and it must be confessed, that had not a sense of 
duty, military instinct and love of country animated these regi- 
ments, the rebel General, John H. Morton, and his 6,000 cavalry } 
would doubtless have carried destruction as far as the very capital 
of their State. 

six months' kegiments. 

The 115th Begiment, organized at Indianapolis in answer to the 
call of the Bresident in June, 1S63, was mustered into service on 
the 17th of August, under Col. J. B. Mahon. Its service was short 
but brilliant, and received its discharge at Indianapolis the 10th 
of February, 1864. 

The 116th Begiment, mustered in on the 17th of August, 1863, 
moved to Detroit, Michigan, on the 30th, under Col. Charles Wise. 
During October it was ordered to Nicholasville, Kentucky, where it 
was assigned to Col. Mahon's Brigade, and with Gen. Willcox's 
entire command, joined in the forward movement to Cumberland 
Gap. After a term on severe duty it returned to Lafayette and 
there was disembodied on the 24th of February, 1864, whither Gov. 
Morton hastened, to share in the ceremonies of welcome. 

The 117th Begiment of Indianapolis was mustered into service 
on the 17th of September, 1S63, under Col. Thomas J. Brady. 
After surmounting every obstacle opposed to it, it returned on the 
6th of February, 1S64, and was treated to a public reception on 
the 9th. 

The 118th Begiment, whose organization was completed on the 
3d of September, 1863, under Col. Geo. W. Jackson, joined the 
116th at Nicholasville, and sharing in its fortunes, returned to the 


State capital on the 14th of February, 1864. Its casualties were 
comprised in a list of 15 killed and wounded. 

The 119th, or Seventh Cavalry, was recruited under Col. John 
P. C. Shanks, and its organization completed on the 1st of Octo- 
ber, 1863. The rank and file numbered 1,213, divided into twelve 
companies. On the 7th of December its arrival at Louisville was 
reported, and on the 14th it entered on active service. After the 
well-fought battle of Guntown, Mississippi, on the 10th of June, 
1864, although it only brought defeat to our arms, General Grier- 
son addressed the Seventh Cavalry, saying: " Yoar General con- 
gratulates you upon your noble conduct during the late expedition. 
Fighting against overwhelming numbers, under adverse circum- 
stances, your prompt obedience to orders and unflinching courage 
commanding the admiration of all, made even defeat almost a vic- 
tory. For hours on foot you repulsed the charges of the enemies' in- 
fantry, and again in the saddle you met his cavalry and turned his 
assaults into confusion. Your heroic perseverance saved hundreds 
of your fellow-soldiers from capture. You have been faithful to 
your honorable reputation, and have fully justified the confidence, 
and merited the high esteem of your commander." 

Early in 1865, a number of these troops, returning from impris- 
onment in Southern bastiles, were lost on the steamer " Sultana." 
The survivors of the campaign continued in the service for a long 
period after the restoration of peace, and finally mustered out. 

The 120th Regiment. In September, 1863, Gov. Morton re- 
ceived authority from the War Department to organize eleven regi- 
ments within the State for three years' service. By April, 1864, 
this organization was complete, and being transferred to the com- 
mand of Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovey, were formed by him 
into a division for service with the Army of Tennessee. Of those 
regiments, the 120th occupied a very prominent place, both on ac- 
count of its numbers, its perfect discipline and high reputation. 
It was mustered in at Columbus, and was in all the great battles 
of the latter years of the war. It won high praise from friend 
and foe, and retired with its bright roll of honor, after the success 
of Right and Justice was accomplished. 

The 121st, or Ninth Cavalry, was mustered in March 1, 1864, 
under Col. George W. Jackson, at Indianapolis, and though not 
numerically strong, was so well equipped and possessed such excel- 
lent material that on the 3rd of May it was ordered to the front. 
The record of the 121st, though extending over a brief period, is 


pregnant with deeds of war of a high character. On the 26th of 
April, 1865, these troops, while returning from their labors in the 
South, lost 55 men, owing to the explosion of the engines of the 
steamer " Sultana." The return of the 386 survivors, on the 5th of 
September, 1865, was hailed with joy, and proved how well and 
dearly the citizens of Indiana loved their soldiers. 

The 122d Regiment ordered to be raised in the Third Congres- 
sional District, owing to very few men being then at home, failed 
in organization, and the regimental number became a blank. 

The 123d Regiment was furnished by the Fourth and Seventh 
Congressional Districts during the winter of 1863-'64, and mus- 
tered, March 9, 1S64, at Greensburg, under Col. John C. McQuis- 
ton. The command left for the front the same day, and after win- 
ning rare distinction during the last years of the campaign, par- 
ticularly in its gallantry at Atlanta, and its daring movement to 
escape Forrest's 15,000 rebel horsemen near Franklin, this regi- 
ment was discharged on the 30th of August, 1865, at Indianapolis, 
being mustered out on the 25th, at Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 124th Regiment completed its organization by assuming 
three companies raised for the 125th Regiment (which was intended 
to be cavalry), and was mustered in at Richmond, on the 10th of 
March, 1864, under Colonel James Burgess, and reported at Louis- 
ville within nine days. From Buzzard's Roost, on the Sth of May, 
1864, under General Schofield, Lost Mountain in June, and the 
capture of Decatur, on the 15th July, to the 21st March, 1865, in 
its grand advance under General Sherman from Atlanta to the 
coast, the regiment won many laurel wreaths, and after a brilliant 
campaign, was mustered out at Greensboro on the 31st August, 

The 125th, or Tenth Cavalry, was partially organized during 
November and December, 1862, at Vincennes, and in February, 
1863, completed its numbers and equipment at Columbus, under 
Colonel T. M. Pace. Early in May its arrival in Nashville was 
reported, and presently assigned active service. During September 
and October it engaged rebel contingents under Forrest and Hood, 
and later in the battles of Nashville, Reynold's Hill and Sugar 
Creek, and in 1865 Flint River, Courtland and Mount Hope. The 
explosion of the Sultana occasioned the loss of thirty-five men with 
Captain Gaffney and Lieutenants Twigg and Reeves, and in a 
collision on the Nashville & Louisville railroad, May, 1864, lost 
five men killed and several wounded. After a term of service un- 


surpassed for its utility and character it was disembodied at Vicks- 
b'urg, Mississippi, on the 31st August, 1S65, and returning to 
Indianapolis early in September, was welcomed by the Executive 
and people. 

The 126th, or Eleventh Cavalry, was organized at Indian- 
apolis under Colonel Eobert R. Stewart, on the 1st of March, 1864, 
and left in May for Tennessee. It took a very conspicuous part in 
the defeat of Hood near Nashville, joining in the pursuit as far as 
Gravelly Springs, Alabama, where it was dismounted and assigned 
infantry duty. In June, 1865, it was remounted at St. Louis, and 
moved to Fort Riley, Kansas, and thence to Leavenworth, where it 
was mustered out on the 19th September, 1865. 

The 127th, or Twelfth Cavalry, was partially organized at 
Kendallville, in December, 1863, and perfected at the same place, 
under Colonel Edward Anderson, in April, 1864. Reaching the 
front in May, it went into active service, took a prominent part in 
the march through Alabama and Georgia, and after a service bril- 
liant in all its parts, retired from the field, after discharge, on the 
22d of November, 1865. 

The 128th Regiment was raised in the Tenth Congressional Dis- 
trict of the period, and mustered at Michigan City, under Colonel 
R. P. De Hart, on the 18th March, 1864. On the 25th it was 
reported at the front, and assigned at once to Schofield's Division. 
The battles of Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Lost Mountain, 
Kenesaw, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Dalton, Brentwood Hills, Nashville, 
and the six days' skirmish of Columbia, were all participated in by 
the 128th, and it continued in service long after the termination 
of hostilities, holding the post of Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The 129th Regiment was, like the former, mustered in at 
Michigan City about the same time, under Colonel Charles Case, 
and moving to the front on the 7th April, 1864, shared in the for- 
tunes of the 128th until August 29, 1865, when it was disembodied 
at Charlotte, Notrh Carolina. 

The 130th Regiment, mustered at Kokomo on the 12 th March, 
1864, under Colonel C. S. Parrish, left en route to the seat of war 
on the 16th, and was assigned to the Second Brigade, First Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, at Nashville, on the 19th. During the 
war it made for itself a brilliant history, and returned to Indian- 
apolis with its well-won honors on the 13th December, 1865. 

The 131st, or Thirteenth Cavalry, under Colonel G. M L. 
Johnson, was the last mounted regiment recruited within the State. 


It left Indianapolis on the 30th of April, 1864, in infantry trim, 
and gained its first honors on the 1st of October in its magnificent 
defense of Huntsville, Alabama, against the rebel division of 
General Buford, following a line of first-rate military conduct to 
the end. In January, 1865, the regiment was remounted, won 
some distinction in its modern form, and was mustered out at 
Vicksburg on the 18th of November, 1865. The morale and 
services of the regiment were such that its Colonel was promoted 
Brevet Brigadier-General in consideration of its merited honors. 


Governor Morton,in obedience to the offer made under his auspices 
to the general Government to raise volunteer regiments for onehun- 
dred days' service, issued his call on the 23rd of April, 1864. This 
movement suggested itself to the inventive genius of the war Gov- 
ernor as a most important step toward the subjection or annihila- 
tion of the military supporters of slavery within a year, and thus 
conclude a war, which, notwithstanding its holy claims to the name 
of Battles for Freedom, was becoming too protracted, and proving 
too detrimental to the best interests of the Union. In answer to 
the esteemed Governor's call eight regiments came forward, and 
formed The Grand Division of the Volunteers. 

The 132d Regiment, under Col. S. C. Vance, was furnished by 
Indianapolis, Shelbyville, Franklin and Danville, and leaving on 
the 18th of May, 1864, reached the front where it joined the forces 
acting in Tennessee. 

The 133d Regiment, raised at Richmond on the 17th of May, 
1864, under Col. R. N. Hudson, comprised nine companies, and 
followed the 132d. 

The 134th Regiment, comprising seven companies, was organ- 
ized at Indianapolis on the 25th of Mav, 1864, under Col. James 
Gavin, and proceeded immediately to the front. 

The 135th Regiment was raised from the volunteers of Bedford, 
Noblesville and Goshen, with seven companies from the First Con- 
gressional District, under Col. W. C. "Wilson, on the 25th of May, 
1864, and left at once en route to the South. 

The 136th Regiment comprised ten companies, raised in the 
same districts as those contributing to the 135th, under Col. J. W. 
Foster, and left for Tennessee on the 24th of May, 1864. 

The 137th Regiment, under Col. E. J. Robinson, comprising 
volunteers from Kokomo, Zanesville, Msdora, Sullivan, Rockville, 


and Owen and Lawrence counties, left en route to Tennessee on the 
28th of May, 1S64, having completed organization the day previous. 

The 138th Regiment was formed of seven companies from the 
Ninth, with three from the Eleventh Congressional District (un- 
reformed), and mustered in at Indianapolis on the 27th of May, 
1864, under Col. J. H. Shannon. This fine regiment was re- 
ported at the front within a few days. 

The 139th Eegiment, under Col. Geo. Humphrey, was raised from 
volunteers furnished by Kendallville, Lawrenceburg, EKzaville, 
Knightstown, Connersville, Newcastle, Portland, Vevay, New 
Albany, Metamora, Columbia City, New Haven and New Phila- 
delphia. It was constituted a regiment on the 8th of June, 1864, 
and appeared among the defenders in Tennessee during that month. 

All these regiments gained distinction, and won an enviable po- 
sition in the glorious history of the war and the no less glorious 
one of their own State in its relation thereto. 


The 140th Eegiment was organized with many others, in response 
to the call of the nation. Under its Colonel, Thomas J. Brady, it pro- 
ceeded to the South on the 15th of November, 1864. Having taken 
a most prominent part in all the desperate struggles, round Nash- 
ville and Murfreesboro in 1864, to Town Creek Bridge on the 20th 
of February, 1S65, and completed a continuous round of severe duty 
to the end, arrived at Indianapolis for discharge on the 21st of July, 
where Governor Morton received it with marked honors. 

The 14 1st Regiment was only partially raised, and its few com- 
panies were incorporated with Col. Brady's command. 

The 142d Regiment was recruited at Fort "Wayne, under Col. I. 
M- Comparet, and was mustered into service at Indianapolis on the 
"Si of November, 1864. After a steady and exceedingly effective 
service, it returned to Indianapolis on the 16th of July, 1865. 


Was answered by Indiana in the most material terms. No less 
than fourteen serviceable regiments were placed at the disposal of 
the General Government. 

The 143d Regiment was mustered in, under Col J. T. Grill, on 
the 21st February, 1865, reported at Nashville on the 24th, and af- 
ter a brief but brilliant service returned to the State on the 21st 
October, 1865. 


The 144th Regiment, under Col. G. W. Riddle, was mustered in 
on the 6th March, 1865, left on the 9th for Harper's Ferry, took an 
effective part in the close of the campaign and reported at Indian- 
apolis for discharge on the 9 th August, 1865. 

The 145th Regiment, under Col. W. A. Adams, left Indianapolis 
on the 18th of February, 1865, and joining Gen. Steadman's division 
at Chattanooga on the 23d was sent on active service. Its duties 
were discharged with rare fidelity until mustered out in January, 

The 146th Regiment, under Col. M. C. Welsh, left Indianapolis 
on the 11th of March en route to Harper's Ferry, where it was t.o- 
signed to the army of the Shenandoah. The duties ot this regiment 
were severe and continuous, to the period of its muster out at Bal- 
timore on the 31st of August, 1865. 

The 147th Regiment, comprised among other volunteers from 
Benton, Lafayette and Henry counties, organized under Col. Milton 
Peden on the 13th of March, 1S65, at Indianapolis. It shared a 
fortune similar to that of the 146th, and returned for discharge on 
the 9th of August, 1865. 

The 14Sth Regiment, under Col. N. R. Ruckle, left the State 
capital on the 28th of February, 1865, and reporting at Nashville, 
was sent on guard and garrison duty into the heart of Tennessee. 
Returning to Indianapolis on the 8th of September, it received a 
final discharge. 

The 149th Regiment was organized at Indianapolis by Col. W. 
H. Fairbanks, and left on the 3d of March, 1865, for Tennessee, 
where it had the honor of receiving the surrender of the rebel 
forces, and military stores of Generals Roddy and Polk. The reg- 
iment was welcomed home by Morton on the 29th of September. 

The 150th Regiment, under Col. M. B. Taylor, mustered in on the 
9th of March, 1865, left for the South on the 13th and reported at 
Harper's Ferry on the 17th. This regiment did guard duty at 
Charleston, Winchester, Stevenson Station, Gordon's Springs, and 
after a service characterized by utility, returned on the 9th of 
August to Indianapolis for discharge. 

The 151st Regiment, under Col. J. Healy, arrived at Nashville on 
the 9th of March, 1865. On the 14th' a movement on Tullahoma 
was undertaken, and three months later returned to Nashville for 
garrison duty to the close of the war. It was mustered out on the 
22d of September, 1S65. 

The 152d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis, under Col. 


W. W Griswold, and left for Harper's Ferry on the 18th of March, 
1865. It was attached to the provisional divisions of Shenandoah 
Army, and engaged until the 1st of September, when it was dis- 
charged at Indianapolis. 

The 153d Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 1st of 
March, 1865, under Col. O. H. P. Carey. It reported at Louis- 
ville, and by order of Gen. Palmer, was held on service in Ken- 
tucky, where it was occupied in the exciting but very dangerous 
pastime of fighting Southern guerrillas. Later it was posted at 
Louisville, until mustered out on the 4th of September, 1865. 

The 154th Regiment, organized under Col. Frank Wilcox, left 
Indianapolis under Major Simpson, for Parkersburg, W. Virginia, 
on the 28th of April, 1865. It was assigned to guard and garrison 
duty until its discharge on the 4th of August, 1865. 

The 155th Regiment, recruited throughout the State, left on the 
26th of April for Washington, and was afterward assigned to a 
provisional Brigade of the Ninth Army Corps at Alexandria. The 
companies of this regiment were scattered over the country, — at 
Dover, Centreville, Wilmington, and Salisbury, but becoming re- 
united on the 4th of August, 1865, it was mustered out at Dover, 

The 156th Battalion, under Lieut.-Colonel Charles M. Smith, 
left en route to the Shenandoah Valley on the 27th of April, 1865, 
where it continued doing guard duty to the period of its muster 
out the 4th of August, 1865, at Winchester, Virginia. 

On the return of these regiments to Indianapolis, Gov. Morton 
and the people received them with all that characteristic cordiality 
and enthusiasm peculiarly their own. 


The people of Crawford county, animated with that inspiriting 
patriotism which the war drew forth, organized this mounted com- 
pany on the 25th of July, 1863, and placed it at the disposal of 
the Government, and it was mustered into service by order of the 
War Secretary , on the 13th of August, 1863, under Captain L. 
Lamb. To the close of the year it engaged in the laudable pursuit 
of arresting deserters and enforcing the draft; however, on the 
18th of January, 1864, it was reconstituted and incorporated with 
the Thirteenth Cavalry, with which it continued to serve until the 
treason of Americans against America was conquered. 



The 28th Regiment of Colored Troops was recruited through- 
out the State of Indiana, and under Lieut.-Colonel Charles S. 
Russell, left Indianapolis for the front on the 24th of April, 1864. 
The regiment acted very well in its first engagement with the 
rebels at White House, Virginia, and again with Gen. Sheridan's 
Cavalry, in the swamps of the Chickahominy. In the battle of 
the " Crater," it lost half its roster; but their place was soon filled 
by other colored recruits from the State, and Russell promoted to 
the Colonelcy, and afterward to Brevet Brigadier-General, when he 
was succeeded in the command by Major Thomas H. Logan. 
During the few months of its active service it accumulated quite a 
history, and was ultimately discharged, on the 8th of January, 
1866, at Indianapolis. 


First Battery, organized at Evansville, under Captain Martin 
Klauss, and mustered in on the 16th of August, 1861, joined Gen. 
Fremont's army immediately, and entering readily upon its salu- 
tary course, aided in the capture of 950 rebels and their position 
at Blackwater creek. On March the 6th, 1S62 at Elkhorn Tavern, 
and on the 8th at Pea Ridge, the battery performed good service. 
Port Gibson, Champion Hill, Jackson, the Teche country, Sabine 
Cross Roads, Grand Encore, all tell of its efficacy. In 1864 it was 
subjected to reorganization, when Lawrence Jacoby was raised to 
the Captiancy, vice Klauss resigned. After a long term of useful 
service, it was mustered out at Indianapolis on the 18th of August, 

Second Battery was organized, under Captain D. G. Rabb, at 
Indianapolis on the 9th of August, 1861, and one month later pro- 
ceeded to the front. It participated in the campaign against Col. 
Coffee's irregular troops and the rebellious Indians of the Cherokee 
nation. From Lone Jack, Missouri, to Jenkin's Ferry and Fort 
Smith it won signal honors until its reorganization in 1864, and 
even after, to June, 1865, it maintained a very fair reputation. 

The Third Battery, under Capt. W. W. Frybarger, was organ- 
ized and mustered in at Connersville on the 24th of August, 1861, 
and proceeded immediately to join Fremont's Army of the Mis- 
souri. Moon's Mill, Kirksville, Meridian, Fort de Russy, Alex- 
andria, Round Lake, Tupelo, Clinton and Tallahatchie are names 


which may be engraven on its guns. It participated in the affairs 
before Nashville on the 15th and 16th of December, 1864, when 
General Hood's Army was put to route, and at Fort Blakely, out- 
side Mobile, after which it returned home to report for discharge, 
August 21, 1865. 

The Fourth Battery, recruited in La Porte, Porter and Lake 
counties, reported at the front early in October, 1861, and at once 
assumed a prominent place in the army of Gen. Buell. Again 
under Rosencrans and McCook and under General Sheridan at 
Stone River, the services of this battery were much praised, and it 
retained its well-earned reputation to the very day of its muster out 
— the 1st of August, 1865. Its first organization was completed 
under Capt. A. K. Bush, and reorganized in Oct., 1864, under Capt 
B. F. Johnson. 

The Fifth Battery was furnished by La Porte, Allen, "Whitley 
and Noble counties, organized under Capt. Peter Simonson, and mus- 
tered into service on the 22d of November, 1861. It comprised 
four six pounders, two being rifled cannon, and two twelve-pounder 
Howitzers with a force of 158 men. Reporting at Camp Gil- 
bert, Louisville, on the 29th, it was shortly after assigned to the 
division of Gen. Mitchell, at Bacon Creek. During its term, it 
served in twenty battles and numerous petty actions, losing its Cap- 
tain at Pine Mountain. The total loss accruing to the battery was 
84 men and officers and four guns It was mustered out on the 
20th of July, 1864. 

The Sixth Battery was recruited at Evansville, under Captain 
Frederick Behr, and left, on the 2d of Oct., 1861, for the front, 
reporting at Henderson, Kentucky, a few days after. Early in 
1862 it joined Gen. Sherman's army at Paducah, and participated 
in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April. Its history grew in 
brilliancy until the era of peace insured a cessation of its great 

The Seventh Battery comprised volunteers from Terre Haute, 
Arcadia, Evansville, Salem, Lawrenceburg, Columbus, Vin- 
cennes and Indianapolis, under Samuel J. Harris as its first 
Captain, who was succeeded by G. R. Shallow and O. H. Mor- 
gan after its reorganization. From the siege of Corinth to the 
capture of Atlanta it performed vast services, and returned to 
Indianapolis on the 11th of July, 1865, to be received by the peo- 
ple and hear its history from the lips of the veteran patriot and 
Governor of the State. 


The Eighth Battery, under Captain G. T. Cochran, arrived at 
the front on the 26th of February, 1862, and subsequently entered 
upon its real duties at the siege of Corinth. It served with dis- 
tinction throughout, and concluded a well-made campaign under 
"Will Stokes, who was appointed Captain of the companies with 
which it was consolidated in March, 1865. 

The Ninth Battery. The organization of this battery was 
perfected at Indianapolis, on the 1st of January, 1862, under Capt. 
!N. S. Thompson. Moving to the front it participated in the affairs 
of Shiloh, Corinth, Queen's Hill, Meridian, Fort Dick Taylor, Fort 
de Russy, Henderson's Hill, Pleasant Hill, Cotile Landing, Bayou 
Rapids, Mansura, Chicot, and many others, winning a name in 
each engagement. The explosion of the steamer Eclipse at Johnson- 
ville, above Paducah, on .Jan. 27, 1865, resulted in the destruction of 
58 men, leaving only ten to represent the battery. The survivors 
reached Indianapolis on the 6th of March, and were mustered out. 

The Tenth Battery was recruited at Lafayette, and mustered in 
under Capt. Jerome B. Cox, in January, 1861. Having passed 
through the Kentucky campaign against Gen. Bragg, it partici- 
pated in many of the great engagements, and finally returned to 
report for discharge on the 6th of July, 1S64, having, in the mean- 
time, won a very fair fame. 

The Eleventh Battery was organized at Lafayette, and mus- 
tered in at Indianapolis under Capt. Arnold Sutermeister, on the 
17th of December, 1861. On most of the principal battle-fields, 
from Shiloh, in 1S62, to the capture of Atlanta, it maintained a high 
reputation for military excellence, and after consolidation with the 
Eighteenth, mustered out on the 7th of June, 1865. 

Tiie Twelfth Battery was recruited at Jeffersonville and sub- 
sequently mustered in at Indianapolis. On the 6th of March, 1862, 
it reached Nashville, having been previously assigned to Buell's 
Army. In April its Captain, G. ~W. Sterling, resigned, and the 
position devolved on Capt. James E. White, who, in turn, was suc- 
ceeded by James A. Dunwoody. The record of the battery holds 
a first place in the history of the period, and enabled both men and 
officers to look back with pride upon the battle-fields of the land. 
It was ordered home in June, 1865, and on reaching Indianapolis, 
on the 1st of July, was mustered out on the 7th of that month. 

The Thirteenth Battery was organized under Captain Sewell 
Coulson, during the winter of 1861, at Indianapolis, and proceeded 
to the front in February, 1862. During the subsequent months it 


was occupied iD the pursuit of John H. Morgan's raiders, and 
aided effectively in driving them from Kentucky. This artillery 
company returned from the South on the 4th of July, 1865, and 
were discharged the day following. 

The Fourteenth Battery, recruited in "Wabash, Miami, Lafay- 
ette, and Huntington counties, under Captain M. H. Kidd, and 
Lieutenant J. W. H. McGuire, left Indianapolis on the 11th of 
April, 1862, and within a few months one portion of it was cap- 
tured at Lexington by Gen. Forrest's great cavalry command. The 
main battery lost two guns and two men at Guntown, on the Mis- 
sissippi, but proved more successful at Nashville and Mobile. It 
arrived home on the 29th of August, 1865, received a public wel- 
come, and its final discharge. 

The Fifteenth Battery, under Captain I. C. H. Von Sehlin, 
was retained on duty from the date of its organization, at Indian- 
apolis, until the 5th of July, 1862, when it was moved to Harper's 
Ferry. Two months later the gallant defense of Maryland Heights 
was set at naught by the rebel Stonewall Jackson, and the entire 
garrison surrendered. Being paroled, it was reorganized at Indian- 
apolis, and appeared again in the field in March, 1863, where it 
won a splendid renown on every well-fought field to the close of 
the war. It was mustered out on the 24th of June, 1865. 

The Sixteenth Battery was organized at Lafayette, under 
Capt. Charles A. Nay lor, and on the 1st of June, 1862, left for 
Washington. Moving to the front with Gen. Pope's command, it 
participated m the battle of Slaughter Mountain, on the 9th of 
August, and South Mountain, and Antietam, under Gen. McClel- 
lan. This battery was engaged in a large number of general en- 
gagements and flying column affairs, won a very favorable record, 
and returned on the 5th of July, 1865. 

The Seventeenth Battery, under Capt. Milton L. Miner, was 
mustered in at Indianapolis, on the 20th of May, 1862, left for the 
front on the 5th of July, and subsequently engaged in the Gettys- 
burg expedition, was present at Harper's Ferry, July 6, 1863, and 
at Opequan on the 19th of September. Fisher's Hill, New Mar- 
ket, and Cedar Creek brought it additional honors, and won from 
Gen. Sheridan a tribute of praise for its service on these battle 
grounds. Ordered from Winchester to Indianapolis it was mus- 
tered out there on the 3d of July, 1S65. 

The Eighteenth Battery, under Capt. Eli Lilly, left for the 


front in August, 1862, but did not take a leading part in the cam- 
paign until 1863, when, under Gen. Rosencrans, it appeared pi'om- 
inent at Hoover's Gap. From this period to the affairs of West 
Point and Macon, it performed first-class service, and returned to 
its State on the 25th of June, 1S65. 

The Nineteenth Batteet was mustered into service at Indian- 
apolis, on the 5th of August, 1862, under Capt. S. J. Harris, and 
proceeded immediately afterward to the front, where it participated 
in the campaign against Gen. Bragg. It was present at every post 
of danger to the end of the war, when, after the surrender of John- 
son's army, it returned to Indianapolis. Reaching that city on 
the 6th of June, 1S65, it was treated to a public reception and 
received the congratulations of Gov. Morton. Four days later it 
was discharged. 

The Twentieth Battery, organized under Capt. Frank A. Rose, 
left the State capital on the 17th of December, 1862, for the front, 
and reported immediately at Henderson, Kentucky. Subsequently 
Captain Rose resigned, and, in 1863, under Capt. Osborn, turned 
over its guns to the 11th Indiana Battery, and was assigned to the 
charge of siege guns at Nashville. Gov. Morton had the battery 
supplied with new field pieces, and by the 5th of October, 1863, it 
was again in the field, where it won many honors under Sherman, 
and continued to exercise a great influence until its return on the 
23d of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-first Battery recruited at Indianapolis, under the 
direction of Captain W. W. Andrew, left on the 9th of September, 
1862, for Covington, Kentucky, to aid in its defense against the 
advancing forces of Gen. Kirby Smith. It was engaged in numerous 
military affairs and may be said to acquire many honors, although 
its record is stained with the names of seven deserters. The battery 
was discharged on the 21st of June, 1865. 

The Twenty-second Battery was mustered in at Indianapolis 
on the 15th of December, 1862, under Capt. B. F. Denning, and 
moved at once to the front. It took a very conspicuous part in the 
pursuit of Morgan's Cavalry, and in many other affairs. It threw 
the first shot into Atlanta, and lost its Captain, who was killed in 
the skirmish line, on the 1st of July. "While the list of casualties 
numbers only 35, that of desertions numbers 37. This battery was 
received with public honors on its return, the 25th of June, 1865, 
and mustered out on the 7th of the same month. 


The Twenty-third Battery, recruited in October 1862, aud 
mustered in on the 8th of November, under Capt. I. H. Myers, pro- 
ceeded south, after having rendered very efficient services at home 
in guarding the camps of rebel prisoners. In July, 1865, the battery 
took an active part, under General Boyle's command, in routing 
and capturing the raiders at Brandenburgh, and subsequently to 
the close of the war performed very brilliant exploits, reaching 
Indianapolis in June, 1865. It was discharged on the 27th of that 

The Twenty-fourth Battery, under Capt. I. A. Simms, was 
enrolled for service on the 29th of November, 1862; remained 
at Indianapolis on duty until the 13th of March, 1S63, when 
it left for the field. From its participation in the Cumberland 
River campaign, to its last engagement at Columbia, Tennessee, it 
aided materially in bringing victory to the Union ranks and made 
for itself a widespread fame. Arriving at Indianapolis on the 2Sth 
of July, it was publicly received, and in five days later disembodied. 

The Twenty-fifth Battery was recruited in September and Oc- 
tober, 1864, and mustered into service for one year, under Capt. 
Frederick C. Sturm. December 13th, it reported at Nashville, and 
took a prominent part in the defeat of Gen. Hood's army. Its 
duties until July, 1865, were continuous, when it returned to 
report for final discharge. 

The Twenty-sixth Battery, or "Wilder's Battery," was re- 
cruited under Capt. I. T. "Wilder, of Greensburg, in May, 1861; but 
was not mustered in as an artillery company. Incorporating itself 
with a regiment then forming at Indianapolis it was mustered as 
company "A," of the 17th Infantry, with Wilder as Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the regiment. Subsequently, at Elk "Water, Virginia, 
it was converted into the "First Independent Battery," and became 
known as " Rigby's Battery." The record of this battery is as 
brilliant as any won during the war. On every field it has won a 
distinct reputation; it was well worthy the enthusiastic reception 
given to it on its return to Indianapolis on the 11th and 12th of 
July, 1865. During its term of service it was subject to many 
transmutations; but in every phase of its brief history, areputation 
for gallantry and patriotism was maintained which now forms a 
living testimonial to its services to the public. 

The total number of battles in the " War of the Rebellion " in 
which the patriotic citizens of the great and noble State of Indiana 
were more or leBS engaged, was as follows: 


Locality. ' No. of Battles. Locality. 
Virginia 90 Maryland. 

51 Texas . 

Georgia 41 South Carolina 2 

Mississippi 24 Indian Territory 2 

Arkansas 19 Pennsylvania 1 

Kentucky 16 Ohio » 1 

Louisana 15 Indiana 1 

Missouri 9 

North Carolina 8 Total 308 

The regiments sent forth to the defense of the Republic in the 
hour of its greatest peril, when a host of her own sons, blinded by 
some unholy infatuation, leaped to arms that they might trample 
upon the liberty-giving principles of the nation, have been passed 
in very brief review. The authorities chosen for the dates, names, 
and figures are the records of the State, and the main subject is 
based upon the actions of those .267,000 gallant men of Indiana 
who rushed to arms in defense of all for which their fathers bled, 
leaving their wives and children and homes in the guardianship of 
a truly paternal Government. 

The relation of Indiana to the Republic was then established; 
for when the population of the State, at the time her sons went 
forth to participate in war for the maintenance of the Union, is 
brought into comparison with all other States and countries, it will 
be apparent that the sacrifices made by Indiana from 1861-'65 
equal, if not actually exceed, the noblest of those recorded in the 
history of ancient or modern times. 

Unprepared for the terrible inundation of modern wickedness, 
which threatened to deluge the country in a sea of blood and rob, 
a people of their richest, their most prized inheritance, the State 
rose above all precedent, and under the benign influence of patriot- 
ism, guided by the well-directed zeal of a wise Governor and 
Government, sent into the field an army that in numbers was 
gigantic, and in moral and physical excellence never equaled 

It is laid down in the official reports, furnished to the War De- 
partment, that over 200,000 troops were specially organized to aid 
in crushing the legions of the slave-holder; that no less than 50,000 
militia were armed to defend the State, and that the large, but abso- 
lutely necessary number of commissions issued was 17,114. All 
this proves the scientific skill and military economy exercised by 
the Governor, and brought to the aid of the people in a most terri- 
ble emergency; for he, with some prophetic sense of the gravity of 
the situation, saw that unless the greatest powers of the Union 
were put forth to crush the least justifiable and most pernicious 


of all rebellions holding a place in the record of nations, the best 
blood of the country would flow in a vain attempt to avert a catas- 
trophe which, if prolonged for many years, would result in at least 
the moral and commercial ruin of the country. 

The part which Indiana took in the war against the Rebellion is 
one of which the citizens of the State may well be proud. In the 
number of troops furnished, and in the amount of voluntary con- 
tributiona rendered, Indiana, in proportion and wealth, stands 
equal to any of her sister States. " It is also a subject of gratitude 
and thankfulness," said Gov. Morton, in his message to the Legis- 
lature, " that, while the number of troops furnished by Indiana 
alone in this great contest would have done credit to a first-class 
nation, measured by the standard of previous wars, not a single 
battery or battalion from this State has brought reproach upon the 
national flag, and no disaster of the war can be traced to any want 
of fidelity, courage or efficiency on the part of any Indiana officer. 
The endurance, heroism, intelligence and skill of the officers and 
soldiers sent forth by Indiana to do battle for the Union, have shed 
a luster on our beloved State, of which any people might justly be 
proud. Without claiming superiority over our loyal sister States, 
it is but justice to the brave men who have represented us on 
almost every battle-field of the war, to say that their deeds have 
placed Indiana in the front rank of those heroic States which 
rushed to the rescue of the imperiled Government of the nation. 
The total number of troops furnished by the State for all terms of 
service exceeds 200,000 men, much the greater portion of them 
being for three years; and in addition thereto not less than 50,000 
State militia have from time to time been called into active service 
to repel rebel raids and defend our southern border from inva- 


In 1867 the Legislature comprised 91 Republicans and 59 Dem- 
ocrats. Soon after the commencement of the session, Gov. Morton 
resigned his office in consequence of having been elected to the U. 
S. Senate, and Lieut.-Gov. Conrad Baker assumed the Executive 
chair during the remainder of Morton's term. This Legislature, 
by a very decisive vote, ratified the 14th amendment to the Federal 
Constitution, constituting all persons born in the country or sub- 
ject to its jurisdiction, citizens of the United States and of the 
State wherein they reside, without regard to race or color; reduc- 


ing the Congressional representation in any State in which there 
should be a restriction of the exercise of the elective franchise on 
account of race or color; disfranchising persons therein named 
who shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States; and declaring that the validity of the public debt 
of the United States authorized by law, shall not be questioned. 

This Legislature also passed an act providing for the registry of 
votes, the punishment of fraudulent practices at elections, and for 
the apportionment and compensation of a Board of Registration; 
this Board to consist, in each township, of two freeholders appointed 
by the County Commissioners, together with the trustee of such 
township; in cities the freeholders are to be appointed in each 
ward by the city council. The measures of this law are very strict, 
and are faithfully executed. No cries of fraud in elections are 
heard in connection with Indiana. 

This Legislature also divided the State into eleven Congressional 
Districts and apportioned their representation; enacted a law for 
the protection and indemnity of all officers and soldiers of the 
United States and soldiers of the Indiana Legion, for acts done in 
the military service of the United States, and in the military ser- 
vice of the State, and in enforcing the laws and preserving the 
peace of the county; made definite appropriations to the several 
benevolent institutions of the State, and adopted several measures 
for the encouragement of education, etc. 

In 1868, Indiana was the first in the field of national politics, 
both the principal parties holding State conventions early in the 
year. The Democrats nominated T. A. Hendricks for Governor, 
and denounced in their platform the reconstruction policy of the 
Republicans; recommended that United States treasury notes be 
substituted for national bank currency; denied that the General 
Government had a right to interfere with the question of suffrage 
in any of the States, and opposed negro suffrage, etc.; while the 
Republicans nominated Conrad Baker for Governor, defended its 
reconstruction policy, opposed a further contraction of the currency, 
etc. The campaign was an exciting one, and Mr. Baker was 
elected Governor by a majority of only 961. In the Presidential 
election that soon followed the State gave Grant 9,572 more than 

During 1868 Indiana presented claims to the Government for 
about three and a half millions dollars for expenses incurred in the 
war, and S1,95S,917.94 was allowed. Also, this year, a legislative 


commission reported that $413,599.48 were allowed to parties suf- 
fering loss by the Morgan raid. 

This year Governor Baker obtained a site for the House of 
Refuge. (See a subsequent page.) The Soldiers' and Seamen's 
Home, near Knightstown, originally established by private enter- 
prise and benevolence, and adopted by the Legislature of the 
previous year, was in a good condition. Up to that date the insti- 
tution had afforded relief and temporary subsistence to 400 men 
who had been disabled in the war. A substantial brick building 
had been built for the home, while the old buildings were used for 
an orphans' department, in which were gathered 86 children of 
deceased soldiers. 


By some mistake or liberal design, the early statute laws of 
Indiana on the subject of divorce were rather more loose than those 
of most other States in this Union; and this subject had been a 
matter of so much jest among the public, that in 1870 the Governor 
recommended to the Legislature a reform in this direction, which 
was pretty effectually carried out. Since that time divorces can 
be granted only for the following causes: 1. Adultery. 2. Impo- 
tency existing at the time of marriage. 3. Abandonment for two 
years. 4. Cruel and inhuman treatment of one party by the other. 
5. Habitual drunkenness of either party, or the failure of the hus- 
band to make reasonable provision for the family. 6 The failure 
of the husband to make reasonable provision for the family for a 
period of two years. 7. The conviction of either party of an infamous 


Were it not for political government the pioneers would have got 
along without money much longer than they did. The pressure of 
governmental needs was somewhat in advance of the monetary 
income of the first settlers, and the little taxation required to carry 
on the government seemed great and even oppressive, especially at 
certain periods. 

In November, 1821, Gov. Jennings convened the Legislature in 
extra session to provide for the payment of interest on the State 
debt and a part of the principal, amounting to $20,000. It was 
thought that a sufficient amount would be realized in the notes of 
the State bank and its branches, although they were considerably 
depreciated. Said the Governor: " It will be oppressive if the 
State, after the paper of this institution (State bank) was author- 
ized to be circulated in revenue, should be prevented by any assign- 
ment of the evidences ot existing debt, from discharging at least 
so much of that debt with the paper of the bank as will absorb the 
collections of the present year; especially when their notes, after 
being made receivable by the agents of the State, became greatly 
depreciated by great mismanagement on the part of the bank 
itself. It ought not to be expected that a public loss to the State 
should be avoided by resorting to any measures which would not 
comport with correct views of public justice; nor should it be 
anticipated that the treasury of the United States would ultimately 
adopt measures to secure an uncertain debt which would inter- 
fere with arrangements calculated to adjust the demand against the 
State without producing any additional embarrassment." 

The state of the public debt was indeed embarrassing, as the 
bonds which had been executed in its behalf had been assigned. 
The exciting cause of this proceeding consisted in the machinations 
of unprincipled speculators. Whatever disposition the principal 
bank may have made of the funds deposited by the United States, 
the connection of interest between the steam-mill company and the 
bank, and the extraordinary accommodations, as well as their amount, 
effected by arrangements of the steam-mill agency and some of 
the officers of the bank, were among the principal causes which 


had prostrated the paper circulating medium of the State, so far as it 
was dependent on the State bank and its branches. An abnormal 
state of affairs like this very naturally produced a blind disburse- 
ment of the fund to some extent, and this disbursement would be 
called by almost every one an " unwise administration." 

During the first 16 years of this century, the belligerent condi- 
tion of Europe called for agricultural supplies from America, and 
the consequent high price of grain justified even the remote pio- 
neers of Indiana in undertaking the tedious transportation of the 
products of the soil which the times forced upon them. The large 
disbursements made by the general Government among the peo- 
ple naturally engendered a rage for speculation; numerous banks 
with fictitious capital were established; immense issues of paper 
were made; and the circulating, medium of the country was in- 
creased fourfold in the course of two or three years. This infla- 
tion produced the consequences which always follow such a scheme, 
namely, unfounded visions of wealth and splendor and the wild 
investments which result in ruin to the many and wealth to the 
few. The year 1821 was consequently one of great financial panic, 
and was the first experienced by the early settlers of the West. 

In 1822 the new Governor, William Hendricks, took a hopeful 
view of the situation, referring particularly to the " agricultural 
and social happiness of the State." The crops' were abundant this 
year, immigration was setting in heavily and everything seemed to 
have an upward look. But the customs of the white race still com- 
pelling them to patronize European industries, combined with the 
remoteness of the surplus produce of Indiana from European mar- 
kets, constituted a serious drawback to the accumulation of wealth. 
Such a state of things naturally changed the habits of the people 
to some extent, at least for a short time, assimilating them to those 
of more primitive tribes. This change of custom, however, was 
not severe and protracted enough to change the intelligent and 
social nature of the people, and they arose to their normal height 
on the very first opportunity. 

In 1822-'3, before speculation started up again, the surplus 
money was invested mainly in domestic manufactories instead of 
other and wilder commercial enterprises. Home manufactories 
were what the people needed to make them more independent. 
They not only gave employment to thousands whose services were 
before that valueless, but also created a market for a great portion 



of the surplus produce of the farmers. A part of the surplus cap- 
ital, however, was also sunk in internal improvements, some of 
which were unsuccessful for a time, but eventually proved remu- 

Noah Noble occupied the Executive chair of the State from 1831 
to 1837, commencing his duties amid peculiar embarrassments. 
The crops of 1832 were short, Asiatic cholera came sweeping along 
the Ohio and into the interior of the State, and the Black Hawk war 
raged in the Northwest, — all these at once, and yet the work of 
internal improvements was actually begun. 


The State bank of Indiana was established by law January 2S, 
1834. The act of the Legislature, by its own terms, ceased to be a 
law, January 1, 1857. At the time of its organization in 1834, its 
outstanding circulation was $4,208,725, with a debt due to the insti- 
tution, principally from citizens of the State, of $6,095,368. During 
the years 1857-'5S the bank redeemed nearly its entire circulation, 
providing for the redemption of all outstanding obligations; at this 
time it had collected from most of its debtors the money which they 
owed. The amounts of the State's interest in the stock of the bank 
was $1,390,000, and the money thus invested was procured by the 
issue of five per cent bonds, the last of which was payable July 1, 1866. 
The nominal profits of the bank were $2,7S0,604.36. By the law 
creating the sinking fund, that fund was appropriated, first, to pay 
the principal and interest on the bonds; secondly, the expenses of 
the Commissioners; and lastly the cause of common-school educa- 

The stock in all the branches authorized was subscribed by indi- 
viduals, and the installment paid as required by the charter. The 
loan authorized for the payment on the stock allotted to the State, 
amounting to $500,000, was obtained at a premium of 1.05 per 
per cent, on five per cent, stock, making the sum of over $5,000 on 
the amount borrowed. In 1836 we find that the State bank was 
doing good service; agricultural products were abundant, and the 
market was good; consequently the people were in the full enjoy- 
ment of all the blessings of a free government. 

By the year 1843 the State was experiencing the disasters and 
embarassment consequent upon a system of over-banking, and its 
natural progeny, over-trading and deceptive speculation. Such a 
state of things tends to relax the hand of industry by creating false 


notions of wealth, and tempt to sudden acquisitions by means as delu- 
sive in their results as they are contrary to a primary law of nature. 
The people began more than ever to see the necessity of falling 
back upon that branch of industry for which Indiana, especially 
at that time, was particularly fitted, namely, agriculture, as the 
true and lasting source of substantial wealth. 

Gov. Whitcomb, 1843-'49, succeeded well in maintaining the 
credit of the State. Measures of compromise between the State 
and its creditors were adopted by which, ultimately, the public 
works, although incomplete, were given in payment for the claims 
against the Government. 

At the close of his term, Gov. Whitcomb was elected to the 
Senate of the United States, and from December, 1848, to Decem- 
ber, 1849, Lieut-Gov. Paris C. Dunning was acting Governor. 

In 1851 a general banking law was adopted which gave a new 
impetus to the commerce of the State, and opened the way for a 
broader volume of general trade; but this law was the source of 
man}' abuses ; currency was expanded, a delusive idea of wealth 
again prevailed, and as a consequence, a great deal of damaging 
speculation was indulged in. 

In 1857 the charter of the State bank expired, and the large 
gains to the State in that institution were directed to the promotion 
of common-school education. 


During the war of the Eebellion the financial condition of the 
people was of course like that of the other Northern States generally. 
1870 found the State in a very prosperous condition. October 31 
of this year, the date of the fiscal report, there was a surplus of 
$373,249 in the treasury. The receipts of the year amounted to 
$3,605,639, and the disbursements to $2,943,600, leaving a balance 
of $1,035,288. The total debt of the State in November, 1871, was 

At the present time the principal articles of export from the State 
are flour and pork. Nearly all the wheat raised within the State 
is manufactured into flour within its limits, especially in the north- 
ern part. The pork business is the leading one in the southern 
part of the State. 

When we take into consideration the vast extent of railroad lines 
in this State, in connection with the agricultural and mineral 
resources, both developed and undeveloped, as already noted, we can 


see what a substantial foundation exists for the future welfare of 
this great commonwealth. Almost every portion of the State is 
coming up equally. The disposition to monopolize does not exist 
to a greater degree than is desirable or necessary for healthy compe- 
tition. Speculators in flour, pork and other commodities appeared 
during the war, but generally came to ruin at their own game. 
The agricultural community here is an independent one, under- 
standing its rights, and " knowing them will maintain them." 

Indiana is more a manufacturing State, also, than many imagine. 
It probably has the greatest wagon and carriage manufactory in the 
world. In 1875 the total number of manufacturing establishments 
in this State was 16,812; number of steam engines, 3,6S4, with a 
total horse-power of 114,961; the total horse-power of water wheels, 
38,614; number of hands employed in the manufactories, S6,402; 
capital employed, is $117,462,161; wages paid, $35,461,987; cost of 
material, $104,321,632; value of products, $301,304,271. These 
figures are on an average about twice what they were only five years 
previously, at which time they were about double what they were 
ten years before that. In manufacturing enterprise, it is said that 
Indiana, in proportion to her population, is considerably in advance 
of Illinois and Michigan. 

In 1S70 the assessed valuation of the real estate in Indiana was 
$460,120,974; of personal estate, $203,334,070; true valuation of 
both, $1,268,180,543. According to the evidences of increase at 
that time, the value of taxable property in this State must be double 
the foregoing figures. This is utterly astonishing, especially when 
we consider what a large matter it is to double the elements of a 
large and wealthy State, compared with its increase in infancy. 

The taxation for State purposes in 1870 amounted to $2,943,078; 
for county purposes, $4,654,476; and for municipal purposes, 
$3,193,577. The total county debt of Indiana in 1870 was $1,127,- 
269, and the total debt of towns, cities, etc., was $2,523,934. 

In the compilation of this statistical matter we have before us the 
statistics of every element of progress in Indiana, in the U. S. 
Census Reports; but as it would be really improper for us further 
to burden these pages with tables or columns of large numbers, we 
will conclude by remarking that if any one wishes further details in 
these matters, he can readily find them in the Census Reports of 
the Government in any city or village in the country. Besides, 
almost any one can obtain, free of charge, from his representative in 


Congress, all these and other public documents in which he may be 


This subject began to be agitated as early as 1818, during the 
administration of Governor Jennings, who, as well as all the 
Governors succeeding him to 1843, made it a special point in their 
messages to the Legislature to urge the adoption of measures for 
the construction of highways and canals and the improvement of 
the navigation of rivers. Gov. Hendricks in 1822 specified as the 
most important improvement the navigation of the Falls of the 
Ohio, the Wabash and White rivers, and other streams, and the 
construction of the National and other roads through the State. 

In 1826 Governor Eay considered the construction of roads and 
canals as a necessity to place the State on an equal financial footing 
with the older States East, and in 1829 he added: "This subject 
can never grow irksome, since it must be the source of the bless- 
ings of civilized life. To secure its benefits is a duty enjoined upon 
the Legislature by the obligations of the social compact." 

In 1830 the people became much excited over the project of con- 
necting the streams of the country by " The National New York 
& Mississippi railroad." The National road and the Michigan 
and Ohio turnpike were enterprises in which the people and Legis- 
lature of Indiana were interested. The latter had already been the 
cause of much bitter controversy, and its location was then the 
subject of contention. 

In 1S32 the work of internal improvements fairly commenced, 
despite the partial failure of the crops, the Black Hawk war and 
the Asiatic cholera. Several war parties invaded the Western 
settlements, exciting great alarm and some suffering. This year 
the canal commissioners completed the task assigned them and had 
negotiated the canal bonds in New York city, to the amount of 
$100,000, at a premium of 13J- per cent., on terms honorable to the 
State and advantageous to the work. Before the close of tnis year 
$54,000 were spent for the improvement of the Michigan road, and 
$52,000 were realized from the sale of lands appropriated for its 
construction. In 1832, 32 miles of the Wabash and Erie canal was 
placed under contract and work commenced. A communication 
was addressed to the Governor of Ohio, requesting him to call the 
attention of the Legislature of that State to the subject of the 
extension of the canal from the Indiana line through Ohio to the 


Lake. In compliance with this request, Governor Lucas promptly 
laid the subject before the Legislature of the State, and, in a spirit 
of courtesy, resolutions were adopted by that body, stipulating that 
if Ohio should ultimately decline to undertake the completion of 
that portion of the work within her limits before the time fixed by 
the act of Congress for the completion of the canal, she would, on 
just and equitable terms, enable Indiana to avail herself of the bene- 
fit of the lands granted, by authorizing her to sell them and invest 
the proceeds in the stock of a company to be incorporated by Ohio; 
and that she would give Indiana notice of her final determination 
on or before January 1, 1838. The Legislature of Ohio also 
authorized and invited the agent of the State of Indiana to select, 
survey and set apart the lands lying within that State. In keeping 
with this policy Governor Noble, in 1834, said: "With a view of 
engaging in works of internal improvement, the propriety of 
adopting a general plan or system, having reference to the several 
portions of the State, and the connection of one with the other, 
naturally suggests itself. No work should be commenced but such 
as would be of acknowledged public utility, and when completed 
would form a branch of some general system. In view of this 
object, the policy of organizing a Board of Public Works is again 
respectfully suggested." The Governor also called favorable atten- 
tion to the Lawrenceburg & Indianapolis railway, for which a 
charter had been granted. 

In 1835 the Wabash & Erie canal was pushed rapidly forward. 
The middle division, extending from the St. Joseph dam to the 
forks of the Wabash, about 32 miles, was completed, for about 
$232,000, including all repairs. Upon this portion of the line nav- 
igation was opened on July 4, which day the citizens assembled 
" to witness the mingling of the waters of the St. Joseph with 
those of the Wabash, uniting the waters of the northern chain of 
lakes with those of the Gulf of Mexico in the South." On other 
parts of the line the work progressed with speed, and the sale of 
canal lauds was unusually active 

In 1836 the first meeting of the State Board of Internal Im- 
provement was convened and entered upon the discharge of its 
numerous and responsible duties. Having assigned to each mem- 
ber the direction and superintendence of a portion of the work, 
the next duty to be performed preparatory to the various spheres of 
active service, was that of procuring the requisite number of 
engineers. A delegation was sent to the Eastern cities, but returned 


without engaging an Engineer-in-Chief for the roads and railways, 
and without the desired number for the subordinate station; but 
after considerable delay the Board was fully oi-ganized and put in 
operation. Under their management work on public improve- 
ments was successful; the canal progressed steadily; the naviga- 
tion of the middle division, from Fort Wayne to Huntington, was 
uninterrupted; 16 miles of the line between Huntington and La 
Fontaine creek were filled with water this year and made ready for 
navigation ; and the remaining 20 miles were completed, except a 
portion of the locks; from La Fontaine creek to Logansport prog- 
ress was made; the line from Georgetown to Lafayette was placed 
under contract; about 30 miles of the Whitewater canal, extending 
from Lawrenceburg through the beautiful valley of the White- 
water to Brookville, were also placed under contract, as also 23 
miles of the Central canal, passing through Indianapolis, on which 
work was commenced; also about 20 miles of the southern divis- 
ion of this work, extending from Evansville into the interior, 
were also contracted for; and on the line of the Cross-Cut canal, 
from Terre Haute to the intersection of the Central canal, near 
the mouth of Eel river, a commencement was also made on all the 
heavy sections. All this in 1836. 

Early in this year a party of engineers was organized, and 
directed to examine into the practicability of the Michigan & 
Erie canal line, then proposed. The report of their operations 
favored its expediency. A party of engineers was also fitted out, 
who entered upon the field of service of the Madison & Lafayette 
railroad, and contracts were let for its construction from Madison 
to Vernon, on which work was vigorously commenced. Also, con- 
tracts were let for grading and bridging the New Albany & Vin- 
cennes road from the former point to Paoli, about 40 miles. 
Other roads were also undertaken and surveyed, so that indeed a 
stupendous system of internal improvement was undertaken, and 
as Gov. Noble truly remarked, upon the issue of that vast enter- 
prise the State of Indiana staked her fortune. She had gone too 
far to retreat. 

In 1837, when Gov. Wallace took the Executive chair, the 
reaction consequent upon '"over work" by the State in the internal 
improvement scheme began to be felt by the people. They feared 
a State debt was being incurred from which they could never be 
extricated; but the Governor did all he could throughout the term 
of his administration to keep up the courage of the citizens. He 


told them that the astonishing success so far, surpassed even the 
hopes of the most sanguine, and that the flattering auspices of the 
future were sufficient to dispel every doubt and quiet every fear. 
Notwithstanding all his efforts, however, the construction of pub- 
lic works continued to decline, and inhislast message he exclaimed: 
" Never before — I speak it advisedly — never before have you wit- 
nessed a period in our local history that more urgently called for 
the exercise of all the soundest and best attributes of grave and 
patriotic legislators than the present. * * * The 

truth is — and it would be folly to conceal it — we have our hands 
full — full to overflowing; and therefore, to sustain ourselves, to 
preserve the credit and character of the State unimpaired, and to 
continue her hitherto unexampled march to wealth and distinction, 
we have not an hour of time, nor a dollar of money, nor a hand 
employed in labor, to squander and dissipate upon mere objects of 
idleness, or taste, or amusement." 

The State had borrowed $3,S27,000 for internal improvement pur- 
poses, of which $1,327,000 was for the Wabash & Erie canal and 
the remainder for other works. The five per cent, interest on 
debts — about $200,000 — which the State had to pay, had become 
burdensome, as her resources for this purpose were only two, 
besides direct taxation, and they were small, namely, the interest 
on the balances due for canal lands, and the proceeds of the third 
installment of the surplus revenue, both amounting, in 183S, 
to about $45,000. 

In August, 1839, all work ceased on these improvements, with 
one or two exceptions, and most of the contracts were surrendered 
to the State. This was done according to an act of the Legislature 
providing for the compensation of contractors by the issue of 
treasury notes. In addition to this state of affairs, the Legisla- 
ture of 1839 had made no provision for the payment of interest on 
the State debt incurred for internal improvements. Concerning 
this situation Gov. Bigger, in 1840, said that either to go ahead 
with the works or to abandon them altogether would be equally 
ruinous to the State, the implication being that the people should 
wait a little while for a breathing spell and then take hold again. 

Of course much individual indebtedness was created during the 
progress of the work on internal improvement. When operations 
ceased in 1839, and prices fell at the same time, the people were 
left in a great measure without the means of commanding money 
to pay their debts. This condition of private enterprise more than 


ever rendered direct taxation inexpedient. Hence it became the 
policy of Gov. Bigger to provide the means of paying the interest 
on the State debt without increasing the rate of taxation, and to 
continue that portion of the public works that could be immedi- 
ately completed, and from which the earliest returns could be 

In 1840 the system embraced ten different works, the most im- 
portant of which was the Wabash & Erie canal. The aggregate 
length of the lines embraced in the system was 1,160 miles, and 
of this only 140 miles had been completed. The amount expended 
had reached the sum of $5,600,000, and it required at least $14,000,- 
000 to complete them. Although the crops of 1841 were very 
remunerative, this perquisite alone was not sufficient to raise the 
State again up to the level of going ahead with her gigantic 

We should here state in detail the amount of work completed and 
of money expended on the various works up to this time, 1841, 
which were as follows : 

1. The Wabash & Erie canal, from the State line to Tippe- 
canoe, 129 miles in length, completed and navigable for the whole 
length, at a cost of $2,041,012. This sum includes the cost of the 
steamboat lock afterward completed at Delphi. 

2. The extension of the Wabash & Erie canal from the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe to Terre Haute, over 104 miles. The estimated 
cost of this work was $1,500,000; and the amount expended for the 
same $408,855. The navigation was at this period opened as far 
down as Lafayette, and a part of the work done in the neighbor- 
hood of Covington. 

3. The cross-cut canal from Terre Haute to Central canal, 
49 miles in length; estimated cost, $718,672; amount expended, 
$420,679; and at this time no part of the course was navigable. 

4. The White Water canal, from Lawrenceburg to the mouth 
of Nettle creek, 76£ miles; estimated cost, $1,675,738; amount 
expended to that date, $1,099,867; and 31 miles of the work 
was navigable, extending from the Ohio river to Brookville. 

5. The Central canal, from the Wabash & Erie canal, to 
Indianapolis, including the feeder bend at Muncietown, 124 miles 
in length; total estimated cost, $2,299,853; amount expended, 
$568,046 ; eight miles completed at that date, and other portions 
nearly done. 


6. Central canal, from Indianapolis to Evansville on the Ohio 
river, 194 miles in length; total estimated cost, $3,532,394; amount 
expended, $831,302, 19 miles of which was completed at that date, 
at the southern end, and 16 miles, extending south from Indiauau- 
olis, were nearly completed. 

7. Erie & Michigan canal, 182 miles in length; estimated cost, 
$2,624,823; amount expended, $156,394. No part of this work 

8. The Madison & Indianapolis railroad, over 85 miles in 
length; total estimated cost, $2,046,600; amount expended, $1,493,- 
013. Road finished and in operation for about 28 miles; grad- 
ing nearly finished for 27 miles in addition, extending to Eden- 

9. Indianapolis & Lafayette turnpike road, 73 miles in length; 
total estimated cost, $593, 737; amount expended, $72,118. The 
bridging and most of the grading was done on 27 miles, from 
Crawfordsville to Lafayette. 

10. New Albany & Vincennes turnpike road, 105 miles in 
length; estimated cost, $1,127,295; amount expended, $654,411. 
Forty-one miles graded and macadamized, extending from New 
Albany to Paoli. and 27 miles in addition partly graded. 

11. Jefferson ville & Crawfordsville road, over 164 miles long; 
total estimated cost, $1,651,800; amount expended, $372,737. 
Forty -five miles were partly graded and bridged, extending from 
Jeffersonville to Salem, and from Greencastle north. 

12. Improvement of the "Wabash rapids, undertaken jointly by 
Indiana and Illinois; estimated cost to Indiana, $102,500; amount 
expended by Indiana, $9,539. 

Grand totals: Length of roads and canals, 1,289 miles, only 
281 of which have been finished; estimated cost of all the works, 
$19,914,424; amount expended, $8,164,528. The State debt at 
this time amounted to $18,469,146. The two principal causes 
which aggravated the embarrassment of the State at this juncture 
were, first, paying most of the interest out of the money borrowed, 
and, secondly, selling bonds on credit. The first error subjected 
the State to the payment of compound interest, and the people, 
not feeling the pressure of taxes to discharge the interest, natu- 
rally became inattentive to the public policy pursued. Postpone- 
ment of the payment of interest is demoralizing in every way. 
During this period the State was held up in an unpleasant manner 
before the gaze of the world; but be it to the credit of this great 


and glorious State, she would not repudiate, as many other States 
and municipalities have done. 

By the year 1850, the so-called "internal improvement" system 
having been abandoned, private capital and ambition pushed for- 
ward various "public works." During this year about 400 miles 
of plank road were completed, at a cost of $1,200 to $1,500 per 
mile, and about 1,200 miles more were surveyed "and in progress. 
There were in the State at this time 212 miles of railroad in suc- 
cessful operation, of which 124 were completed this year. More 
than 1,000 miles of railroad were surveyed and in progress. 

An attempt was made during the session of the Legislature in 
1869 to re-burden the State with the old canal debt, and the matter 
was considerably agitated in the canvass of 1870. The subject of the 
"Wabash & Erie canal was lightly touched in the Republican plat- 
form, occasioning considerable discussion, which probably had 
some effect on the election in the fall. That election resulted in 
an average majority in the State of about 2,864 for the Democracy. 
It being claimed that the Legislature had no authority under the 
constitution to tax the people for the purpose of aiding in the con- 
struction of railroads, the Supreme Court, in Arjril, 1871, decided 
adversely to such a claim. 


In 1869 the development of mineral resources in the State 
attracted considerable attention. Rich mines of iron and coal were 
discovered, as also fine quarries of building stone. The Vincennes 
railroad passed through some of the richest portions of the mineral 
region, the engineers of which had accurately determined the 
quality of richness of the ores. Near Brooklyn, about 20 miles 
from Indianapolis, is a fine formation of sandstone, yielding good 
material for buildings in the city; indeed, it is considered the best 
building stone in the State. The limestone formation at Gosport, 
continuing 12 miles from that point, is of great variety, and 
includes the finest and most durable building stone in the world. 
Portions of it are susceptible only to the chisel; other portions are 
soft and can be worked with the ordinary tools. At the end of this 
limestone formation there commences a sandstone series of strata 
which extends seven miles farther, to a point about 60 miles from 
Indianapolis. Here an extensive coal bed is reached consisting of 
seven distinct veins. The first is about two feet thick, the next 
three feet, another four feet, and the others of various thicknesses. 


These beds are all easily worked, having a natural drain, and they 
yield heavy profits. In the whole of the southwestern part of the 
State and for 300 miles up the Wabash, coal exists in good quality 
and abundance. 

The scholars, statesmen and philanthropists of Indiana work- 
ed hard and long for the appointment of a State Geologist, with 
sufficient support" to enable him to make a thorough geological 
survey of the State. A partial survey was made as early as 1837-'8, 
by David Dale Owen, State Geologist, but nothing more was done 
until 1869, when Prof. Edward T. Cox was appointed State Geolo- 
gist For 20 years previous to this date the Governors urged and 
insisted in all their messages that a thorough survey should be 
made, but almost, if not quite, in vain. In 1S52, Dr. Ryland T. 
Brown delivered an able address on this subject before the Legis- 
lature, showing how much coal, iron, building stone, etc., there 
were probably; in the State, but the exact localities and qualities 
not ascertained, and how millions of money could be saved to the 
State by the expenditure of a few thousand dollars; but "they 
answered the Doctor in the negative. It must have been because 
they hadn't time to pass the bill. They were very busy. They had 
to pass all sorts of regulations concerning the negro. They had to 
protect a good many white people from marrying negroes. And as 
they didn't need any labor in the State, if it was ' colored,' they 
had to make regulations to shut out all of that kind of labor, and 
to take steps to put out all that unfortunately got in, and they didn't 
have time to consider the scheme proposed by the white people." — 
W. W. Clayton. 

In 1S53, the State Board of Agriculture employed Dr. Brown to 
make a partial examination of the geology of the State, at a salary 
of $500 a year, and to this Board the credit is due for the final 
success of the philanthropists, who in 1S69 had the pleasure of 
witnessing the passage of a Legislative act " to provide for a Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Science, in connection with the State 
Board of Agriculture." Under this act Governor Baker immedi- 
ately appointed Prof. Edward T. Cox the State Geologist, who has 
made an able and exhaustive report of the agricultural, mineral 
and manufacturing resources of this State, world-wide in its celeb- 
rity, and a work of which the people of Indiana may be very 
proud. We can scarcely give even the substance of his report in :i 
work like this, because it is of necessity deeply scientific and made 
up entirely of local detail. 



The coal measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about 
6,500 square miles, in the southwestern part of the State, and 
extend from Warren county on the north to the Ohio river on the 
south, a distance of about 150 miles. This area comprises the fol- 
lowing counties: Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, 
Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, 
Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry and a small part of Crawford, 
Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. 

This coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well-marked 
varieties: caking-coal, non-caking-coal or block coal and cannel 
coal. The total depth of the seams or measures is from 600 to 800 
feet, with 12 to 14 distinct seams of coal; but these are not all to 
be found throughout the area; the seams range from one foot to 
eleven feet in thickness. The caking coal prevails in the western 
portion of the area described, and has from three to four workable 
seams, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. 
At most of the places where these are worked the coal is mined by 
adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in 
the State are less than 300 feet, the average depth for successful 
mining not being over 75 feet. This is a bright, black, sometimes 
glossy, coal, makes good coke and contains a very large percentage 
of pure illuminating gas. One pound will yield about 4J cubic feet 
of gas, with a power equal to 15 standard sperm candles. The 
average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7,745 heat 
units, pure carbon being 8,080. Both in the northern and southern 
portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, 
and are a great source of private and public wealth. 

The block coal prevails in the eastern part of the field and has an 
area of about 450 square miles. This is excellent, in its raw state, 
for making pig iron. It is indeed peculiarly fitted for metal- 
lurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous 
matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, with slaty cleavage, and 
it rings under the stroke of the hammer. It is " free-burning," 
makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the 
furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is con- 
sumed to a white ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable 
for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal 
railway lines in the State are using it in preference % to any other 
coal, as it does not burn out the fire-boxes, and gives as little trouble 
as wood. 


There are eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of 
which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In 
some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts. 
40 to 80 feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines, and 
the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in 
blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven 
angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a 
zigzag, notched appearance resembling a Yirginia worm fence. 

In 1871 there were about 24 block coal mines in operation, and 
about 1,500 tons were mined daily. Since that time this industry 
has vastly increased. This coal consists of 81£ to 83£ per cent, of 
carbon, and not quite three fourths of one per cent, of sulphur. 
Calculated calorific power equal to 8,2S3 heat units. This coal also 
is equally good both in the northern and southern parts of the field. 

The great Indiana coal field is within 150 miles of Chicago or 
Michigan City, by railroad, from which ports the Lake Superior 
specular and red hematite ores are landed from vessels that are able 
to run in a direct course from the ore banks. Considering the 
proximity of the vast quantities of iron in Michigan and Missouri^ 
one can readily see what a glorious future awaits Indiana in respect 
to manufactories. 

Of the cannel coal, one of the finest seams to be found in the 
country is in Daviess county, this State. Here it is three and a 
half feet thick, underlaid by one and a half feet of a beautiful, jet- 
black caking coal. There is no clay, shale or other foreign matter 
intervening, and fragments of the caking coal are often found 
adhering to the cannel. There is no gradual change from one to 
the other, and the character of each is homogeneous throughout. 

The cannel coal makes a delightful fire in open grates, and does 
not pop and throw off scales into the room, as is usual with this 
kind of coal. This coal is well adapted to the manufacture of 
illuminating gas, in respect to both quantity and high illuminating 
power. One ton of 2,000 pounds of this coal yields 10,400 feet of 
gas, while the best Pennsylvania coal yields but 8,680 cubic feet. 
This gas has an illuminating power of 25 candles, while the best 
Pennsylvania coal gas has that of only 17 candles. 

Cannel coal is also found in great abundance in Perry, Greene, 
Parke and Fountain counties, where its commercial value has already 
been demonstrated. 

Numerous deposits of bog iron ore are found in the northern part 
of the State, and clay iron-stones and impure carbonates and brown 


oxides are found scattered in the vicinity of the coal field. In some 
places the beds are quite thick and of considerable commercial 

An abundance of excellent lime is also found in Indiana, espe- 
cially in Huntington county, where many large kilns are kept in 
profitable operation. 


In 1852 the Legislature passed an act authorizing the organization 
of county and district agricultural societies, and also establishing a 
State Board, the provisions of which act are substantially as follows: 

1. Thirty or more persons in any one or two counties organizing 
into a society for the improvement of agriculture, adopting a consti- 
tution and by-laws agreeable to the regulations prescribed by the 
State Board, and appointing the proper officers and raising a sum 
of $50 for its own treasury, shall be entitled to the same amount 
from the fund arising from show licenses in their respective 

2. These societies shall offer annual premiums for improvement 
of soils, tillage, crops, manures, productions, stock, articles of 
domestic industry, and such other articles, productions and improve- 
ments as they may deem proper; they shall encourage, by grant 
of rewards, agricultural and household manufacturing interests, and 
so regulate the premiums that small farmers will have equal 
opportunity with the large; and they shall pay special attention to 
cost and profit of the inventions and improvements, requiring an 
exact, detailed statement of the processes competing for rewards. 

3. They shall publish in a newspaper annually their list of 
awards and an abstract of their treasurers' accounts, and they shall 
report in full to the State Board their proceedings. Failing to do 
the latter they shall receive no payment from their county funds. 


The act of Feb. 17, 1852, also established a State Board of Agri- 
culture, with perpetual succession; its annual meetings to be held 
at Indianapolis on the first Thursday after the first Monday in 
January, when the reports of the county societies are to be received 
and agricultural interests discussed and determined upon; it shall 
make an annual report to the Legislature of receipts, expenses, 
proceedings, etc., of its own meeting as well as of those of the local 


societies; it shall hold State fairs, at such times and places as they 
may deem proper; may hold two meetings a year, certifying to the 
State Auditor their expenses, who shall draw his warrant upon the 
Treasurer for the same. 

In 1861 the State Board adopted certain rules, embracing ten 
sections, for the government of local societies, but in 1868 they 
were found inexpedient and abandoned. It adopted a resolution 
admitting delegates from the local societies. 


As the Board found great difficulty in doing justice to exhibitors 
without an adequate building, the members went earnestly to work 
in the fall of 1872 to get up an interest in the matter. They 
appointed a committee of five to confer with the Councilor citizens 
of Indianapolis as to the best mode to be devise'd for a more 
thorough and complete exhibition of the industries of the State. 
The result of the conference was that the time had arrived for a 
regular " exposition," like that of the older States. At the Janu- 
ary meeting in 1873, Hon. Thomas Dowling, of Terre Haute, 
reported for the committee that they found a general interest in 
this enterprise, not only at the capital, but also throughout the 
State. A sub-committee was appointed who devised plans and 
specifications for the necessary structure, taking lessons mainly 
from the Kentucky Exposition building at Louisville. All the 
members of the State Board were in favor of proceeding with the 
building except Mr. Poole, who feared that, as the interest of the 
two enterprises were somewhat conflicting, and the Exposition being 
the more exciting show, it would swallow up the State and county 

The Exposition was opened Sept. 10, 1S73, when Hon. John 
Sutherland, President of the Board, the Mayor of Indianapolis, 
Senator Morton and Gov. Hendricks delivered addresses. Senator 
Morton took the high ground that the money spent for an exposi- 
tion is spent as strictly for educational purposes as that which goes 
directly into the common school. The exposition is not a mere 
show, to be idly gazed upon, but an industrial school where one 
should study and learn. He thought that Indiana had less untill- 
able land than any other State in the Union; 'twas as rich as any 
and yielded a greater variety of products; and that Indiana was 
the most prosperous agricultural community in the United States. 


The State had nearly 3,700 miles of railroad, not counting side- 
track, with 400 miles more under contract for building. In 15 
or 18 months one can go from Indianapolis to every county in 
the State by railroad. Indiana has 6,500 square miles of coal field, 
450 of which contain block coal, the best in the United States for 
manufacturing purposes. 

On the subject of cheap transportation, he said: " By the census 
of 1870, Pennsylvania had, of domestic animals of all kinds, 4,006,- 
589, and Indiana, 4,511,094. Pennsylvania had grain to the amount 
of 60,460,000 bushels, while Indiana had 79,350,454. The value of 
the farm products of Pennsylvania was estimated to be $183,946,- 
000; those of Indiana, $122,914,000. Thus you see that while 
Indiana had 505,000 head of live stock more, and 19,000,000 
bushels of grain more than Pennsylvania, yet the products of Penn- 
sylvania are estimated at $183,946,000, on account of her greater 
proximity to market, while those of Indiana are estimated at only 
$122,914,000. Thus you can understand the importance of cheap 
transportation to Indiana. 

" Let us see how the question of transportation affects us on the 
other hand, with reference to the manufacturer of Bessemer steel. 
Of the 174,000 tons of iron ore used in the blast furnaces of Pitts- 
burg last year, 84,000 tons came from Lake Superior, 64,000 tons 
from Iron Mountain, Missouri, 20,000 tons from Lake Champlain, 
and less than 5,000 tons from the home mines of Pennsylvania. 
They cannot manufacture their iron with the coal they have in 
Pennsylvania without coking it. We have coal in Indiana with 
which we can, in its raw state, make the best of iron; while we are 
250 miles nearer Lake Superior than Pittsburg, and 430 miles 
nearer to Iron Mountain. So that the question of transportation 
determines the fact that Indiana must become the great center for 
the manufacture of Bessemer steel." 

"What we want in this countiT is diversified labor." 

The grand hall of the Exposition buildings is on elevated ground 
at the head of Alabama street, and commands a tine view of the 
city. The structure is of brick, 308 feet long by 150 in width, and 
two stories high. Its elevated galleries extend quite around the 
building, under the roof, thus affording visitors an opportunity to 
secure the most commanding view to be had in the city. The 
lower floor of the grand hall is occupied by the mechanical, geologi- 
cal and miscellaneous departments, and by the offices of the Board, 
which extend along the entire front. The second floor, which is 


approached by three wide stairways, accommodates the fine art, 
musical and other departments of light mechanics, and is brilliantly 
lighted by windows and skylights. But as we are here entering 
the description of a subject magnificent to behold, we enter a 
description too vast to complete, and we may as well stop here as 

The Presidents of the State Fairs have been: Gov. J. A. "Wright, 
1852-'4; Gen. Jos. Orr, 1855; Dr. A. C. Stevenson, 1S56-'S; G. D. 
Wagner; 1859-60; D. P. Rolloway, 1861; Jas. D.Williams, 1S62, 
1870-M; A. D. Hamrick, 1863, 1867-'9; Stearns Fisher, 1864-'6; 
John Sutherland, 1872-'4; Wm. Crim, 1875. Secretaries : John B. 
Dillon, 1852-'3, 1855, 1858- '9; Ignatius Brown, 1856-7; W.T. Den- 
nis, 1854, 1860-'l; W.H. Loomis, 1862-'6; A. J. Holmes, 1867-'9; 
Joseph Poole, 1870-'l ; Alex. Heron, 1872-'5. Place of fair, Indian- 
apolis every year except: Lafayette, 1853; Madison, 1854; New 
Albany, 1859; Fort Wayne, 1865; and Terre Haute, 1867. In 
1861 there was no fair. The gate and entry receipts increased from 
$4,651 in 1852 to $45,330 in 1874. 

On the opening of the Exposition, Oct. 7, 1874, addresses were 
delivered by the President of the Board, Hon. John Sutherland, 
and by Govs. Hendricks, Bigler and Pollock. Yvon's celebrated 
painting, the " Great Republic," was unveiled with great ceremony, 
and many distinguished guests were present to witness it. 

The exhibition of 1875 showed that the plate glass from the 
southern part of the State was equal to the finest French plate ; that 
the force-blowers made in the eastern part of the State was of a 
world-wide reputation; that the State has within its bounds the 
largest wagon manufactory in the world; that in other parts of the 
State there were all sorts and sizes of manufactories, including roll- 
ing mills and blast furnaces, and in the western part coal was mined 
and shipped at the rate of 2,500 tons a day from one vicinity; and 
many other facts, which " would astonish the citizens of Indiana 
themselves even more than the rest of the world." 


This society was organized in 1842, thus taking the lead in the 
West. At this time Henry Ward Beecher was a resident of Indian- 
apolis, engaged not Dnly as a minister but also as editor of the 
Indiana Farmer and Gardener, and his influence was very exten- 
sive in the interests of horticulture, floriculture and farming. 
Prominent among his pioneer co-laborers were Judge Coburn, 


Aaron Aldridge, Capt. James Sigarson, D. V., Culley, Eeuben 
Ragan, Stephen Hampton, Cornelius Ratliff, Joshua Lindley, 
Abner Pope and many others. In the autumn of this year the 
society held an exhibition, probably the first in the State, if not 
in the West, in the hall of the new State house. The only pre- 
mium offered was a set of silver teaspoons for the best seedling 
apple, which was won by Reuben Ragan, of Putnam county, for 
an apple christened on this occasion the " Osceola." 

The society gave great encouragement to the introduction of 
new varieties of fruit, especially of the pear, as the soil and cli- 
mate of Indiana were well adapted to this fruit. But the bright 
horizon which seemed to be at this time looming up all around the 
field of the young society's operations was suddenly and thoroughly 
darkened by the swarm of noxious insects, diseases, blasts of win- 
ter and the great distance to market. The prospects of the cause 
scarcely justified a continuation of the expense of assembling from 
remote parts of the State, and the meetings of the society therefore 
soon dwindled away until the organization itself became quite 

But when, in 1852 and afterward, railroads began to traverse the 
State in all directions, the Legislature provided for the organization 
of a State Board of Agriculture, whose scope was not only agri- 
culture but also horticulture and the mechanic and household arts. 
The rapid growth of the State soon necessitated a differentiation of 
this body, and in the autumn of 1860, at Indianapolis, there was 
organized the 


October 18, Reuben Ragan was elected President and Wm H. 
Loomis, of Marion county, Secretary. The constitution adopted 
provided for biennial meetings in January, at Indianapolis. At 
the first regular meeting, Jan. 9, 1861, a committee-man for each 
congressional district was appointed, all of them together to be 
known as the " State Fruit Committee," and twenty-five members 
were enrolled during this session. At the regular meeting in 1863 
the constitution was so amended as to provide for annual sessions, 
and the address of the newly elected President, Hon. I. G. D. Nel- 
son, of Allen county, urged the establishment of an agricultural 
college. He continued in the good cause until his work was 
crowned with success. 


In 1864 there was but little done on account of the exhaust- 
ive demands of the great war; and the descent of mercury 60° in 
eighteen hours did so much mischief as to increase the discourage- 
ment to the verge of despair. The title of the society was at this 
meeting, Jan., 1864 changed to that of the Indiana Horticultural 

The first several meetings of the society were mostly devoted to 
revision of fruit lists; and although the good work, from its vast- 
ness and complication, became somewhat monotonous, it has been 
no exception in this respect to the law that all the greatest and 
most productive labors of mankind require perseverance and toil. 

In 1866, George M. Beeler, who had so indefatigably served as 
secretary for several years, saw himself hastening to his grave and 
showed his love for the cause of fruit culture by bequeathing to 
the society the sum of $1,000. This year also the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction was induced to take a copy of the 
Society's transactions for each of the township libraries in the State, 
and this enabled the Society to bind its volume of proceedings in 
a substantial manner. 

At the meeting in 1867 many valuable and interesting papers 
were presented, the office of corresponding secretary was created, 
and the subject of Legislative aid was discussed. The State Board 
of Agriculture placed the management of the horticultural depart- 
ment of the State fair in the care of the Society. 

The report for 1868 shows for the first time a balance on hand, 
after paying expenses, the balance being $61.55. Up to this time 
the Society had to take care of itself, — meeting current expenses, do- 
ing its own printing and binding, "boarding and clothing itself," 
and diffusing annually an amount of knowledge utterly incalcu- 
lable. During the year called meetings were held at Salem, in the 
peach and grape season, and evenings during the State fair, which 
was held in Terre Haute the previous fall. The State now assumed 
the cost of printing and binding, but the volume of transactions 
was not quite so valuable as that of the former year. 

In 1870 $160 was given to this Society by the State Board of 
Agriculture, to be distributed as prizes for essays, which object 
was faithfully carried out. The practice has since then been con- 

In 1871 the Horticultural Society brought out the best volume 
of papers and proceedings it ever has had published. 


In 1872 the office of corresponding secretary was discontinued ; 
the appropriation by the State Board of Agriculture diverted to 
the payment of premiums on small fruits given at a show held the 
previous summer; results of the exhibition not entirely satisfac- 

In 1873 the State officials refused to publish the discussions of 
the members of the Horticultural Society, and the Legislature 
appropriated $500 for the purpose for each of the ensuing two 

In 1S75 the Legislature enacted a law requiring that one of the 
trustees of Purdue University shall be selected by the Horticultu- 
ral Society. 

The aggregate annual membership of this society from its organ- 
ization in 1860 to 1875 was 1,225. 

The subject of education has been referred to in almost every 
gubernatorial message from the organization of the Territory to 
the present time. It is indeed the most favorite enterprise of the 
Hoosier State. In the first survey of Western lands, Congress set 
apart a section of land in every township, generally the 16th, for 
school purposes, the disposition of the land to be in hands of the 
residents of the respective townships. Besides this, to this State 
were given two entire townships for the use of a State Seminary, 
to be under the control of the Legislature. Also, the State con- 
stitution provides that all fines for the breach of law and all com- 
mutations for militia service be appropriated to the use of county 
seminaries. In 1825 the common-school lands amounted to 
680,207 acres, estimated at $2 an acre, and valued therefore at 
$1,216,044. At this time the seminary at Bloomington. supported 
in part by one of these township grants, was very flourishing. The 
common schools, however, were in rather a poor condition. 


In 1852 the free-school system was fully established, which has 
resulted in placing Indiana in the lead of this great nation. Al- 
though this is a pleasant subject, it is a very large one to treat in 
a condensed notice, as this has to be. 

The free-school system of Indiana first became practically oper- 
ative the first Monday of April, 1853, when the township trustees 



for school purposes were elected through the State. The law com- 
mitted to them the charge of all the educational affairs in their 
respective townships. As it was feared by the opponents of the 
law that it would not be possible to select men in all the town- 
ships capable of executing the school laws satisfactorily, the 
people were thereby awakened to the necessity of electing their 
very best men ; and although, of course, many blunders have been 
made by trustees, the operation of the law has tended to elevate the 
adult population as well as the youth; and Indiana still adheres to 
the policy of appointing its best men to educational positions. 
The result is a grand surprise to all old fogies, who indeed scarcely 
dare to appear such any longer. 

To instruct the people in the new law and set the educational 
machinery going, a pamphlet of over 60 pages, embracing the law, 
with notes and explanations, was issued from the office of a super- 
intendent of public instruction, and distributed freely throughout 
the State. The first duty of the Board of Trustees was to establish 
and conveniently locate a sufficient number of schools for the edu- 
cation of all the children of their township. But where were the 
school-houses, and what were they? Previously they had been 
erected by single districts, but under this law districts were abol- 
ished, their lines obliterated, and houses previously built by dis- 
tricts became the property of the township, and all the houses were 
to be built at the expense of the township by an appropriation of 
township funds by the trustees. In some townships there was not 
a single school-house of any kind, and in others there were a few 
old, leaky, dilapidated log cabins, wholly unfit for use even in sum- 
mer, and in " winter worse than nothing." Before the people could 
be tolerably accommodated with schools at least 3,500 school-houses 
had to be erected in the State. 

By a general law, enacted in conformity to the constitution of 
1852, each township was made a municipal corporation, and every 
voter in the township a member of the corporation ; the Board of 
Trustees constituted the township legislature as well as the execu- 
tive body, the whole body of voters, however, exercising direct con- 
trol through frequent meetings called by the trustees. Special 
taxes and every other matter of importance were directly voted 

Some tax-payers, who were opposed to special townships' taxes, 
retarded the progress of schools by refusing to pay their assess- 
ment. Contracts for building school-houses were given up, houses 


half finished were abandoned, and in many townships all school 
operations were suspended. In some of them, indeed, a rumor was 
circulated by the enemies of the law that the entire school law from 
beginning to end had been declared by the Supreme Court uncon- 
stitutional and void; and the Trustees, believing this, actually dis- 
missed their schools and considered themselves out of office. Hon. 
W. C. Larrabee, the (first) Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
corrected this error as soon as possible. 

But while the voting of special taxes was doubted on a constitu- 
tional point, it became evident that it was weak in a practical point; 
for in many townships the opponents of the system voted down every 
proposition for the erection of school-houses. 

Another serious obstacle was the great deficiency in the number 
of qualified teachers. To meet the newly created want, the law 
authorized the appointment of deputies in each county to examine 
and license persons to teach, leaving it in their judgment to lower 
the standard of qualification sufficiently to enable them to license 
as many as were needed to supply all the schools. It was therefore 
found necessary to employ many " unqualified " teachers, especially 
in the remote rural districts. But the progress of the times 
enabled the Legislature of 1853 to erect a standard of qualifica- 
tion and give to the county commissioners the authority to license 
teachers; and in order to supply every school with a teacher, while 
there might not be a sufficient number of properly qualified teach- 
ers, the commissioners were authorized to grant temporary licenses 
to take charge of particular schools not needing a high grade of 

In 1854 the available common-school fund consisted of the con- 
gressional township fund, the surplus revenue fund, the saline 
fund, the bank tax fund and miscellaneous fund, amounting in all 
to $2,460, GOO. This amount, from many sources, was subsequently 
increased to a very great extent. The common-school fund was 
intrusted to the several counties of the State, which were held 
responsible for the preservation thereof and for the payment of the 
annual interest thereon. The fund was managed by the auditors 
and treasurers of the several counties, for which these officers were 
allowed one-tenth of the income. It was loaned out to the citizens 
of the county in sums not exceeding $300, on real estate security. 
The common-school fund was thus consolidated and the proceeds 
equally distributed each year to all the townships, cities and towns 


of the State, in proportion to the number of children. This phase 
of the law met with considerable opposition in 1854. 

The provisions of the law for the establishment of township 
libraries was promptly carried into effect, and much time, labor 
and thought were devoted to the selection of books, special atten- 
tion being paid to historical works. 

The greatest need in 1854 was for qualified teachers; but never- 
theless the progress of public education during this and following 
years was very great. School-houses were erected, many of them 
being fine structures, well furnished, and the libraries were consid- 
erably enlarged. 

The city school system of Indiana received a heavy set-back in 
1858, by a decision of the Supreme Court of the State, that the 
law authorizing cities and townships to levy a tax additional to the 
State tax was not in conformity with that clause in the Constitu- 
tion which required uniformity in taxation. The schools were 
stopped for want of adequate funds. For a few weeks in each year 
thereafter the feeble " uniform " supply from the State fund en- 
abled the people to open the schools, but considering the returns 
the public realizes for so small an outlay in educational matters, 
this proved more expensive than ever. Private schools increased, 
but the attendance was small. Thus the interests of popular edu- 
cation languished for years. But since the revival of the free 
schools, the State fund has grown to vast proportions, and the 
schools of this intelligent and enterprising commonwealth compare 
favorably with those of any other portion of the United States. 

There is no occasion to present all the statistics of school prog- 
ress in this State from the first to the present time, but some 
interest will be taken in the latest statistics, which we take from the 
9th Biennial Report (for 3 877- '8) by the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, Hon. James H. Smart. This report, by the 
way, is a volume of 480 octavo pages, and is free to all who desire 
a copy. 

The rapid, substantia) and permanent increase which Indiana 
enjoys in her school interests is thus set forth in the above report. 

Length Total 

of School No of Attendance School Am't Paid 

Tear. In Days. Teachers. at School. Enumeration. Teachers. 

1855 61 4,016 206,994 445,791 $ 239.924 

1860 65 7,649 303,744 .495,019 481,020 

1865 66 9,493 402,812 557,092 1,020.440 

1870 97 11,826 462,527 619.627 1,810,866 

1875 130 13,133 502,362 667,736 2,830,747 

1878 129 13,676 512,535 699,153 3,065,968 



The increase of school population during the past ten years has 
been as follows: 

Total in 1868, 592,865. 

Increase for year ending Increase for year ending 

Sept. 1, 1869 17,699 May 1, 1874 13,922 

" 1,1870 9,063 " 1,1875 13,372 

" 1,1871 3,101 " 1,1876 11,494 

" 1,1872 8,811 "1,1877 15,476 

May 1, 1873 (8 months) 8,903 " 1,1878 4,447 

Total, 1878 699,153 

No. of white males 354,271 ; females 333,033 687,304 

" "colored" 5,937; " 5,912 11,849 

Twenty-nine per cent, of the above are in the 49 cities and 212 
incorporated towns, and 71 per cent, in the 1,011 townships. 

The number of white males enrolled in the schools in 1878 was 
267,315, and of white females, 237,739; total, 505,054; of colored 
males, 3,794; females, 3,687; total, 7,481; grand total, 512,535. 

The average number enrolled in each district varies from 51 to 56, 
and the average daily attendance from 32 to 35; but many children 
reported as absent attend parochial or private schools. Seventy- 
three per cent, of the white children and 63 per cent, of the colored, 
in the State, are enrolled in the schools. 

The number of days taught vary materially in the different town- 
ships, and on this point State Superintendent Smart iterates: "As 
long as the schools of some of our townships are kept open but 60 
days and others 220 days, we do not have a uniform system, — such 
as was contemplated by the constitution. The school law requires 
the trustee of a township to maintain each of the schools in his 
corporation an equal length of time. This provision cannot be so 
easily applied to the various counties of the State, for the reason 
that there is a variation in the density of the population, in the 
wealth of the people, and the amount of the township funds. I 
think, however, there is scarcely a township trustee in the State 
who cannot, under the present law, if he chooses to do so, bring his 
schools up to an average of six months. I think it would be wise 
to require each township trustee to levy a sufficient local tax to 
maintain the schools at least six months of the year, provided this 
can be done without increasing the local tax beyond the amount 
now permitted by law. This would tend to bring the poorer schools 
up to the standard of the best, and would thus unify the system, 
and make it indeed a common-school system." 


The State, however, averages six and a half months school per 
year to each district. 

The number of school districts in the State in 1878 was 9,380, in 
all but 34 of which school was taught during that year. There are 
396 district and 151 township graded schools. Number of white 
male teachers, 7,977, and of female, 5,699; colored, male, 62, and 
female, 43; grand total, 13,781. For the ten years ending with 
1878 there was an increase of 409 male teachers and 811 female 
teachers. All these teachers, except about 200, attend normal 
institutes, — a showing which probably surpasses that of any other 
State in this respect. 

The average daily compensation of teachers throughout the 
State in 1878 was as follows: In townships, males, $1.90; females, 
$1.70; in towns, males, $3.09; females, $1.81; in cities, males, 
$4.06; females, $2.29. 

In 1878 there were 89 stone school-houses, 1,724 brick, 7,608 
frame, and 124 log; total, 9,545, valued at $11,536,647.39. 

And lastly, and best of all, we are happy to state that Indiana has 
a larger school fund than any other State in the Union. In 1872, 
according to the statistics before us, it was larger than that of any 
other State by $2,000,000! the figures being as follows: 

Indiana $8,437,593.47 Michigan $2,500,314.91 

Ohio 6,614,816.50 Missouri 2,535,853.52 

Illinois 6,348,538.32 Minnesota 3,471,199.31 

New York 2,880,017.01 Wisconsin 2,237,414.37 

Connecticut 2,809,770.70 Massachusetts 2,210,864.09 

Iowa 4,274.581.93 Arkansas 2,000,000.00 

Nearly all the rest of the States have less than a million dollars 
in their school fund. 

In 1872 the common-school fund of Indiana consisted of the 

Non-negotiable bonds $3,591,316.15 Escheated estates 17.866.55 

Common-school fund, 1,«66,*34.50 Sinking fund, last distrib- 

Sinking fund, at 8 per cent 569,139.94 ution 67,068.72 

Congressional township Sinking fund undistrib- 

fund 3,281,076.69 uted 100,165.92 

Value of unsold Congres- Swamp land fund 42,418.40 

sional township lands.. 94,245.00 

Saline fund 5,727.66 $8,437,593 47 

Bank tax fund 1,744.94 

In 1S78 the grand total was $8,974,455.55. 

The origin of the respective school funds of Indiana is as follows : 

1. The " Congressional township " fund is derived from the 

proceeds of the 16th sections of the townships. Almost all of these 


have been sold and the money put out at interest. The amount of 
this fund in 1877 was $2,452,936.82. 

2. The " saline " fund consists of the proceeds of the sale of 
salt springs, and the land adjoining necessary for working them to 
the amount of 36 entire sections, authorized by the original act of 
Congress. By authority of the same act the Legislature has made 
these proceeds a part of the permanent school fund. 

3. The " surplus revenue " fund. Under the administration of 
President Jackson, the national debt, contracted by the Revolutionary 
war and the purchase of Louisiana, was entirely discharged, and a 
large surplus remained in the treasury. In June, 1836, Congress 
distributed this money amcng the States in the ratio of their repre- 
sentation in Congress, subject to recall, and Indiana's share was 
$860,254. The Legislature subsequently set apart $573,502.96 of 
this amount to be a part of the school fund. It is not probable that 
the general Government will ever recall this money. 

4. " Bank tax " fund. The Legislature of 1S34 chartered a State 
Bank, of which a part of the stock was owned by the State and a 
part by individuals. Section 15 of the charter required an annual 
deduction from the dividends, equal to 12^ cents on each share not 
held by the State, to be set apart for common-school education. 
This tax finally amounted to $80,000, which now bears interest in 
favor of education. 

5. " Sinking " fund. In order to set the State bank under 
good headway, the State at first borrowed $1,300,000, and out of 
the unapplied balances a fund was created, increased by unapplied 
balances also of the principal, interest and dividends of the amount 
lent to the individual holders of stock, for the purpose of sinking 
the debt of the bank; hence the name sinking fund. The 114th 
section of the charter provided that after the full payment of the 
bank's indebtedness, principal, interest and incidental expenses, the 
residue of said fund should be a permanent fund, appropriated to 
the cause of education. As the charter extended through a period 
of 25 years, this fund ultimately reached the handsome amount of 

The foregoing are all interest-bearing funds; the following are 
additional school funds, but not productive: 

6. " Seminary " fund. By order of the Legislature in 1852, all 
county seminaries were sold, and the net proceeds placed in the 
common-school fund. 

7. All fines for the violation of the penal laws of the State are 
placed to the credit of the common-school fund 

8. All recognizances of witnesses and parties indicted for crime, 
when forfeited, are collectible by law and made a part of the 
school fund. These are reported to the office of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction annually. For the five years ending 
with 1872, they averaged about $34,000 a year. 

9. Escheats. These amount to $17,S65.55, which was still in 
the State treasury in 1872 and unapplied. 

10. The "swamp-land" fund arises from the sale of certain 
Congressional land grants, not devoted to any particular purpose 
by the terms of the grant. In 1872 there was $42,418.40 of this 
money, subject to call by the school interests. 

11. Taxes on corporations are to some extent devoted by the 
Constitution to school purposes, but the clause on this subject is 
somewhat obscure, and no funds as yet have been realized from this 
source. It is supposed that several large sums of money are due 
the common-school fund from the corporations. 

Constitutionally, any of the above funds may be increased, but 
never diminished. 


So early as 1802 the U. S. Congress granted lands and a charter 
to the people of that portion of the Northwestern Territory resid- 
ing at Vincennes, for the erection and maintenance of a seminary 
of learning in that early settled district; and five years afterward 
an act incorporating the Vincennes University asked the Legisla- 
ture to appoint a Board of Trustees for the institution and order the 
sale of a single township in Gibson county, granted by Congress in 
1802, so that the proceeds might be at once devoted to the objects 
of education. On this Board the fallowing gentlemen were ap- 
pointed to act in the interests of the institution: William EL Har- 
rison, John Gibson, Thomas H. Davis, Henry Vanderburgh, Wal- 
ler Taylor, Benjamin Parke, Peter Jones, James Johnson, John 
Rice Jones, George Wallace, William Bullitt, Ehas McNamee, 
John Badolett, Henry Hurst, Gen. W. Johnston, Francis Vigo, 
Jacob Kuykendall, Samuel McKee, Nathaniel Ewing, George 
Leech, Luke Decker, Samuel Gwathmey and John Johnson. 

The sale of this land was slow and the proceeds small. The 
members of the Board, too, were apathetic, and failing to meet, the 
institution fell out of existence and out of memory. 


In 1816 Congress granted another township in Monroe county, 
located within its present limits, and the foundation of a university 
was laid. Four years later, and after Indiana was erected into a 
State, an act of the local Legislature appointing another Board of 
Trustees and authorizing them to select a location for a university 
and to enter into contracts for its construction, was passed. The 
new Board met at Bloomington and selected a site at that place for 
the location of the present building, entered into a contract for the 
erection of the same in 1822, and in 1825 had the satisfaction of being 
present at the inauguration of the university. The first session was 
commenced under the Rev. Baynard R. Hall, with 20 students, and 
when the learned professor could only boast of a salary of $150 a 
year; yet, on this very limited sum the gentleman worked with 
energy and soon brought the enterprise through all its elementary 
stages to the position of an academic institution. Dividing the 
year into two sessions of five months each, the Board acting under 
his advice, changed the name to the " Indiana Academy," under 
which title it was duly chartered. In 1827 Prof. John H. Harney 
was raised to the chairs of mathematics, natural philosophy and 
astronomy, at a salary of $300 a year; and the salary of Mr. Hall 
raised to $400 a year. In 1S28 the name was again changed by the 
Legislature to the " Indiana College," and the following professors 
appointed over the different departments; Rev. Andrew Wylie, 
D. D., Prof, of mental and moral philosophy and belles lettres; 
John H. Harney, Prof, of mathematics and natural philosophy; and 
Rev. Bayard R. Hall, Prof, of ancient languages. This year, also, 
dispositions were made for the sale of Gibson county lands and for 
the erection of a new college building. This action was opposed 
by some legal difficulties, which after a time were overcome, and 
the new college building was put under construction, and continued 
to prosper until 1854, when it was destroyed by fire, and 9,000 
volumes, with all the apparatus, were consumed The curriculum 
was then carried out in a temporary building, while a new struct- 
ure was going up. 

In 1873 the new college, with its additions, was completed, and 
the routine of studies continued. A museum of natural history, 
a laboratory and the Owen cabinet added, and the standard of the 
studies and morale generally increased in excellence and in strict- 

Bloomington is a fine, healthful locality, on the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago railway. The University buildings are in the 


collegiate Gothic style, simply and truly carried out. The building, 
fronting College avenue is 145 feet in front. It consists of a 
central building 60 feet by 53, with wings each 38 feet by 26, and 
the whole, three stories high. The new building, fronting the 
west, is 130 feet by 50. Buildings lighted by gas. 

The faculty numbers thirteen. Number of students in the col- 
legiate department in 1879-'80, 383; in preparatory, 169; total, 
349, allowing for three counted twice. 

The university may now be considered on a fixed foundation, car- 
rying out the intention of the President, who aimed at scholarship 
rather than numbers, and demands the attention of eleven pro- 
fessors, together with the State Geologist, who is ex-officio member 
of the faculty, and required to lecture at intervals and look after 
the geological and mineralogical interests of the institution. The 
faculty of medicine is represented by eleven leading physicians 
of the neighborhood. The faculty of law requires two resident 
professors, anu the other chairs remarkably well represented. 

The university received from the State annually about $15,000, 
and promises with the aid of other public grants and private dona- 
tions to vie with any other State university within the Republic. 


This is a " college for the benefit of agricultural and the mechanic 
arts," as provided for by act of Congress, July 2, 1862, donating 
lands for this purpose to the extent of 30,000 acres of the public 
domain to each Senator and Representative in the Federal assem- 
bly. Indiana having in Congress at that time thirteen members, 
became entitled to 390,000 acres; but as there was no Congress 
land in the State at this time, scrip had to be taken, and it was 
upon the following condition (we quote the act): 

" Section 4. That all moneys derived from the sale of land 
scrip shall be invested in the stocks of the United States, or of 
some other safe stocks, yielding no less than five per centum upon 
the par value of said stocks; and that the moneys so invested shall 
constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain undi- 
minished, except so far as may be provided in section 5 of this act, 
and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated by each 
State, which may take and claim the benefit of this act, to the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at least one college, where 
the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and 


classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such 
branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic 
arts, in such a manner as the Legislatures of the States may re- 
spectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life. 

" Sec. 5. That the grant of land and land scrip hereby author- 
ized shall be made on the following conditions, to which, as well as 
the provision hereinbefore contained, the previous assent of the 
several States shall be signified by Legislative act: 

" First. If any portion of the funds invested as provided by the 
foregoing section, or any portion of the interest thereon, shall by 
any action or contingency be diminished or lost, it shall be replaced 
by the State to which it belongs, so that the capital of the fund 
shall remain forever undiminished, and the annual interest shall be 
regularly applied, without diminution, to the purposes mentioned 
in the fourth section of this act, except that a sum no exceeding ten 
per centum upon the amount received by any State under the pro- 
visions of this act may be expended for the purchase of lands for 
sites or experimental farms, whenever authorized by the respective 
Legislatures of said States. 

" Second. No portion of said fund, nor interest thereon, shall 
be applied, directly or indirectly, under any pretence whatever, to 
the purchase, erection, preservation or repair of any building or 

" Third. Any State which may take and claim the benefit of 
the provisions of this act, shall provide, within five years at least, 
not less than one college, as provided in the fourth section of this 
act, or the grant to such State shall cease and said State be bound 
to pay the United States the amount received of any lands pre- 
viously sold, and that the title to purchase under the States shall 
be valid. 

" Fourth. An annual report shall be made regarding the prog- 
ress of each college, recording any improvements and experiments 
made, with their cost and result, and such other matter, including 
State industrial and economical statistics, as may be supposed use- 
ful, one copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, by each, 
to all other colleges which may be endowed under the provisions 
of this act, and also one copy to the Secretary of the Interior. 

"Fifth. When lands shall be selected from those which have 
been raised to double the minimum price in consequence of railroad 


grants, that they shall be computed to the States at the maximum 
price, and the number of acres proportionately diminished. 

"Sixth. No State, while in a condition of rebellion or insur- 
rection against the Government of the United States, shall be 
entitled to the benefits of this act. 

"Seventh. No State shall be entitled to the benefits of this act 
unless it shall express its acceptance thereof by its Legislature 
within two years from the date of its approval by the President." 

The foregoing act was approved by the President, July 2, 1862. 
It seemed that this law, amid the din of arms with the great Rebel- 
lion, was about to pass altogether unnoticed by the next General 
Assembly, January, 1863, had not Gov. Morton's attention been 
called to it by a delegation of citizens from Tippecanoe county, who 
visited him in the interest of Battle Ground. He thereupon sent 
a special message to the Legislature, upon the subject, and then 
public attention was excited to it everywhere, and several localities 
competed for the institution ; indeed, the rivalry was so great that 
this session failed to act in the matter at all, and would have failed 
to accept of the grant within the two years prescribed in the last 
clause quoted above, had not Congress, by a supplementary act, 
extended the time two years longer. 

March 6, 1865, the Legislature accepted the conditions ot the 
national gift, and organized the Board of " Trustees of the India'na 
Agricultural College." This Board, by authority, sold the scrip 
April 9, 1867, for $212,238.50, which sum, by compounding, has 
increased to nearly $400,000, and is invested in IT. S. bonds. Not 
until the special session of May, 1S69, was the locality for this col- 
lege selected, when John Purdue, of Lafayette, offered $150,000 
and Tippecanoe county $50,000 more, and the title of the institution 
changed to "Purdue University." Donations were also made by 
the Battle Ground Institute and the Battle Ground Institute of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The building was located on a 100-acre tract near Chauncey, 
which Purdue gave in addition to his magnificent donation, and to 
which 86£ acres more have since been added on the north. The 
boarding-house, dormitory, the laboratory, boiler and gas house, 
a frame armory and gymnasium, stable with shed and work-shop 
are all to the north of the gravel road, and form a group of build- 
ings within a circle of 600 feet. The boiler and gas house occupy 
a rather central position, and supply steam and gas to the boarding- 
house, dormitory and laboratory. A description of these buildings 


may be apropos. The boarding-house is a brick structure, in the 
modern Italian style, planked by a turret at each of the front angles 
and measuring 120 feet front by 68 feet deep. The dormitory is a 
quadrangular edifice, in the plain Elizabethan style, four stories 
high, arranged to accommodate 125 students. Like the other build- 
ings, it is heated by steam and lighted by gas. Bathing accommo- 
dations are in each end of all the stories. The laboratory is almost 
a duplicate of a similar department in Brown University, R. I. It 
is a much smaller building than the boarding-house, but yet suffi- 
ciently large to meet the requirements. A collection of minerals, 
fossils and antiquities; purchased from Mr. Richard Owen, former 
President of the institution, occupies the temporary cabinet or 
museum, pending the construction of a new building. The military 
hall and gymnasium is 100 feet frontage by 50 feet deep, and only 
one story high. The uses to which this hall is devoted are exer- 
cises in physical and military drill. The boiler and gas house is an 
establishment replete in itself, possessing every facility for supply- 
ing the buildings of the university with adequate heat and light. 
It is further provided with pumping works. Convenient to this 
department is the retort and great meters of the gas house, capable 
of holding 9,000 cubic feet of gas, and arranged upon the principles 
of modern science. The barn and shed form a single building, 
both useful, convenient and ornamental. 

In connection with the agricultural department of the university, 
a brick residence and barn were erected and placed at the disposal 
of the farm superintendent, Maj. L. A. Burke. 

The buildings enumerated above have been erected at a cost 
approximating the following: boarding-house, $37,807.07; labora- 
tory, $15,000; dormitory, $32,000; military hall and gymnasium, 
$6,410.47; boiler and gas house, $4,814; barn and shed, $1,500; 
work-shop, $1,000; dwelling and barn, $2,500. 

Besides the original donations, Legislative appropriations, vary- 
ing in amount, have been made from time to time, and Mr. Pierce, 
the treasurer, has donated his official salary, $600 a year, for the time 
he served, for decorating the grounds, — if neoessary. 

The opening of the university was, owing to varied circumstan- 
ces, postponed from time to time, and not until March, 1874, was a 
class formed, and this only to comply with the act of Congress in 
that connection in its relation to the university. However, in 
September following a curriculum was adopted, and the first regu- 
lar term of the Purdue University entered upon. This curriculum 


comprises the varied subjects generally pertaining to a first-class 
university course, namely: in the school of natural science — 
physics and industrial mechanics, chemistry and natural history ; 
in the school of engineering — civil and mining, together with the 
principles of architecture; in the school of agriculture — theoret- 
ical and practical agriculture, horticulture and veterinary science; 
in the military school — the mathematical sciences, German and 
French literature, free-hand and mechanical drawing, with all the 
studies pertaining to the natural and military sciences. Modern 
languages and natnral history embrace their respective courses to 
the fullest extent. 

There are this year (1880) eleven members of the faculty, 86 
students in the regular courses, and 117 other students. In respect 
to attendance there has been a constant increase from the first. 
The first year, 1874-'5, there were but 64 students. 


This institution was founded at Terre Haute in 1870, in accord- 
ance with the act of the Legislature of that year. The building is 
a large brick edifice situated upon a commanding location and 
possessing some architectural beauties. From its inauguration 
many obstacles opposed its advance toward efficiency and success; 
but the Board of Trustees, composed of men experienced in edu- 
cational matters, exercised their strength of mind and body to 
overcome every difficulty, and secure for the State Normal School 
every distinction and emolument that lay within their power, 
their efforts to this end being very successful; and it is a fact that 
the institution has arrived at, if not eclipsed, the standard of their 
expectations. Not alone does the course of study embrace the 
legal subjects known as reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
geography, United States history, English grammar, physiology, 
manners and ethics, but it includes also universal history, the 
mathematical sciences and many other subjects foreign , to older 
institutions. The first studies are prescribed by law and must be 
inculcated; the second are optional with the professors, and in the 
case of Indiana generally hold place in the curriculum of the nor- 
mal school. 

The model, or training school, specially designed for the training 
of teachers, forms a most important factor in State educational 
matters, and prepares teachers of both sexes for one of the most 
important positions in life; viz., that of educating the youth of the 


State. The advanced course of studies, together with the higher 
studies of the normal school, embraces Latin and German, and pre- 
pares young men and women for entrance to the State University. 

The efficiency of this school may be elicited from the following 
facts, taken from the official reports: out of 41 persons who had 
graduated from the elementary course, nine, after teaching success- 
fully in the public schools of this State from two terms to two 
years, returned to the institution and sought admission to the 
advanced classes. They were admitted; three of them were gentle- 
men and six ladies. After spending two years and two terms in the 
elementary course, and then teaching in the schools during the 
time already mentioned they returned to spend two and a half or 
three years more, and for the avowed purpose of qualifying them- 
selves for teaching in the most responsible positions of the public 
school service. In fact, no student is admitted to the school who 
does not in good faith declare his intention to qualify himself for 
teaching in the schools of the State. This the law requires, and 
the rule is adhered to literally. 

The report further says, in speaking of the government of the 
school, that the fundamental idea is rational freedom, or that free- 
dom which gives exemption from the power of control of one over 
another, or, in other words, the self-limiting of themselves, in their 
acts, by a recognition of the rights of others who are equally free. 
The idea and origin of the school being laid down, and also the 
means by which scholarship can be realized in the individual, the 
student is left to form his own conduct, both during session hours 
and while away from school. The teacher merely stands between 
this scholastic idea and the studeut's own partial conception of it, 
as expositor or interpreter. The teacher is not legislator, executor 
or police officer; he is expounder of the true idea of school law, 60 
that the only test of the student's conduct is obedience to, or 
nonconformity with, that law as interpreted by the teacher. This 
idea once inculcated in the minds of the students, insures industry, 
punctuality and order. 


This institution was organized Sept. 16, 1873, with 35 students 
in attendance. The school occupied the building known as the 
Valparaiso Male and Female College building. Four teachers 


were employed. The attendance, so small at first, increased rap- 
idly and steadily, until at the present writing, the seventh year 
in the history of the school, the yearly enrollment is more than 
three thousand. The number of instructors now employed is 23. 

From time to time, additions have been made to the school 
buildings, and numerous boarding halls have been erected, so that 
now the value of the buildings and grounds owned by the school 
is one hundred thousand dollars. 

A large library has been collected, and a complete equipment of 
philosophical and chemical apparatus has been purchased. The 
department of physiology is supplied with skeletons, manikins, 
and everything necessary to the demonstration of each branch of 
the subject. A large cabinet is provided for the study of geology. 
In fact, each department of the school is completely furnished 
with the apparatus needed for the most approved presentation of 
every snbject. 

There are 15 chartered departments in the institution. These 
are in charge of thorough, energetic, and scholarly instructors, and 
send forth each year as graduates, a large number of finely cultured 
young ladies and gentlemen, living testimonials of the efficiency 
of the course of study and the methods used. 

The Commercial College in connection with the school is in itself 
a great institution. It is finely fitted up and furnished, and ranks 
foremost among the business colleges of the United States. 

The expenses for tuition, room and board, have been made so 
low that an opportunity for obtaining a thorough education is 
presented to the poor and the rich alike. 

All of this work has been accomplished in the short space of 
seven years. The school now holds a high place among educational 
institutions, and is the largest normal school in the United States. 

This wonderful growth and devolopment is wholly due to the 
energy and faithfulness of its teachers, and the unparalleled exec- 
utive ability of its proprietor and principal. The school is not 


Nor is Indiana behind in literary institutions under denomina- 
tional auspices. It is not to be understood, however, at the present 
day, that sectarian doctrines are insisted upon at the so-called 
" denominational" colleges, universities and seminaries; the youth at 
these places are influenced only by Christian example. 


Notre Dame University, near South Bend, is a Catholic institu- 
tion, and is one of the most noted in the United States. It was 
founded in 1842 by Father Sorin. The first building was erected 
in 1843, and the university has continued to grow and prosper until 
the present time, now having 35 professors, 26 instructors, 9 tutors, 
213 students and 12,000 volumes in library. At present the main 
building has a frontage of 224 feet and a depth of 155. Thousands 
of young people have received their education here, and a large 
number have been graduated for the priesthood. A chapter was 
held here in 1872, attended by delegates from all parts of the world. 
It is worthy of mention that this institution has a bell weighing 
13,000 pounds, the largest in the United States and one of the finest 
in the world. 

The Indiana Asbury University, at Greencastle, is an old and 
well-established institution under the auspices of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, named after its first bishop, Asbury. It was 
founded in 1S35, and in 1872 it had nine professors and 172 

Howard College, not denominational, is located at Kokomo, and 
was founded in 1S69. In 1872 it had five professors, four instructors, 
and 69 students. 

Union Christian College, Christian, at Merom, was organized' in 
1858, and in 1872 had four resident professors, seven instructors 
and 156 students. 

Moore' 's Hill College, Methodist Episcopal, is situated at Moore's 
Hill, was founded in 1854, and in 1872 had five resident professors, 
five instructors, and 142 students. 

Earlham's College, at Richmond, is under the management of 
the Orthodox Friends, and was founded in 1859. In 1872 they 
had six resident professors and 167 students, and 3,300 volumes in 

Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, was organized in 1834, and 
had in 1872, eight professors and teachers, and 231 students, with 
about 12,000 volumes in the library. It is under Presbyterian 

Concordia College, Lutheran, at Fort "Wayne, was founded in 
1850; in 1872 it had four professors and 148 students: 3,000 volumes 
in library. 

Hanover College, Presbyterian, was organized in 1833, at Han- 
over, and in 1872 had seven professors and 118 students, and 7,000 
volumes in library. 


Hartsville University, United Brethren, at Hartsville, was 
founded in 1854, and in 1872 had seven professors and 117 students. 

Northwestern Christian University, Disciples, is located at 
Irvington, near Indianapolis. It was founded in 1854, and by 
1872 it had 15 resident professors, 181 students, and 5,000 volumes 
in library. 


By the year 1830, the influx of paupers and invalid persons was 
so great that the Governor called upon the Legislature to take 
steps toward regulating the matter, and also to provide an asylum 
for the poor, but that body was very slow to act on the matter. 
At the present time, however, there is no State in the Union which 
can boast a better system of benevolent institutions. The Benevo- 
lent Society of Indianapolis was organized in 1843. It was a 
pioneer institution; its field of work was small at first, but it has 
grown into great usefulness. 


In behalf of the blind, the first effort was made by James M. Ray, 
about 1846. Through his efforts William H. Churchman came 
from Kentucky with blind pupils and gave exhibitions in Mr. 
Beecher's church, in Indianapolis. These entertainments were 
attended by members of the Legislature, for whom indeed they 
were especially intended; and the effect upon them was so good, 
that before they adjourned the session they adopted measures to es- 
tablish an asylum for the blind. The commission appointed to carry 
out these measures, consisting of James M. Ray, Geo. W. Mears, 
and the Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor of State, engaged Mr. 
Churchman to make a lecturing tour through the State and collect 
statistics of the blind population. 

The " Institute for the Education of the Blind " was founded by 
the Legislature of 1847, and first opened in a rented building Oct. 
1, of that year. The permanent buildings were opened and occu- 
pied in February, 1853. The original cost of the buildings and 
ground was $110,000, and the present valuation of buildings and 
grounds approximates $300,000. The main building is 90 feet 
long by 61 deep, and with its right and left wings, each 30 feet in 
front and 83 in depth, give an entire frontage of 150 feet. The 
main building is five stories in height, surmounted by a cupola of 

s<-,)j ji ii "! , i !;;'iHi'i i 'i![: , |: , i , i T ;; i : |: r " 


the Corinthian style, while each wing is similarly overcapped 
The porticoes, cornices and verandahs are gotten up with exquisite 
taste, and the former are molded after the principle of Ionic archi- 
tecture. The building is very favorably situated, and occupies a 
space of eight acres. 

The nucleus of a fund for supplying indigent graduates of the 
institution with an outfit suitable to their trades, or with money in 
lieu thereof, promises to meet with many additions. The fund is 
the out-come of the benevolence of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, a resident of 
Delaware, in this State, and appears to be suggested by the fact 
that her daughter, who was smitten with blindness, studied as a 
pupil in the institute, and became singularly attached to many of 
its inmates. The following passage from the lady's will bears 
testimony not only to her own sympathetic nature but also to the 
efficiency of the establishment which so won her esteem. " I give 
to each of the following persons, friends and associates of my blind 
daughter, Margaret Louisa, the sum of $100 to each, to wit, viz: 
Melissa and Phoebe Garrettson, Frances Cundiff, Dallas JMewland, 
Naomi Unthunk, and a girl whose name before marriage was 
Rachel Martin, her husband's name not recollected. The balance 
of my estate, after paying the expenses of administering, I give to 
the superintendent of the blind asylum and his successor, in trust, 
for the use and benefit of the indigent blind of Indiana who may 
attend the Indiana blind asylum, to be given to them on leaving 
in such sums as the superintendent may deem proper, but not more 
than $50 to any one person. I direct that the amount above direct- 
ed be loaned at interest, and the interest and principal be distributed 
as above, agreeably to the best judgment of the superintendent, 
so as to do the greatest good to the greatest number of blind 

The following rules, regulating the institution, after laying down 
in preamble that the institute is strictly an educational estab- 
lishment, having its main object the moral, intellectual and phys- 
ical training of the young blind of the State, and is not an asylum 
for the aged and helpless, nor an hospital wherein the diseases of 
the eye may be treated, proceed as follows : 

1. The school year commences the first "Wednesday after the 
15th day of September, and closes on the last Wednesday in June, 
showing a session of 40 weeks, and a vacation term of 84 days. 

2. Applicants for admission must be from 9 to 21 years of age; 
but the trustees have power to admit blind students under 9 or 


over 21 years of age; but this power is extended only in very 
extreme cases. 

3. Imbecile or unsound persons, or confirmed immoralists, 
cannot be admitted knowingly; neither can admitted pupils who 
prove disobedient or incompetent to receive instruction be retained 
on the roll. 

4. No charge is made for the instruction and board given to 
pupils from the State of Indiana; and even those without the State 
have only to pay $200 for board and education during the 40 weeks' 

5. An abundant and good supply of comfortable clothing for 
both summer and winter wear, is an indispensable adjunct of the 

6. The owner's name must be distinctly marked on each article 
of clothing. 

7. In cases of extreme indigence the institution may provide 
clothing and defray the traveling expenses of such pupil and levy the 
amount so expended on the county wherein his or her home is 

8. The pupil, or friends of the pupil, must remove him or her 
from the institute during the annual vacation, and in case of their 
failure to do so, a legal provision enables the superintendent to 
forward such pupil to the trustee of the township where he or she 
resides, and the expense of such transit and board to be charged to 
the county. 

9. Friends of the pupils accompanying them to the institution, 
or visiting them thereat, cannot enter as boarders or lodgers. 

10. Letters to the pupils should be addressed to the care of the 
Superintendent of the Institute for the Education of the Blind, so as 
the better to insure delivery. 

11. Persons desirous of admission of pupils should apply to the 
superintendent for a printed copy of instructions, and no pupil 
should be sent thereto until the instructions have been complied 


In 1S43 the Governor was also instructed to obtain plans and 
information respecting the care of mutes, and the Legislature also 
levied a tax to provide for them. The first one to agitate the subject 
was "William Willard, himself a mute, who visited Indiana in 1843, 
and opened a school for mutes on his own account, with 16 pupils. 


The next year the Legislature adopted this school as a State insti- 
tution, appointing a Board of Trustees for its management, consist- 
ing of the Governor and Secretary of State, ex-officio,and Revs. Henry 
Ward Beecher, Phineas D. Gurley, L. H. Jameson, Dr. Dunlap, 
Hon. James Morrison and Rev. Matthew Simpson. They rented the 
large building on the southeast corner of Illinois and Maryland 
streets, and opened the first State asylum there in 1844; but in 1846, 
a site for a permanent building just east of Indianapolis was selected, 
consisting first of 30 acres, to which 100 more have been added. 
On this site the two first structures were commenced in 1S49, and 
completed in the fall of 1S50, at a cost of $30,000. The school 
was immediately transferred to the new building, where it is still 
flourishing, with enlarged buildings and ample facilities for instruc- 
tion in agriculture. In 1869-'70, another building was erected, 
and the three together now constitute one of the most benefi- 
cent and beautiful institutions to be found on this continent, at 
an aggregate cost of $220,000. The main building has a facade of 
260 feet. Here are the offices, study rooms, the quarters of officers 
and teachers, the pupils' dormitories and the library. The center 
of this building has a frontage of eighty feet, and is five stories high, 
with wings on either side 60 feet in frontage. In this Central 
structure are the store rooms, dining-hall, servants' rooms, hospital, 
laundry, kitchen, bakery and several school-rooms. Another struct- 
ure known as the " rear building " contains the chapel and another 
set of school-rooms. It is two stories high, the center being 50 feet 
square and the wings 40 by 20 feet. In addition to these there are 
many detached buildings, containing the shops of the industrial 
department, the engine-house and wash-house. 

The grounds comprise 105 acres, which in the immediate vicinity 
of the buildings partake of the character of ornamental or pleasure 
gardens, comprising a space devoted to fruits, flowers and veget- 
ables, while the greater part is devoted to pasture and agriculture. 

The first instructor in the institution was Wm. Willard, a deaf 
mute, who had up to 1844 conducted a small school for the instruc- 
tion of the deaf at Indianapolis, and now is employed by the State, 
at a salary of $800 per annum, to follow a similar vocation in its 
service. In 1853 he was succeeded by J. S. Brown, and subse- 
quently by Thomas Mclutire, who continues principal of the 



The Legislature of 1832-'3 adopted measures providing for a 
State hospital for the insane. This good work would have been 
done much earlier had it not been for the hard times of 1837, 
intensified by tbe results of the gigantic scheme of internal improve- 
ment. In order to survey the situation and awaken public sympa- 
thy, the county assessors were ordered to make a return of the 
insane in their respective counties. During the year 1842 the 
Governor, acting under the direction of the Legislature, procured 
considerable information in regard to hospitals for the insane in 
other States; and Dr. John Evans lectured before the Legislature 
on the subject of insanity and its treatment. As a result of these 
efforts the authorities determined to take active steps for the estab- 
lishment of such a hospital. Plans and suggestions from the 
superintendents and hospitals of other States were submitted to the 
Legislature in 1844, which body ordered the levy of a tax of one 
cent on the $100 for the purpose of establishing the hospital. In 
1845 a commission was appointed to obtain a site not exceeding 
200 acres. Mount Jackson, then the residence of Nathaniel Bolton, 
was selected, and the Legislature in 1846 ordered tbe commissioners 
to proceed with the erection of the building. Accordingly, in 
1847, the central building was completed, at a cost of $75,000. It 
has since been enlarged by the addition of wings, some of which 
are larger than the old central building, until it has become an 
immense structure, having cost over half a million dollars. 

The wings of the main building are four stories high, and entirely 
devoted to wards for patients, being capable of accommodating 

The grounds of the institution comprise 160 acres, and, like 
those of the institute for the deaf and dumb, are beautifully laid 

This hospital was opened for the reception of patients in 1848. 
The principal structure comprises what is known as the central 
building and the right and left wings, and like the institute for the 
deaf and dumb, erected at various times and probably under various 
adverse circumstances , it certainly does not hold the appearance of 
any one design, but seems to be a combination of many. Not- 
withstanding these little defects in arrangement, it presents a very 
imposing appearance, and shows what may be termed a frontage 


of 624 feet. The central building is five stories in height and con- 
tains the store-rooms, offices, reception parlors, medical dispensing 
rooms, mess-rooms and the apartments of the superintendent and 
other officers, with those of the female employes. Immediately 
in the rear of the central building, and connected with it by a 
corridor, is the chapel, a building 50 by 60 feet. This chapel 
occupies the third floor, while the under stories hold the kitchen, 
bakery, employes' dining-room, steward's office, employes' apart- 
ments and sewing rooms. In rear of this again is the engine- 
house, 60 by 50 feet, containing all the paraphernalia for such an 
establishment, such as boilers, pumping works, fire plugs, hose, 
and above, on the second floor, the laundry and apartments of male 


The first penal institution of importance is known as the " State 
Prison South," located at Jefferson vi lie, and was the only prison 
until 1859. It was established in 1821. Before that time it was 
customary to resort to the old-time punishment of the whipping- 
post. Later the manual labor system was inaugurated, and the 
convicts were hired out to employers, among whom were Oapt. 
Westover, afterward killed at Alamo, Texas, with Crockett, James 
Keigwin, who in an affray was fired at aud severely wounded by a 
convict named Williams, Messrs. Patterson Hensley, and Jos. 
R. Pratt. During the rule of the latter of these lessees, the atten- 
tion of the authorities was turned to a more practical method of 
Utilizing convict labor; and instead of the prisoners being per- 
mitted to serve private entries, their work was turned in the direc- 
tion of their own prison, where for the next few years they were 
employed in erecting the new buildings now known as the " State 
Prison South." This structure, the result of prison labor, stands 
on 16 acres of ground, and comprises the cell houses and work- 
shops, together with the prisoners' garden, or pleasure-ground. 

It seems that in the erection of these buildings the aim of the 
overseers was to create so many petty dungeons and unventilated 
laboratories, into which disease in every form would be apt to 
creep. This fact was evident from the high mortality character- 
izing life within the prison; and in the efforts made by the 
Government to remedy a state of things which had been permitted 
to exist far too long, the advance in prison reform has become a 
reality. From 1857 to 1871 the labor of the prisoners was devoted 


to the manufacture of wagons and farm implements; and again the 
old policy of hiring the convicts was resorted to; for in the latter 
year, 1871, the Southwestern Car Company was organized, and 
every prisoner capable of taking a part in the work of car-building 
was leased out. This did very well until the panic of 1873, when 
the company suffered irretrievable losses; and previous to its final 
down-fall in 1876 the warden withdrew convict labor a second time, 
leaving the prisoners to enjoy a luxurious idleness around the 
prison which themselves helped to raise. 

In later years the State Prison South has gained some notoriety 
from the desperate character of some of its inmates. During the 
civil war a convict named Harding mutilated in a most horrible 
manner and ultimately killed one of the jailors named Tesley. In 
1874, two prisoners named Kennedy and Applegate, possessing 
themselves of some arms, and joined by two other convicts named 
Port and Stanley, made a break for freedom, swept past the guard. 
Chamberlain, and gained the fields. Chamberlain went in pursuit 
but had not gone very far when Kennedy turned on his pursuer, 
fired and killed him instantly. Subsequently three of the prisoners 
were captured alive and one of them paid the penalty of death, 
while Kennedy, the murderer of Chamberlain, failing committal for 
murder, was sent back to his old cell to spend the remainder of his j 
life. Bill Rodifer, better known as " The Hoosier Jack Sheppard," 
effected his escape in 1875, in the very presence of a large guard, 
but was recaptured and has since been kept in irons. 

This establishment, owing to former mismanagement, has fallen 
very much behind, financially, and has asked for and received an 
appropriation of $20,000 to meet its expenses, while the contrary 
is the case at the Michigan City prison. 


In 1859 the first steps toward the erection of a prison in the 
northern part of the State were taken, and by an act of the Legis- 
lature approved March 5, this year, authority was given to construct 
prison buildings at some point north of the National road. For this 
purpose $50,000 were appropriated, and a large number of convicts 
from the Jeffersonville prison were transported northward to 
Michigan City, which was just selected as the location for the new 
penitentiary. The work was soon entered upon, and continued to 
meet with additions and improvements down to a very recent 
period. So late as 1875 the Legislature appropriated $20,000 


toward the construction of new cells, and in other directions also 
the work of improvement has been going on. The system of 
government and discipline is similar to that enforced at the Jeffer- 
son ville prison; and, strange to say, by its economical working has 
not only met the expenses of the administration, but very recently 
had amassed over $11,000 in excess of current expenses, from its 
annual savings. This is due almost entirely to the continual 
employment of the convicts in the manufacture of cigars and 
chairs, and in their great prison industry, cooperage. It differs 
widely from the Southern, insomuch as its sanitary condition has 
been above the average of similar institutions. The strictness of its 
silent system is better enforced. The petty revolutions of its 
inmates have been very few and insignificant, and the number of 
punishments inflicted comparatively small. From whatever point 
this northern prison may be looked at, it will bear a very favorable 
comparison with the largest and best administered of like establish- 
ments throughout the world, and cannot fail to bring high credit to 
its Board of Directors and its able warden. 


The prison reform agitation which in this State attained telling 
proportions in 1869, caused a Legislative measure to be brought 
forward, which would have a tendency to ameliorate the condition 
of female convicts. Gov. Baker recommended it to the General 
Assembly, and the members of that body showed their appreciation 
of the Governor's philanthropic desire by conferring upon the bill 
the authority of a statute; and further, appropriated $50,000 to aid 
in carrying out the objects of the act. The main provisions con- 
tained in the bill may be set forth in the following extracts from 
the proclamation of the Governor: 

"Whenever said institution shall have been proclaimed to be 
open for the reception of girls in the reformatory department 
thereof, it shall be lawful for said Board of Managers to receive 
them into their care and management, and the said reformatory 
department, girls under the age of 15 years who may be committed 
to their custody, in either of the following modes, to- wit: 

" 1. "When committed by any judge of a Circuit or Common 
Pleas Court, either in term time or in vacation, on complaint" and 
due proof by the parent or guardian that by reason of her incorrig- 
ible or vicious conduct she has rendered her control beyond the 
power of such parent or guardian, and made it manifestly requisite 


that from regard to the future welfare of such infant, and for the 
protection of society, she should be placed under such guardianship. 

"2. When such infant has been committed by such judge, as 
aforesaid, upon complaint by any citizen, and due proof of such 
complaint that such infant is a proper subject of the guardianship 
of such institution in consequence of her vagrancy or incorrigible 
or vicious conduct, and that from the moral depravity or other- 
wise of her parent or guardian in whose custody she may be, 
such parent or guardian is incapable or unwilling to exercise the 
proper care or discipline over such incorrigible or vicious infant. 

"3. When such infant has been committed by such judge as 
aforesaid, on complaint and due proof thereof by the township 
trustee of the township where such infant resides, that such infant 
is destitute of a suitable home and of adequate means of obtaining 
an honest living, or that she is in danger of being brought up to 
lead an idle and immoral life." 

In addition to these articles of the bill, a formal section of 
instruction to the wardens of State prisons was embodied in the 
act, causing such wardens to report the number of all the female 
convicts under their charge and prepare to have them transferred 
to the female reformatory immediately after it was declared to be 
ready for their reception. After the passage of the act the 
Governor appointed a Board of Managers, and these gentlemen, 
securing the services of Isaac Hodgson, caused him to draft a plan 
of the proposed institution, and further, on his recommendation, 
asked the people for an appropriation of another $50,000, which 
the Legislature granted in February, 1873. The work of construc- 
tion was then entered upon and carried out so steadily, that on the 
6th of September, 1873, the building was declared ready for the 
reception of its future inmates. Gov. Baker lost no time in 
proclaiming this fact, and October 4 he caused the wardens of the 
State pvisons to be instructed to transfer all the female convicts in 
their custody to the new institution which may be said to rest on 
the advanced intelligence of the age. It is now called the 
" Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls." 

This building is located immediately north of the deaf and 
dumb asylum, near the arsenal, at Indianapolis. It if? a three- 
story brick structure in the French style, and shows a frontage of 
174 feet, comprising a main building, with lateral and transverse 
wings. In front of the central portion is the residence of the 
superintendent and his associate reformatory officers, while in the 


rear is the engine house, with all the ways and means for heating 
the buildings. Enlargements, additions and improvements are 
still in progress. There is also a school and library in the main 
building, which are sources of vast good. 

October 31,1879, there were 66 convicts in the " penal" depart- 
ment and 147 in the " girls' reformatory " department. The 
" ticket-of-leave " system has been adopted, with entire satisfaction, 
and the conduct of the institution appears to be up with the 


In 1867 the Legislature appropriated $50,000 to aid in the 
formation of an institution to be entitled a house for the correction 
and reformation of juvenile defenders, and vested with full powers 
in a Board of Control, the members of which were to be appointed 
by the Governor, and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 
This Board assembled at the Governor's house at Indianapolis, 
April 3, 1867, and elected Charles F. Coffin, as president, and 
visited Chicago, so that a visit to the reform school there might 
lead to a fuller knowledge and guide their future proceedings. 
The House of Refuge at Cincinnati, and the Ohio State Reform 
school were also visited with this design; and after full consider- 
ation of the varied governments of these institutions, the Board 
resolved to adopt the method known as the " family " system, 
which divides the inmates into fraternal bodies, or small classes, 
each class having a separate house, house father and family offices, 
— all under the control of a general superintendent. The system 
being adopted, the question of a suitable location next presented 
itself, and proximity to a large city being considered rather 
detrimental to the welfare of such an institution, Gov. Baker 
selected the site three-fourths of a mile south of Plainfield, and 
about fourteen miles from Indianapolis, which, in view of its 
eligibility and convenience, was fully concurred in by the Board 
of Control. Therefore, a farm of 225 acres, claiming a fertile soil 
and a most picturesque situation, and possessing streams of running 
water, was purchased, and on a plateau in its center a site for the 
proposed house of refuge was fixed. 

The next movement was to decide upon a plan, which ultimately 
met the approval of the Governor. It favored the erection of one 
principal building, one house for a reading-room and hospital, two 
large mechanical shops and eight family houses. January 1, 1S68, 


three family houses and work- shop were completed; in 1869 the 
main building, and one additional family house were added; but 
previous to this, in August, 1867, a Mr. Frank P. Ainsworth and 
his wife were appointed by the Board, superintendent and matron 
respectively, and temporary quarters placed at their disposal. In 
1869 they of course removed to the new building. This is 64 by 
128 feet, and three stories high. In its basement are kitchen, 
laundry and vegetable cellar. The first floor is devoted to offices, 
visitors' room, house father and family dining-room and store- 
rooms. The general superintendent's private apartments, private 
offices and five dormitories for officers occupy the second floor; 
while the third floor is given up to the assistant superintendent's 
apartment, library, chapel and hospital. 

The family houses are similar in style, forming rectangular build- 
ings 36 by 58 feet. The basement of each contains a furnace 
room, a store-room and a large wash-room, which is converted into 
a play-room during inclement weather. On the first floor of each 
of these buildings are two rooms for the house father and his 
family, and a school-room, which is also convertible into a sitting- 
room for the boys. On the third floor is a family dormitory, a 
clothes-room and a room for the " elder brother," who ranks next 
to the house father. And since the reception of the first boy, from 
Hendricks county, January 23, 1868, the house plan has proved 
equally convenient, even as the management has proved efficient. 

Other buildings have since been erected. 

Mnpof J J)K 

CJOuB f"€3 mi tv* 




Changes of Fifty Years. — Life in the Crowded East. — Cour- 
age of the Pioneers. — Their Labors and Rewards. — A Pen 

Within one brief generation a dense and unbroken wilderness 
has been transformed into a cultivated region of thrift and pros- 
perity, by the untiring zeal and energy of an enterprising people. 
The trails of hunters and trappers have given place to railroads 
and thoroughfares for vehicles of every description; the cabins and 
garden patches of the pioneers have been succeeded by comfort- 
able houses and broad fields of waving grain, with school-house*, 
churches, mills, postofnces and other institutions of convenience 
for each community. Add to these four towns from 1,000 to 2,000 
inhabitants in size, and numerous thriving villages, with extensive 
business and manufacturing interests, and the result is a work of 
which all concerned may well be proud. 

The record of this marvelous change is history, and the most 
iinportaut that can be written. For fifty years the people of De 
Kalb County have been making a history that for thrilling interest, 
grand practical results, and lessons that may be perused with profit 
by citizens of other regions, will compare favorably with the narra- 
tive of the history of any county in the great Northwest ; and, 
considering the extent of territory involved, it is as worthy of the 
pen of a Bancroft as even the story of our glorious Republic. 

While our venerable ancestors may have said and believed, 

" No pent-up Utica contracts our powers, 
For the whole boundless continent is ours," 

they were nevertheless, for a long time content to occupy and 
possess a very small corner of it; and the great West was not 
16 (345) 


opened to industry and civilization until a variety of causes had 
combined to form, as it were, a great heart, whose animating prin- 
ciple was improvement, whose impulses annually sent westward 
armies of noble men and women, and whose pulse is now felt 
throughout the length and breadth of the best country the sun 
ever shone upon — from the pineries of Maine to the vineyards ot 
California, and from the sugar-canes of Louisiana to the wheat fields 
of Minnesota. Long may this heart beat and push forward its 
arteries and veins of commerce. 

Not more from choice than from enforced necessity did the old 
pioneers bid farewell to the play-grounds of their childhood and 
the graves of their fathers. One generation after another had 
worn themselves out in the service of their avaricious landlords. 
From the first flashes of daylight in the morning until the last 
glimmer of the setting sun, they had toiled unceasingly on, from 
father to son, carrying home each day upon their aching shoulders 
the precious proceeds of their daily labor. Money and pride and 
power were handed down in the line of succession from the rich 
sather to his son, while unceasing work and continuous poverty 
and everlasting obscurity were the heritage of the working man 
and his children. 

Their society was graded and degraded. It was not manners, 
nor industry, nor education, nor qualities of the head and heart 
that established the grade. It was money and jewels, and silk and 
satin, and broadcloth and imperious pride that triumphed over 
honest poverty and trampled the poor man and his children under 
the iron heel. The children of the rich and poor were not per- 
mitted to mingle with and to love each other. Courtship was 
more the work of the parents than of the sons and daughters. 
The golden calf was the key to matrimony. To perpetuate a self- 
constituted aristocracy, without power of brain, or the rich blood 
of royalty, purse was united to purse, and cousin with cousin, in 
bonds of matrimony, until the virus boiling in their blood was 
transmitted by the law of inheritance from one generation to 
another, and until nerves powerless and manhood dwarfed were on 
exhibition everywhere, and everywhere abhorred. For the sons 
and daughters of the poor man to remain there was to forever fol- 
low as our fathers had followed, and never to lead ; to submit, but 
never to rule; to obey, but never to command. 

Without money, or prestige, or influential friends, the old pio- 
neers drifted along one by one, from State to State, until in Indi- 


ana — the garden of the Union — they have found inviting homes 
for each, and room for all. To secure and adorn these homes more 
than ordinary ambition was required, greater than ordinary endur- 
ance demanded, and unflinching determination was, by the force 
of necessity, written over every brow. It was not pomp, or parade, 
or glittering show that the pioneers were after. They sought for 
homes which they could call their own, homes for themselves and 
homes for their children. How well they have succeeded after a 
struggle of many years against the adverse tides let the records 
and tax-gatherers testify; let the broad cultivated fields and fruit- 
bearing orchards, the flocks and the herds, the palatial residences, 
the places of business, the spacious halls, the clattering car-wheels 
and ponderous engines all testify. 

There was a time when pioneers waded through deep snows, 
across bridgeless rivers, and through bottomless sloughs, a score of 
miles to mill or market, and when more time was required to reach 
and return from market than is now required to cross the conti- 
nent, or traverse the Atlantic. These were the times when our 
palaces were constructed of logs and covered with "shakes" riven 
from the forest trees. These were the times when our children 
were stowed away for the night in the low, dark attics, amongst 
the horns of the elk and the deer, and where through the chinks 
in the " shakes" they could count the twinkling stars. These were 
the times when our chairs and our bedsteads were hewn from the 
forest trees, and tables and bureaus constructed from the boxes in 
which their goods were brought. These were the times when the 
workingman labored six and sometimes seven days in the week, 
and all the hours there were in a day from sunrise to sunset. 

"Whether all succeeded in what they undertook is not a question 
to be asked now. The proof that* as a body they did succeed is ali 
around us. Many individuals were perhaps disappointed. Fortunes 
and misfortunes belong to the human race. Not every man can 
have a school-house on the corner of his farm; not every man can 
have a bridge over a stream that flows by his dwelling ; not every 
man can have a railroad depot on the borders of his plantation, or 
a city in its center; and while these things are desirable in some 
respects, their advantages are oftentimes oucweighed by the almost 
perpetual presence of the foreign beggar, the dreaded tramp, the 
fear of" fire and conflagration, and the insecurity from the presence 
of the midnight burglar, and the bold, bad men and women who 
lurk in ambush and infest the villages. The good things of this 


earth are not all to be found in any one place; but if more is to be 
found in one than another, that place is in our rural retreats, our 
quiet homes outside of the clamor and turmoil of city life. 

In viewing the blessings which surround us, then, we should 
reverence those who have made them possible, and ever fondly 
cherish in memory the sturdy old pioneer and his log cabin. 

Let us turn our eyes and thoughts back to the log-cabin days of 
a quarter of a century ago, and contrast those homes with com- 
fortable dwellings of to-day. Before us stands the old log cabin. 
Let us enter. Instinctively the head is uncovered in token of 
reverence to this relic of ancestral beginnings, early struggles and 
final triumphs. To the left is the deep, wide fire-place, in whose 
commodious space a group of children may sit by the fire and up 
through the chimney may count the stars, while ghostly stories ot 
witches and giants, and still more thrilling stories of Indians and 
wild beasts, are whisperingly told and shudderingly heard. On 
the great crane hang the old tea-kettle and the great iron pot. The 
huge shovel and tongs stand sentinel in either corner, while the 
great andirons patiently wait for the huge back-log. Over the fire, 
place hangs the trusty rifle. To the right of the fire-place stands 
the spinning wheel, while in the further end ot the room is seen 
the old-fashioned loom. Strings of drying apples and poles of 
drying pumpkins are overhead. Opposite the door in which you 
enter stauds a huge deal table, by its side the dresser whose pewter 
plates and "shining delf" catch and reflect the fire-place flames as 
shields of armies do the sunshine. From the corner of its shelves 
coyly peep out the relics of former china. In a curtained corner 
and hid from casual sight we find the mother's bed, and under it 
the trundle-bed, while near them a ladder indicates the loft where 
the older children sleep. To the left of the fire-place and in the 
corner opposite the spinning-wheel is the mother's work stand. 
Upon it lies the Bible, evidently much used, its family record tell- 
ing of parents and friends a long way off, and telling, too, of 

" Scattered like roses in bloom, 
Some at the bridal, some at the tomb." 

Her spectacles, as if but just used, are inserted between the leaves 
of her Bible, and tell of her purpose to return to its comforts when 
cares permit and duty is done. A stool, a bench, well notched 
and whittled and carved, and a few chairs complete the furniture 
of the room, and all stand on a coarse but well-scoured floor. 


Let us for a moment watch the city visitors to this humble cabin. 
The city bride, innocent but thoughtless, and ignorant of labor 
and care, asks her city-bred husband, "Pray, what savages set 
this up?" Honestly confessing his ignorance, he replies, " I do 
not know." But see the pair upon whom age sits " frosty, but 
kindly." First, as they enter, they give a rapid glance about the 
cabin home, and then a mutual glance of eye to eye. Why do 
tears start and fill their eyes? Why do lips quiver? There are 
many who know why; but who that has not learned in the school 
of experience the full meaning of all these symbols of trials and 
privations, of loneliness and danger, can comprehend the story that 
they tell to the pioneer? Within this chinked and mud-daubed 
cabin we read the first pages of our history, and as we retire 
through its low door-way, and note the heavy battened door, its 
wooden hinges and its welcoming latch-string, is it strange that 
the scenes without should seem to be but a dream? But the cabin 
and the palace, standing side by side in vivid contrast, tell their 
own story of this people's progress. They are a history and a 
prophecy in one. 







Geography and Topography. — Geological Struct ure of De 
Kalb County. — Zoology. 

geography and topography. 

De Kalb is smaller than the "model" county which contains 
sixteen townships. It comprises nine whole and three fractional 
congressional townships, or rather more than ten townships alto- 
gether. The county lies just south of the northeastern corner 
county of Indiana, and is bounded as follows: On the north by 
Steuben County; on the east by Defiance County, Ohio; on the 
south by Allen County, and on the west by Noble County. It is 
situated on the " divide" between the tributaries of the Mississippi 
and those of Lake Erie, and is drained by the St. Joseph of the 
Maumee and its tributaries, including the Cedar. The county con- 
tains the usual physical characteristics of the Northwestern States, 
having a gentle rolling surface, originally covered with hard-wood 
timber. The best land, agriculturally, is in the northern and east- 
ern parts of the county. 


Having in mind the thousands of pupils who receive instruction 
in the excellent schools of De Kalb County, and conscious that the 
greater part of those who have come to maturer years are unac- 
quainted with the subject of general geology, I desire, in the first 
place, to describe the formation of the world as a whole and give 
such an account of the great periods of the earth's history that 
we may be able to find our place in that history, and thus, as in- 
locating a place upon a map first, we may be the better able after- 
ward to study it more satisfactorily and understandingly. Indeed, 


without this method of procedure, all our ideas are vague and the 
entire work unsatisfactory and unscientific. 

Omitting the nebular hypothesis, which assumes the earth, to- 
gether with all other bodies of the solar system, to have been in 
primeval times in the form of an incandescent gas of incompre- 
hensible dimensions, and the second step derived from the former, 
through long cycles of whirling motion, radiation, and condensa- 
tion, the liquid or molten earth, with its wonderful processes of 
crust formation, we begin our brief description with the process of 


The first or original rock is what was first formed as a crust, igne- 
ous rock, rock without form or strata — a mere slag. The earth, 
losing heat by radiation and becoming smaller, the crust, in ac- 
commodating itself to the smaller sphere, must necessarily rise in 
some places and sink in others, just as by the shrinking of an 
orange the rind becomes wrinkled. Then the water, having been 
previously formed as the result of the great world formation, the 
residue, the ash-heap of the great conflagration, obeying the law of 
gravity, is gathered together into the depressed areas and thus the 
dry land, or rather the dry rock, appears. 

Now, by the action of winds,,rains, waves and the various chem- 
ical and mechanical agencies, the exposed rock is decomposed, 
carried to the sea, and deposited in horizontal strata, which, in 
process of time, becomes stratified rock, just as is being done at the 
mouths of the rivers and the beach and bottom of the oceans of 


From the preceding, we may conclude that there is everywhere 
beneath the waters and soil of the earth's surface a basement of 
rock, sometimes called bed-rock. The outcropping of rock above 
the surface, the rocky bluffs forming the sides of many valleys,*the 
ledges projecting from the sides of mountains, and the cliffs of the 
sea shore are portions of this rock exposed to view. Now, the 
various strata which compose the stratified rocks of the globe, 
with their included fossils, are the leaves of that great book which 
unfolds to us the history of the earth through its incomprehensibly 
long periods of time. The lowest strata, of course, furnish us the 
■first chapter in that history. In no part of the earth's surface is 
the record complete, but all have their long blanks — periods in 
which no strata occur. This is caused by the elevating of the 


crust above the waters of the ocean, and, when this is continental, 
finis is appended to the chap ter and the history of the rocks is 
finished forever. 

In North America we have an excellent example of the unfold- 
ing and development of geological history, and as the continent 
gradually emerged from the ocean, it left us the record almost 
complete. The following section is a representation of the succes- 
sive geological ages, with the corresponding formations and periods 
of the globe, by the side of which is placed that of De Kalb 
County with its many and immensely long blanks between the 
Devonian and Quaternery or Psychozoic Ages. 

Thus a glance at the section will show us our place in the history 
of the formation of the globe, not the least interesting part ot 
which is the long blank between the Devonian and Quaternery 
Ages, showing us conclusively that our soil rests upon the Devo- 
nian. At the close of the above-named period, all Northern Indi- 
ana and a strip extending through the central part of the State to 
the Ohio River emerged from beneath the sea and the 'history of 
the rocks of De Kalb County was finished forever. 


So named by Sedgwick and Murchison from Devonshire, Eng- 
land, where it occurs well developed and abounds in fossils, and its 
age, the Age of Fishes, so called because in it the first known 
fishes are found, is in no part of the county exposed to view, 
neither has it been reached in the sinking of wells; hence all our 
knowledge of it must be gained from exposed areas and sections in 
other localities. Omitting the rock formation, because completely 
hidden from view, we come to the study of that which is apparent 
to all, that in which the farmer plows, upon which our wagon roads 
and- railroads are builded, and upon which we all depend for our 
daily bread — the immense superincumbent mass of soil known as 


The farmer boy, as he walks over the meadow with its carpet ot 

*For a description of the rocks of this age, and also of its Life-System, both 
animal and vegetable, the reader is referred to the three excellent works of Prof. 
Dana, the "Geological Story," the "Text-Book," and the "Manual," the masterly 
work of Prof. Le Conte, and to the many and valuable Geological Reports of 
Ohio and Indiana. 





■ Glacial. 

Lower Helderberg. 

I s m 


green and wanders beside the babbling brook, or, as with sturdy 
hand he turns the grassy sward, uncultured though he be, askd 
himself the question, "From whence came all this that is spreas 
out so bean tif ally around me? These huge stones which I see ly- 
ing upon the surface or imbedded within the soil, how came they 
here! Do they grow? 'The hills, rock-ribbed and ancient as the 
sun,' how were they formed ? and what is their history?" Ah! 
If they could speak and tell us what scenes they have witnessed, 
the story would be of far more interest than that of Belzoni's 
mummy, for it could tell us of the world not merely as it was 
" three thousand years ago," but stretching far back into the illim- 
itable past, they could tell much of the Creator's plans in fitting 
up the earth as the abode of man. 

All soil, with the trifling exception of the thin stratum of vege- 
table mold that covers the ground in many localities, is formed from 
the disintegration of rocks. Now, there are two great classes of 
soil, to one of which every kind of soil may be referred, that is, 
soil formed in situ — in the place where found — and that which has 
been transported, when formed, to places more or less remote from 
the parent rock. It is to the latter of these that our soil belongs 
and hence that which we wish to treat. 

Strewed all over the northern part of North America, over hill 
and dale, over field and plain, covering alike, in places, all the 
country rock to a depth of thirty to three hundred feet, thus largely 
concealing them from view, and extending in general from the 
Rocky Mountains eastward, and southward to the fortieth parallel of 
latitude, is found this peculiar surface soil or deposit. It consists of a 
heterogeneous mixture of clay, sand, gravel, pebbles, sob-angular 
stones of all sizes, unsorted, unsifted, unfossiliferous. The lowest 
part lying in immediate contact with the subjacent rock is often 
a stiff clay including sub-angular stones; hence this is often 
called the boulder clay or hard pan. "These included boulders, " says 
Prof. Geikie, "are scattered higgledy-piggledy, pell-mell, through 
the clay so as to give the whole deposit a highly confused and 
tumultuous appearance." On examining many of these stones, they 
will be found to be angular in shape, but the sharp corners and edges 
are invariably smoothed away, their faces will be smoothed and 
frequently grooved with parallel scratches. Indeed in concretionary 
stones and others having an egg shape, often one whole end has 
been ground off, showing conclusively its history. On the other 
hand, lying all over this drift soil, in clusters, in isolated rocks, and 


in belts varying in width from a single line to two or three miles, 
are found many boulders of all sizes; in some localities they are of 
huge dimensions and weigh hundreds of tons. These unscratched, 
or erratic blocks, as they are sometimes called, have attracted the 
attention and excited the wonder of those in the humblest walks 
of life, and since they are composed of materials foreign to the local 
geology, were regarded by them as foreigners which had been 
brought from a distance and strewed over the surface or perched 
upon declivities in some incomprehensible way. It is now very ap- 
propriate to investigate the causes for all this phenomena spread 
out before us. 

Whenever the underlying rock is of sufficient hardness to retain 
an impression, and ±or any cause is exposed to view, it is always 
found to be plowed and planed and grooved with long parallel 
striae and ruts. Thus, these scratches, with the superincumbent 
drift, the boulder-clay, and the surface boulders, furnish for us phe- 
nomena, the exact counterpart of which is found on a smaller scale 
in all the glaciated regions of the world to-day — Alaska, Greenland, 
Switzerland, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Antarctic con- 
tinent. Given identical phenomena, we must conclude there was 
an identical cause. Given identical phenomena in the one case on 
a much larger and grander scale, we must conclude there was a 
cause of far greater and grander proportions. There was, then, a 
time in the past, when for hundreds of years the winters grew 
steadily both longer and colder; the equatorial current, being 
pressed southward at Cape St. Koque, was pouring more and more 
of its waters into the South Atlantic. The moisture was all precip- 
itated as snow, and these all mutually reacting upon each other 
so that each eftect strengthened the cause, brought about the period 
known as the great Ice Age, and formed an immense continental 
ice-sheet or Polar Ice Cap which extended in general to the fortieth 
degree of latitude, with local extensions of its icy fingers down 
river valleys far to the southward. 

In the begi nning of the Archaean Age, at the time of the first 
known continental emergence in the history of the world, there was 
formed a high mountain range north of the great lakes, extending 
from Labrador to the Lake of the Woods and thence northward to 
the Arctic Ocean, the degradation of which has furnished the ma- 
terial for the stratified rocks that surround it, and, being especially 
active in the glacial period, it also furnished the greater part of our 
drift material. Thus through the lapse of countless ages down to 


the present time, all the mountain peaks and chains of this Lauren- 
tian continent, as it is frequently called, have been removed and car- 
ried into the sea, and, as a result, there remain only the truncated 
bases of the various arches and folds to testify to their former ex- 
istence and magnitude. Thus we see that these archsean mount- 
ains are the means, and the Ice Cap, together with what follows, 
the melting of the ice, are the agents in performing the final work 
in fitting up this part of our earth-ho me. For with its ponderous 
mass of ice a mile iu thickness and constantly increasing as it ap- 
proaches the pole, moving southward, it ground the softer rocks to 
powder, brought hither our soil, scooped out the great lakes and the 
multitude of smaller ones in their latitude, and by the retreating of 
the glacier, the immense floods and the consequent hosts of icebergs, 
th e river valleys were hollowed out, the hills and the gravel beds 
formed, and the surface boulders were dropped by the river's side 
and over the fields and plains. 

The glacier in forming the Erie basin, as is indicated by the fur. 
rows made at different points, moved from east to west along the 
line of its way or axis. It plowed up the Huron and Erie sholes. 
in the east end, to a great depth, but moving westward it came 
upon the hard floor of corniferous limestone and but a shallow basin 
was formed. Here the many beautiful and fertile islands particu- 
larly testify to the unyielding hardness of the rocks. Thence pass- 
ing southwest to New Haven and Fort Wayne, and from New 
Haven on down the Wabash Valley, it determined the valleys of 
two rivers which would, in turn, one day, through long periods of 
time, drain the waters of Lake Erie to the gulf and convey to itself 
all of the waters of the great Maume e basin. Now, by a process 
the exact reverse of that which produced the glacial epoch, there 
was brought about a period of much warmer climate known as 


This was characterized by melting of ice and snow, a far more 
extended and higher condition of the great lakes, by multitudes of 
icebergs floating southward over these inland seas and dropping 
their loads of earth, sand, gravel, and boulders, by numerous floods 
which broadened and deepened the river valleys and the pell-mell 
dumping of gravel and stones over hills and valleys, with the strat- 
ification of whatever was deposited by the water. 

As proof of the greater extent a nd elevation of the lakes, we have, 
for example, about Lake Erie five successive margins up to the 


elevation of 250 feet above its present level. Of these, the first 
and highest passes from Adrian, Mich., through Fayette, Ohio, 
Hamar, West U nity, Pulaski, Bryan, and Farmer Center. From 
the latter place it passes into Defiance County and is divided into 
two nearly parallel lines west of Farmer Center, and continues its 
course southwesterly through Hicksville into the southeast corner 
of DeKalb County, thence on to New Haven and Fort Wayne. Here 
it forms parallel lines on the opposite sides of that old river which 
never had a name and no man ever saw; thence it passes eastward 
through Van Wert, Delphos and Findley. 

A higher and equally continuous ridge lies back of this, passing 
from Hudson, Mich., on the left bank of the St. Joseph River, through 
Pioneer, Montpelier, and Edgerton to Fort Wayne, and on the 
right bank of the St. Mary's running southeasterly to Lima and 

This is not usually regarded as an old lake beach, but rather as 
a swell of the Erie clay determined by a buried moraine.* 

This ridge, commonly called the St. Mary's Ridge, though it seems 
to me it would better be called the St. Joseph and St. Mary's Ridge, 
exerts a very controlling influence over the drainage of the county; 
for it determines the basin of the two noble rivers, the St. Joseph 
and the St. Mary's. 

These properly have tributaries flowing into them from one di- 
rection only, in the St. Joseph from the right, and in the St. Mary's 
from the left, and by their confluence at Fort Wayne, the one flow- 
ing in a southwesterly course, the other, in a northwesterly course, 
they form the Maumee, which flows back to Toledo, Ohio — not the 
resultant of the two forces, but directly the opposite of it. Thus 
this system of drainage, of which De Kalb County furnishes an honor- 
able part, has two most interesting features, the like of which, except 
the Tiffin and Auglaize and the second lake beach, so far as we know, 
is not to be found elsewhere upon the globe. Now, if the reader will 
refer to the section, he will be able to see our place more clearly. 
Far beneath us is the original or crust rock. Superimposed upon 
this we have formed chiefly by the degradation of the Laurentian 

*The formation of the lake beaches and ridges constitute the last scenes 
in the great geological drama; nor should we look upon tliem as taking place in 
rapid succession, but slowly through long peroids of time, just as in the near fut- 
ure, geologically speaking, the present margins of Lake Erie will be left far 
inland by the wearing away of Niagara's rocky bed and the retreating of the 


mountains, the many and diverse strata that constitute the periods 
of the Silurian and Devonian ages. At the close of the last-named 
age, our count}' arose from beneath the ancient sea and its rock 
formation was at an end. It will also be observed, that simul- 
taneous with these formatioDs there were formed in Scotland and 
Wales the strata of the Old Bed Sandstone, by the study of 
which, with chisel and hammer, Hugh Miller rendered both them 
and himself immortal. Thus, with the long blanks before us, it 
would be idle to look for coal or any of the interesti ngand useful 
formations of the Carboniferous, Reptilian and Tertiary ages; but 
while these phenomena were taking place, our county, with its 
head above the waves, like a silent and lonely sentinel, gazed upon 
these wonderful transformations, including the emergence of the 
continent southward and the gradual yet wonderful formation of 
the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. After all this was ac- 
complished, the ponderous and mighty glacier, moving southward 
with grandeur and irresistible force, brought hither our 300 
feet of drift-soil, rich in the elements of the old granitic rock. c , 
and consisting of alternate layers of yellow and blue clay, 
sand and gravel of varying thickness. Thus there is formed for 
us the best of conditions for obtaining good water. There are 
three strata of sand with impervious clay on either side, having an 
average depth of twelve, twenty-five, and forty-five feet. This is 
known by the many excellent wells all over the county, the 
greater number and best of which are generally obtained by 
sinking the tube to the second stratum of sand, having an average 
depth of twenty-five feet. On the retiring of the glacier, there 
was left upon the surface in the northwestern part of the county 
numerous boulders which may be traced northward through 
Steuben County and the State of Michigan, increasing both in sizu 
and number to the place of their origin, — the region beyond the 
lakes. About this time, or just subsequent to it, was formed 
the St. Joseph, and, for the first time in its history, the waters of 
this phenomenal river are coursing southward, not yet to Lake 
Erie, but through the channel of the "Wabash on to the Gulf. 
Following this began the deposition of the alluvial bottom lands 
on either side of the river and its tributaries, of which are formed 
our most beautiful and fertile farms. Now, the margins of Lake 
Erie crossing the southeastern part o f the county, through the 
action of winds and waves, formed those beautiful ridges pre- 
viously described. These, " being composed chiefly of sand and 


fine gravel with sufficient clay to pack well, and yet sufficiently 
porous to drain well," have from the first afforded the people in 
their vicinity the best of roads known here and wherever found 
as the " Ridge Roads." 

Proceeding from below upward in our investigations, we arrive 
at last at the thin stratum of vegetable mold, covering the drift, 
which has been formed by the annual coating of leaves for untold 
years. This, together with the pulverized and partially decom- 
posed granitic rock, the eoorrnous drift covering, furnishes for the 
farmer a soil that is at once fertile and inexhaustible; for if he 
will but " plow deep, while sluggards sleep, he will have plenty 
of corn to sell and keep." 

Thus, though we are not blessed with mines of the precious 
metals, nor coal, nor iron, nor copper, yet we have in our soil an 
inexhaustible mine of true wealth, the foundation of a nation's 
true greatness, the basis, the hidden spring that sets in motion 
the wheels of trade and commerce throughout the world. And 
the farmer, in his high and time-honored calling, holds in his 
hand the electric key, by means of which he sends the thrill of 
life-giving pulsations throughout the whole world of human in- 
dustry and sets in motion its countless spindles and wheels the 
sweet music of whose hum is heard in every clime. 

Although no large body of water exists within or near the bor 
ders of De Kalb County it formerly had a respectable number of 
both species and individuals of the animal kingdom. It afforded 
the Indian and the pioneer an abundance of wholesome wild 
meats, and in great variety, as well as a plentiful supply of use- 
less or mischievous animals. According to the rule the world 
over, the larger animals disappeared first before the advancing tread 
of human occupation, and then the next in size, and so on, down 
to the raccoon, opossum, etc., which still exist, though in dimin- 
ishing numbers. The buffalo and elk were the largest, and they 
disappeared on the very first approach of the white man, with his 
deadly rifle and indefatigable hound. 


The common deer, which was abundant- in pioneer times, is now 
very scarce in Indiana, being occasionally seen in some of the 
wildest portions of the State. The last one known to be in De 
Kalb County was killed as much as twenty years ago. 


The panther {J&elix concolor) and two species ot wild cat {Lynx 
Canadensis and rufus) used to infest the woods, and render trav- 
eling somewhat dangerous to the early settler, but the last seen in 
the county were about a third of a century ago. 

The black bear, porcupine and beaver have not been seen here 
for a still longer period. 

Minks, weasels and skunks, once common, are diminishing. 
Twenty to thirty years ago there was a brisk trade here in their furs 
and other peltry which perceptibly thinned out the fur-bearing 

Fox and gray squirrels keep up their proportion with the dimin- 
ishing forest. The gray species is the most numerous, among 
which a black specimen is occasionally met with. Flying squirrels 
are still here, but as they are entirely nocturnal in their habits they 
are seldom seen. There are also ground squirrels in abundance. 

Moles, rabbits and bats are of course still common. 

No others have been seen for many years, though they were 
frequent in early days. There are still a good many muskrats. 

Occasionally there is a gray fox met with, but no red foxes have 
been seen for a long time. 

Wolves, of the large gray or "timber" species, were plentiful in 
early times, and more annoying and mischievous than all other and 
imals put together; but they are now, of course, extinct. 

Ground hogs, or " woodchucks," were never plentiful, and are so 
scarce now that seldom can one be found. 

" Wild hogs," or domestic hogs escaped and running wild, were 
abundant in pioneer times. In a few generations these animals 
became as furious and dangerous as wolves. 

Of the 250 species of birds found in De Kalb County, either con- 
stantly or occasionally in emigration, the group of singers exceeds 
in number all others, though the really excellent musicians among 
them number but fifteen or twenty. The most numerously repre- 
sented division, the wood warblers (Tanagridce) are not fine sing- 
ers. The best songsters of the forest belong to .the thrush and 
mocking-bird family. 

Thrush Family. — The superior singing bird of De Kalb Counts- 
is the superior singer of all the world, namely, the wood-thrush. It 
is really more entertaining than the famous nightingale of Europe. 
Its melodious, flute-like tones are altogether " too sweet" for de- 


scription. They are grouped into short times of eight, ten or 
twelve notes each- and there are six or eight tunes sung by this 
bird, with intervals of five to six or seven seconds between them. 
Next to this prima donna of the forest are the olive-backed (or 
Swainson's) thrush, Wilson's thrush, the northern mocking-bird 
(or cat-bird), the brown thrush and the robin. These are all migra- 
tory birds, spending the summer here but the winter in the South. 
The robin sometimes remains all winter. The hermit and the 
olive-backed thrushes are more common in the spring and fall 
The robin and the cat-bird frequent the orchards and gardens, nest- 
ing about the door-yards, and prefer these places to the woods, 
probably because of greater security from birds or other animals ot 
prey. The brown thrush is found in the thickets of hazel-brush, 
briers, etc., which skirt old fences and the edge of woods, and gen- 
erally nests in brush heaps. The remainder of this family is con- 
fined to the woodland. Their food consists of beetles, grasshoppers, 
snails, spiders, caterpillars, etc. , together with small fruits and berries. 

Bluebird Family. — The bluebird is the only representative of 
this family in the county. It is common from spring to fall, nest- 
ing in bird-houses, fence-posts, decayed trees, and feeds on winged 
insects, worms, grasshoppers, spiders and a scant proportion ot 

Kinglets. — The ruby-crowned and the golden-crowned kinglets 
and the blue-gray gnat-catcher are all common during the spring 
and fall. The first-mentioned is frequently found in winter, and 
the gnat-catcher is abundant during the summer. These are con- 
fined to the woods. The kinglets nest in the lake region, but the 
gnat-catcher nests here, building a wonderful structure high up on 
the oaks. It is somewhat purse-shaped, and often at the extrem- 
ity of a bough, so as to sway with the wind, secure from enemies. 
It is placed in a concealed situation, and artistically, as well as 
substantially, finished. 

Chickadee. — The titmouse, or black-capped chickadee, the only 
member of this family here, feeds upon insects, seeds, berries, 
crumbs, meat, etc., and generally nests in the woods, where it 
makes its home most of the year, but during the winter it is seen 
near the house, feeding upon sweepings from the table. 

Nuthatches. — The white- bellied and the red-bellied nuthatch are 
common, especially the former. These birds are found in wood, 
lands and orchards. Their nests are built in holes in trees. Food 
— ants, eggs of insects and seeds. 


Brown Creeper. — A common spring, fall and winter resident, 
and a woodland bird, is to be mentioned in this connection. 

Wren Family. — The Carolina wren is a very rare straggler from 
the South. The house wren is common locally. The winter wren 
is a common spring and fall visitor, often remaining during the 
open winters. The long-billed marsh wren is a common summer 
resident of the marshes, building a large globular nest of coarse 
sand-grass, suspended to reeds or flag stems. The short-billed 
marsh wren is a common summer resident, generally found on low 
meadow lands. The wrens feed on insects only. 

Lark Family. — The horned lark is a winter resident, but some- 
times breeds here. It frequents barren and gravelly fields, feeding 
on seeds and insects. When the ground is covered with snow they 
may be seen feeding upon the droppings of stock about the 

The Titlark is an abundant migrant in late fall and early spring, 
frequenting the same localities and subsisting on the same food as 
the preceding. There are sometimes large flocks of this species 
of bird. 

Warblers. — These are numerous. The black and white creeper 
is a common summer resident, nesting on the ground, generally 
beside a fallen log. The blue yellow- backed warbler, a rare mi- 
gratory bird, is sometimes found in the tree-tops of the wild forest. 
The blue-winged yellow warbler is rare. The blue golden-winged 
warbler is common in spring and fall. The Nashville and Tennes- 
see warblers are very common. The orange-crowned warbler is 
rare. The yellow, the black-throated green, the black-throated 
blue, the blue, the yellow-ruraped, the blackburnian, the black- 
poll, the yellow red-poll, and the chestnut-sided warblers are all 
common — some of them abundant; all migrants. The bay-breasted, 
the Cape May, the prairie, the yellow-throated and Kirtland's war- 
blers are rare. The golden-crowned thrush (Sciurus auricctpill us) 
is a common summer resident, frequenting low, open woods. The 
water thrush (S. naevius) is rare, but breeds here. The large- 
billed water thrush is common in swampy timber lands. The Con- 
necticut warbler is rare, but may become common. It is a fine 
songster. The Maryland yellow-throat is found occasionally. 
The black-capped fly-catching warbler is common during the spring 
and autumn. Canada fly-catching warbler, common. Ked start, 
very common. 

Tanagers. — The scarlet tanager is common, and the summer red- 


bird (sometimes kept in cages) rare, accidentally straying from the 

Swallow Family. — The barn, cliff or eave, white-bellied, and 
the bank or sand swallows are common. The purple martin, for- 
merly common, is being driven out by the English sparrow. The 
swallows feed exclusively upon winged insects. 

Wax-wings. — The Carolina wax-wing or cherry bird is a com- 
mon resident, breeding in August and September, and feeding on 
the cultivated fruits. 

Vireos. — There are a half-dozen species of these in this section 
of the country, inhabiting woodlands, some of them common, some 
of them rare. 

Shrikes or Butcher Birds. — The great Northern shrike is rare; 
the logger-head shrike, two varieties, is common. These form a 
small but interesting family of bold and spirited birds, quarrel- 
some among themselves. They form a kind of connecting link be- 
tween insect-eating birds and birds of prey. Their food con- 
sists of large insects, mice and small birds and snakes. They are 
noted for impaling their prey on thorns or sharp twigs and leaving 
it there — for what purpose is not yet known. 

Finch and Sparrow Family. — Numerous; pine grosbeak,an oc- 
casional winter visitor; purple finch, a common migrant; white- 
winged and red cross-bills, rare winter visitors; red-poll linnet, an 
irregular winter visitor; pine linnet, a rare winter visitor. from the 
North; goldfinch, or yellow bird, common and well-known; has the 
appearance of a canary; snow-bunting, a common but irregular 
winter visitor; Lapland long-spur, a common winter visitor; Savan- 
nah sparrow, a common migrant; bay-winged bunting, very com- 
mon from spring to fall; yellow-winged, Henslow's and Lincoln's 
sparrows, are summer residents; swamp and song sparrows, 
common, the latter abundant all the warm season; snow-bird, 
common in winter; mountain sparrow, common in winter; chip- 
ping and held spai-rows, common in summer; white-throated 
and white-crowned sparrows, common migrants; English sparrow, 
abundant in the towns, driving out our native song-birds; fox 
sparrow, a very common spring and fall visitor; black-throated 
bunting, growing common; rose-breasted grosbeak, a common sum- 
mer resident; breeds along the' water-courses in low trees and 
shrubs; indigo bird, abundant in summer, frequenting low wood- 
lands overrun with briers; towhee bunting orchewink, abundant. 

Birds of this family feed entirely upon seeds except during the 



breeding season. Those which are residents all the year and those 
which are summer residents only subsist during the breeding sea- 
son and feed their young almost exclusively upon insects. At 
other times their food consists of the seeds of grass and weeds. 
The rose-breasted grosbeak is the only bird known to feed on the po- 
tato bug and the white-crowned sparrow feeds on the grape-vine flea- ■ 
beetle. The common yellow bird, or goldfinch, prefers the seeds of 
the thistle and lettuce. The fox sparrow and chewink scratch the 
ground for hibernating insects and snails. The crossbills feed on 
the seeds in pine cones, and the English sparrow feeds on the seeds 
contained in the droppings of animals. 

Blackbird Family. — Bobolink, common and well-known ; a fine 
and cheerful songster; cow-bird, or cow blackbird, a summer visitor, 
frequenting old pasture land and the edge of woods; like the Euro- 
pean cuckoo, it builds no nest, but lays its eggs in the nests of 
smaller birds, such as warblers, vireos and sparrows. Ked-winged 
blackbird, abundant in summer; meadow lark, well known; orchard 
I and Baltimore orioles are very common; rusty blackbird, or grackle, 
is common for a week or two in spring; crow blackbird, common 
and well known. 

With the exception of one or two species, this family is decidedly 
gregarious. Insects and grains constitute their food. The cow- 
bird destroys the eggs and young of other birds. The orioles feed 
largely on hairy caterpillars and also on some of the small fruits, 
green peas, etc. 

Crow family. — The raven was common, but is now rare. The 
common crow, well-known, emigrates southward during the cold- 
est weather. Blue jay is the gayest plumaged and harshest-voiced 
bird of the American forests. Birds of this family are omnivorous. 

Fly-catcher Family. — The king-bird is abundant in summer, fre- 
quenting orchards and the edge of the woods; great crested fly- 
catcher, abundant in the forest; uses snake skins as a part of its 
nest material; pewee, or Phoebe bird, common; wood pewee, a 
common bird of the orchard and woodland; least fly-catcher, com- 
mon in summer; yellow-bellied fly-catcher, a common migrant, 
but rare summer resident. The king-bird and pewee frequent 
open places; the others of this family dwell in the forest. They all 
subsist upon winged insects. 

Goatsucker Family. — Whippoorwill and night-hawk, well-known 
and common. These birds are nocturnal in their habits and feed 
upon insects. 


The Chimney Swallow is the only member of tbe family Cypse- 
lidce that is found in this latitude. It is sometimes seen in large 
flocks, roosting in unused chimneys, barns and hollow trees. 

Humming-bird Family. — The ruby-throated is the only species 
found here. It feeds upon insects, which it captures within 

King-fisher Family. — The belted king-fisher is a common sum- 
mer resident in suitable localities. It feeds upon small fish. 

Cuckoo Family. — The black-billed species is common; has been 
called "rain crow." The yellow-billed cuckoo is not common. 

Woodpecker Family. — There are half a dozen species of wood- 
pecker found in this locality, all common, viz.: The hairy, downy, 
yellow-bellied, red-bellied, red-headed and golden-winged. Om- 

Owl Family. — The great horned, the mottled, the screech, the 
long-eared and the short-eared are abundant. The barn owl is a 
rare straggler from the South. Possibly one or two other species 
may occasionally be found here. 

Hawk Family. — The marsh hawk, the sharp shinned, Cooper's, 
the sparrow, the red-tailed, the red-shouldered, the broad-winged, 
the rough-legged or black, and the fish hawks are all commou. The 
white-tailed kite, the goshawk, the pigeon hawk, Swainson's hawk 
and the bald eagle are more rare. 

The Turkey Buzzard, belonging to a distinct family, is rare. 

Pigeon Family. — The wild pigeon, an abundant migrant, some- 
times breeds here. The Carolina dove, a resident here most of 
the year, is common. 

The Wild Turkey, once abundant, but now rare, is the only 
member of its family native to this region. 

Grouse Family. — Prairie chicken, once occasional, none now; 
ruffed grouse, or partridge, occasional ; quail, common. 

Plover Family. — The golden plover, the killdeer and the semi- 
palmated are common about unfrequented ponds. The black-bel- 
lied plover is rare, if ever seen at all. 

Sandpiper Family. — The most common species of this family 
are the semi-palmated, least, pectoral, red-breasted, Willst, solitary, 
spotted and upland sandpipers, the snipe and the woodcock. Less 
common are the buff-breasted and red-backed sandpipers, long- 
billed curlew and perhaps occasionally two or three other unim- 
portant species. 


Heron Family. — The green and night herons, the bittern and 
the least bittern are common residents. The great blue heron is a 
common migrant and the great white heron a rare summer visitor. 

Cranes. — The whooping and sand-hill cranes are sometimes seen 
in migration. 

Mail Family. — The Virginia and Carolina rails and the coot are 
often seen in the vicinity of the streams and in the margin of ponds; 
the clapper, king, yellow and black rails, very rarely ; the Florida 
gallinule, occasional. 

Duck Family. — The common species are the mallard, black, 
big black-head, little black-head, ring-necked, red-head (or pochard) 
golden-eye, butter ball, ruddy and fish (gosander) ducks, the brant 
and Canada geese, widgeon, golden-winged and blue-winged teal 
and the hooded merganser. Rarely are seen the pintail, gadwall, 
shoveler, wood duck, canvas-back duck, long-tailed duck and red. 
breasted merganser. All the duck family are migratory. 

Gull Family. — About ten species may rarely be seen in passing. 

Loon. — One species sometimes strays into this locality from the 

Grebes. — The horned and the pied-bill grebes are occasional. 
One or two other species very rare. 

As there are no large lakes or streams in De Kalb County, the 
number and variety of fishes are limited, especially in these days 
of mill-dams and city sewage. 

Stickleback Family. — This furnishes the chief game fish, as bass 
and sun fish. The local names of these fish are so various that we 
scarcely know how to refer to them; but we may venture to name 
the black bass, the green or Osage bass, the big black sun-fish or 
rock bass, goggle-eye and the two common sun-fish, all of which 
have materially diminished within the last five years. 

Perch Family.— -There are no perch, or "jack salmon," in the 
county. They were once common throughout the State, but now 
are only to be found occasionally in some of the most favored 
places. They are among the finest fishes, and ought to be culti- 
vated. The salmon sometimes attains a weight of forty pounds. 

Pike Family. — The larger pike, sometimes called " grass pike," 
used to be met with, especially in draining off the marshes. The 
pickerel was also native here, but none are to be found at the pres- 


ent day. Nor have gar pike (" gars") existed here since the ad- 
vent of mill-dams. 

Sucker Family. — To this family belong the buffalo (rare), red- 
horse (occasional) and the white sucker (also occasional). Black 
suckers and mullets still thrive in some parts of Indiana, but not 

Catfish Family. — Fish of this family are still common, but are 
small, weighing only a pound or two. We can scarcely name the 
species in English. Perhaps we may say the channel, or mud cat- 
fish, the blue and the yellow, the bull-head and one or two other 
small species are found here. The yellow are the most common. 

Minor Sor'ts. — Besides the above, there are several varieties of 
chubs, silver sides, and large numbers of other species denomi- 
nated minnows, which are found in the smallest spring branches 
as well as the larger streams. 

Fish planting has not yet been introduced into this county. 

Of the twenty-three species of Snakes that have existed in this 
State, and probably in this county, several of the largest have been 
about exterminated. Only two of them are venomous, namely, 
the copperhead and the massanger. Very few of these are to be 
fouud at. the present day. The smaller species are useful animals, 
like toads, in destroying mice, moles and other vermin, and are 
preserved by intelligent farmers on this account. 

Of Lizards there are very few in this section. Those creatures 
which resemble them are innocent salamanders, and are really as 
useful as toads in the destruction of flies and other insects. There 
are eighteen species of these animals in Indiana. The largest at- 
tains a lenuth of eight inches, and is black, with large, irregular 
yellow spots. Another large species is entirely yellow; another of 
a brilliant vermilion haunts cold springs. The second in size is 
the "mud alligator," or "water dog," a frequent annoyance to 
fishermen. Still another species has external gills, for respiration 
in water, thus resembling pollywogs. 

Of Frogs there are five species, and of toads five. Four are tree 
toads. One species of frog is subterranean, excavatiug its burrows 
backward with its hind feet, which are shovel formed. It comes to 
the surface early to breed, after thunder showers in April, in the 
eveuing, when it is easily recognized by its loud, discordant notes. 



Early Settlement. — Pioneers before 1836. — Locating the 
County Seat. — Early Commissioners' Meetings. — Early In- 
cidents. — Indian Scares. — The Nearest Mill. — Provisions 
Scarce. — The Log Cabin. — Hand Labor. — Handspike Farm- 
ing. — "Windrow" Planting. — First Preacher. — First Reli- 
gious Meetings. — Early Preachers and Religious Progress. 
— First Events. — A Backwoods Judge. — More op the Pio- 
neers. — The Flood. — Navigating the Desert with a Pocket 
Compass. — Gunpowder Tea. — A Bridal Tour. — All Well but 
Fourteen! — Sufferings of Mr. Osburn. — Family Mills. — 
Primitive School-Houses. — A Rascally Parody. 


The early history of this county, like that of many other counties, 
has not been handed down to us with that degree of minuteness 
that would prove interesting to the readers of the present day. 
Authentic records of its early settlement do not appear, and the 
few who participated in the scenes of that period have long since 
been gathered to their fathers. Yet there is a lively interest still 
manifested in the narration of the severe battles fought and vic- 
tories won over the huge obstacles presented by rude nature, and 
if there is nothing new to offer the oft-repeated tale has a charm 
about it that never wearies, and the thrilling adventure and humor- 
ous incident are sources of enjoyment that captivate and enchain 
the most indifferent. 

When we look over the beautiful fields and fertile valleys of the 
present day and see the evidences of improvement and enterprise 
on every hand, we are prone to ignore the terrible sufferings and 
privations that fell to the lot of those who struck the first blows 
and inaugurated the plans that brought those great achievements. 

No cultivated fields nor happy homes greeted the eye; no civil- 
ized voices fell upon the ear to cheer the heart with joy; but all 


was desolation in the midst of nature's luxuriousness. It is a 
matter worthy of remark that indomitable will and perseverance 
must have entered more largely into the composition of these early 
settlers than is observable in the various classes that now populate 
our country. Be this as it may, it was their great stock in hand, 
and to this we are indebted to-day for the pleasant homes they now 
leave for the more glorious and peaceful one that shall last during 
the ceaseless ages of eternity. 

Far removed from the influence and association of home and 
friends, with nothing but the deep silence of the mighty forest as 
their companion, they struck the first blows for civilization and 
improvement, and by Herculean efforts carved out in the depth of 
the wilderness the rude but comfortable homes as the first fruits 
of their labor. 


Yery few settlers were within the bounds now embraced by De 
Kalb County in the early part of the year 1836. The following 
list is believed to be complete : Homer Blake, who settled on the 
tract of land for a long time afterward occupied by his son, Henry 
Blake, below Spencerville; David Butler, one of the last of the 
pioneers to "bid farewell to scenes of earth;" John Mathews, on a 
tract of land afterward forming a part of the home farm of Hon. R. 
J. Dawson ; Mr. Yates, on another portion of said farm, and the 
present site of Spencerville; old Mr. Khodes and sons, on the 
farm joining Spencerville on the west; Jeremiah Rhodes, on the 
farm afterward owned by Mr. Melton, on Bear Creek; Daniel 
Rhodes, on the farm occupied by his widow ; Mr. Brandt and 
Crannel Rood, on the farm in the bend of the river east of Spencer- 
ville ; William Mathews, on the farm where Jacob Dills afterward 
resided ; George and David Mathews, on a tract on the opposite 
side of the river from "William; Mr. Lytle and Jared Ball, on the 
farm afterward owned by Gavin Hamilton, one mile below Orange- 
ville; Washington Robinson, on the present site of Newviile; and 
William Rodgers and Jacob Platter, on the farm belonging to 
Samuel Wyatt, near JSTewville. 

De Kalb County was as yet unorganized, a portion of its terri- 
tory being attached to Lagrange, and a portion to Allen. Early 
in the year 1836, John Blair, Esq., settled on the farm where he 
died; Charles Wilber, on the farm owned later by old Mr. Hall, 
near Orangeville; William Burley, at the present site of the last 


named village; Joseph Ludwig, on the farm where he lived till his 
death: Judge Walden, a little farther up the river, and Ariel 
Rood, still further up. A little later in the season Judge Samuel 
Widney settled on the farm where he died, and John P. Widney 
on the farm owned afterward by Gardner Melendy, at Newville; 
Benjamin Alton, on the farm since owned by Dr. Herrington ; Dr. 
Babcock, a little below, on the farm afterward occupied by Mr. 
Scoles; and Asher Coburn and relatives, in the Cobnrn settlement. 
During the same season Wesley Bark settled on the site of Au- 
burn, and laid out the town. Settlers began to push through the 
woods into various parts of the county, and the latter was given a 
civil organization. 


In the winter of lS36-'7 the act organizing De Kalb County was 
passed by the Legislature, and there seemed an active competition 
for the county seat between Messrs. Rogers and Hamilton, and 
Messrs. Park and Howe. The former parties bought land, laid 
out a town plat, staked off lots and gave their site the name of 
Centerville. The eligible site laid out by Park, in conjunction with 
Judge John Howe (of Lima, Lagrange County), on the west bank of 
Cedar Creek, two miles south and three miles west of the center of 
the new county, was a formidable competitor for public favor, and 
when Messrs. Littlefield, of Lagrange, Gilmore, of Steuben, and 
Robert Work, of Allen, were appointed Commissioners to locate a 
county seat, Auburn was duly selected. Centerville, like many 
another such site, was never built up, and it now makes good farm- 
ing land. 


The first meeting of the Board of Commissioners of De Kalb 
County was held July 25, 1837, and the two members of that 
board were Peter Fair and Samuel Widney. At this meeting, 
which was in the house of Wesley Park, at Auburn, as also were 
the succeeding sessions for a number of years, the first step taken 
waB to appoint Wesley Park their Clerk pro tern. The same man 
was appointed County Treasurer for a year; Byron Bunnel was 
named as County Agent; John Blair was given the office of 
Assessor; and Lanslot Ingman was made Collector of Taxes. The 
first legislative act was then passed, prescribing the boundaries of 
Franklin Township as follows: "Commencing at the northeast 


corner of said county (De Kalb); thence west to the corners of 
ranges 13 and 14 east, townships 35 and 36 north; then south six 
miles to township 34 north, ranges 13 and 14 east; thence east on 
the town line to the east line of said county; thence north to the 
place of beginning ; the above shall constitute the first township 
in De Kalb County." Provision was made for organizing this 
township by an election to be held the first Monday in August fol- 
lowing, and Peter Boyer was appointed Inspector of Elections, 
Isaac T. Aldrich, Constable, and John Holton, Supervisor. 

The "second session but first regular" was held at the same 
place, Sept. 4, 1837. There was present a full board : Peter Fair, 
Samuel Widney and Isaac F. Beecher. John F. Coburn was Clerk, 
and Wesley Park, Sheriff. "Being detained by unavoidable cir- 
cumstances from transacting business," they adjourned until the 
following day. On reassembling according to appointment, Samuel 
Eakright was chosen Road Commissioner for the county ; after 
which an order was passed " that the congressional township 34 
north, range 13 east, be organized as a township for judicial (civil) 
purposes, to be known by the name of Union Township, and that 
townships 34 and 35 north, range 12 east, and townships 33 and 
35 north, range 13 east, be attached thereto." It was also " ordered 
that Wesley Park be appointed Supervisor for the road district 
No. 1, comprising the whole of Union Township, and all the lands 
lying within said township are allotted to said district." 

Further, it was " ordered that the congressional township 34 
north, range 14 east, be, and it is hereby, organized as a civil town- 
ship, to be known by the name of Wilmington Township." Byron 
Bunnel was appointed Supervisor. 

And again, it was ''ordered that the congressional township 33 
north, range 12 east, be, and it is hereby, organized as a civil town- 
ship, to be known by the name of Butler Township. 1 ' Andrew 
Surface was appointed Supervisor. 

It was at this meeting that money was first appropriated for 
current expenses of the county. The first order drawn was for 
$50.84, in favor of Wesley Park, and was to pay for these items: 
$8.00 for services as Sheriff previous to the first session of the 
board, and as Clerk during that session; $16.69 for services as 
Commissioner in laying out the Fort Wayne and Coldwater 
State Road and $26.15 for services as Commissioner in laying 
out the Goshen and Defiance State Road." Wesley IteCan 
was allowed $2.96 for services as axman in laying out road; 



Martin Van Fleet, $2.96 for acting as chaintnan at the same 
time; Lanslot Ingman, 31J- cents for similar work; William Park, 
314; cents as chainman, and $4.75 for laying out the Goshen and 
Defiance State Eoad ; Seth W. Murray, $7.23 for services as Com- 
missioner in laying out the Fort Wayne and Coldwater State 
Road; and Joseph Miller, $26,214, for surveying both the above 
mentioned roads. Joseph Miller was appointed the first County 

The only other business transacted at this first regular meeting 
was the allowance of the commissioners' per diem, an item which 
comes up as regularly as the board's meetings, several times each 
year. While the present system seems to cost quite a sum in the 
course of a year, it is nevertheless much less expensive than that in 
practice in Michigan, Illinois and other States, where, instead of 
three commissioners, there are from fifteen to twenty-five super- 
visor's to draw mileage and pay. 

The second regular session of the board was held in November, 
and, the governmental machinery of the county being now fairly 
set in motion, was pretty much like the sessions that have since 
been held at the appointed times for the transaction of routine busi- 
ness. At this second meeting Wesley Park was appointed School 
Commissioner for the county. 

At the January session, 1838, Jackson Township was erected out 
of township 33 north, range 13 east, and John Watson was named 
as Inspector of Elections. An unique scale of licenses was adopted, 
fixing a " tavern license at $20 ; each license to vend wooden clocks, 
$60 ; each license to exhibit a caravan, menagerie or other collec- 
tion of animals, or show of wax figures, or circus, for each day, 
$40." The license of $60 for selling wooden clocks seems strangely 
large to us, who can go to any jewelry store and buy a clock for 
$1.50, as far superior in value as inferior in price to the sort dis- 
tributed by the shrewd Tankee peddler of a half a century ago. 

During the latter part of 1837 De Kalb Township was organized, 
including the present township of Concord, and the fractional town- 
ships of Stafford and Newville. In March, 1838, the fractional 
township 34 north, range 15 east (now Stafford), was detached 
from De Kalb and annexed to Wilmington for civil purposes, and 
the name of De Kalb was changed to Concord, which application 
it has now borne for nearly forty-seven years. 

In those days nearly all business men were obliged to pay 
licenses, of various amounts, in addition to their ordinary taxes. 


Grocers, even, were laid under contribution, for March 7, 1838, in 
the commissioners' record, an order was entered "that the tax 
assessed to Thomas J. Freeman for a license to vend foreign mer- 
chandise and foreign and domestic groceries for the current year 
be 85 cents, it appearing that the amount of his capital employed 
therein is $170." 

Wesley Park resigning the office of School Commissioner, Kobert 
Work was appointed his successor. 

At the May session, 1838, the amount of bond for each constable 
in the county was fixed at $500. The sum of $2,000 was also 
appropriated from the three per cent, fund for roads, as follows: $800 
for the Goshen and Defiance State Eoad; $S00 for the Fort Wayne 
and Coldwater State Road; and $100 for the State road on the 
northwest side of the St. Joseph River. Several bridges were 
also ordered built. At the same session the commissioners fixed 
the poll tax for 1838 at 75 cents, and the property tax at $1.35 on 
each $100 valuation. Of this $1.35, 85 cents was for county 
revenue, and 50 cents for road purposes. 


On the following pages we give a collection of early incidents 
and anecdotes, and reminiscences of old settlers, obtained from 
various sources, but to a large extent extracted from a pamphlet 
published twenty-five years ago by Rev. S. W. Widney, entitled 
" Pioneer Sketches." 

Many difficulties had to be encountered in getting into the 
country in an early day. If the emigrant came with wagons, he had 
to cut and make his own road. If he came by the river he some- 
times met with a shipwreck, an instance of which we will now 

Judge Widney was from Central Pennsylvania, and came by 
can;d to the Allegheny Mountains; over the mountains by steam, 
ascending and descending those inclined planes; then again by 
canal to Dayton, Ohio; thence by wagons through (not over) that 
horrible, horrible black swamp to Fort Wayne. From thence he and 
his wife passed up the Indian trail on horseback along the St. Joseph 
River, while the family, in the care of John P. Widney and wife, 
embarked in the pirogue of Judge Walden aud Thomas Gorrell, 
who were down for some provisions. The craft was " poled" 
safely (though the load was heavy) until they reached a ripple in 
the river, near David Butler's place, when the bow of the boat 


being turned by the rapid current, the water struck the side and 
capsized the concern. Down went the pirogue, leaving crew and 
passengers, great and small, floundering in water waist deep 
to a common-sized man; and the goods floated down the river in 
sublime confusion. Some of the larger children succeeded in pad- 
dling ashore, while the wife of John P. Widney (now sleeping in 
the Auburn graveyard) seized a child five years old (afterward 
Mr. Widney's second wife) and upheld her in the water until the 
men succeeded in helping all ashore. The goods were then caught 
at different points down the river. A trunk containing $800 in 
bank bills floated down perhaps half a mile, and when the runa- 
way was caught, the bills were completely saturated with the 
water and had to be dried at the fire. 

As another instance of difficulties in getting into the country, 
it is worth relating that Joseph Miller, the first County Surveyor 
for De Kalb County, and his father, brought a part of their goods by 
the way of Fort Wayne to Shryock's mill. And from thence to 
the farm (afterward owned by Mr. Ditmer), one mile below 
Auburn, they had to cut their way through the dense forest. 
Having left the balance of their goods and their families on the 
Maumee, they struck through the woods, directly east, by means 
of a pocket compass, to the St. Joseph, going around the worst 
swamps, and then cut a road all the way back, some twelve miles, 
for their wagons to pass, having to bridge a tamarack swamp on 
the way. This road was known as " Miller's trace " for years 
afterward, and served as a highway for many emigrants. It was 
where the road now runs, westward from the St. Joseph River, at 
Judge Widney's. 


We quote from " Pioneer Sketches:" — " Many of the settlers had 
never seen an Indian before coming here; but they had heard 
and read much of their savage barbarity. During the years 1S35 
'6-'7-'8 many of these red men still lingered in their native forests, 
generally in large companies or camps. They were an object of 
terror to many of the settlers, especially to the women and children, 
as singly or in caravans they passed from one camp to another. 
To add to the terror, at first, the screams of a great owl, unknown 
in the East but abounding in the Western woods, were taken for 
the ' whoops ' of savages. 

"Well do I remember a night in the fall of 1837, spent in 
terror of the Indians. I had been in the county six months, but 


as yet had seen very few of thein. My widowed mother, with 
six children younger than myself (and I not yet seventeen years 
of age), bought and settled on the farm spoken of on another 
page as belonging to Dr. Babcock. Here an Indian trail crossed 
the river, and on the other side was a house where liquor was sold. 
Soon after nightfall the real whoops were heard away in the south 
woods. The sound drew continually nearer, and increased in 
volume, till our fears pictured a whole army of savages coming to 
murder us. We put out all the lights, fastened the doors, and 
concealed ourselves in different parts of the house. Soon the 
Indians were tramping around the house, and their torches gleam- 
ing through the windows. We almost held our breath with fear. 
Soon, however, they passed by, down to the river, and taking our 
canoe, crossed over and their whoops died away, drowned in the 
Indians' favorite beverage, 'good old rye.' But our rest was 
spoiled for the night, as we continually dreaded their return. 

"Afterward, however, we became better acquainted with the 
' poor Indian ' as a camp of some forty men, squaws and 
papooses, spent four or five weeks in their tents, within twenty 
rods of the house, visiting us, or we them, daily. The men spent 
their time hunting, dressing their game, gambling, or lying 
around the fire like dogs. The women chopped the wood, made 
the fires and waited on their lords and masters, while the children 
shot birds with their bows and arrows. Joe Richardville, son of 
the celebrated chief, was in the camp dressed partly like an Indian 
and partly in the European costume. His college education 
failed to make anything out of him but an Indian." 


and market was at Fort Wayne, about twenty-six miles from 
the center of the river settlement, by land, and nearly as far 
again by the winding river. There was no wagon road as yet, 
and the river was the great thoroughfare. It was navigated by 
means of pirogues — large canoes dug out of the huge towering 
poplars abounding along the river. They were sometimes 
three or four feet wide, and seventy or eighty feet long, and would 
carry quite a burden. They were propelled by means of 
poles and paddles. Coming up the river with a load when 
the water was high was very hard work, especially if the 
river was tooliigb to reach the bottom with poles of a convenient 


Mr. Rhodes, of Newville, and Samuel Wason, of Spencerville, 
had to pull a loaded pirogue nearly all the way from Fort Wayne 
to where Spencerville now is, by laying hold of the willows and 
other bushes along the margin of the water. The entire voyage 
occupied a week. John P. Widney and some others came up 
with a load of provisions late in November, 1836, when the river 
was swollen with the fall rains, and the " slush ice " was running, 
and ice froze on the poles whenever they drew them out of water. 
These icy poles had to be used with bare hands, as gloves or 
mittens could not be used. In this way it required a full week to 
come up. 

Provisions were very scarce and dear at Fort Wayne at the 
time. Flour rose to $14 per barrel, and sometimes " wormy " at 
that. Corn was $1.50 per bushel in the ear, and much of it rotten. 
Salt was $2.25 per bushel, and other things in proportion. 


Living thus distant from mill and market, and that market so 
high, it may be readily imagined that the settlers would all some- 
times be reduced to straights in the provision line; and that those 
scarce of cash must necessarily have seen very hard times in that 
respect. Such was actually the case. There were but few 
families in the settlement but that sometimes were pinched with 
hunger, without the immediate means on hand to satisfy it. 
Several days together had nearly all of them sometimes to sub- 
sist upon potatoes instead of bread, and some would even have 
been glad to get potatoes. 

It was reported that one family, now in comfortable circum. 
stances, had to live several weeks on vegetables gathered from the 
woods, and cooked as " greens," with milk and beech bark. 
Imagine to yourself the cabin of the settler visited in such 
circumstances by severe fevers and agues, sometimes prostrating 
the whole family for weeks, and one will not wonder that some 
were discouraged, and wished themselves back again at their 
comfortable Eastern homes. 


We have log houses occasionally, in our day, but few of us 
know much of the primitive forest home, and how it was made. 
Here is a sketch of one. Say we have it sixteen feet by eighteen 
in size, and just high enough for the joists below the first rib, and 


tben " cobbled off," as usual. One man cuts the logs in perhaps 
half a day, or at most a day. Another, with a yoke of cattle and 
a log chain, " snakes " them out, as fast as cut, to the little spot 
cleared off for the cabin. The next day they cut a large white 
oak that will " rive," and saw it into blocks four feet long. 
These are split into " bolts," and these bolts riven into " shakes" 
or clapboards. The next day the neighbors come in, from five or 
six miles around, and throw up the logs, and notch them down in 
their natural rough state, and one man, perhaps, " kutches down" 
the inside of the logs as fast as they are pat down in their place, 
while yet another cuts a straight-grained ash, and splits puncheons 
two inches thick, for the floor, and dresses off one side with his ax. 
Before night the house is '' cobbed off," the clapboards are laid on 
the ribs, and the heavy " weight poles " laid on to keep them in 
their place, and " knees " placed to keep these poles from rolling 
down, these knees commencing against the "butting poles " at the 
eave of the cabin, which butting pole is laid on the " eave bearer" 
(projecting some two feet on each side of the building), against 
large pines driven into these eave bearers. The raising being now 
over, the owner next builds a " back wall "of " nigger heads " 
(as the rough stones were called), gathered perhaps from a half 
mile around, as they are sparsely scattered over the surface, or 
out of the bed of the creek or river; or, perhaps not taking the 
trouble togather these niggerheads, he builds the wall of "mud," 
made of clay, dug from the inside of the cabin, just in front of 
where he expects to have his hearth. The wall is, say, six feet 
wide and four feet high, built against the end wall of the cabin, 
equi-distant from the corners. Now he seeks a small tree, with 
a crook similar to a sleigh runner, and cutting it of a proper length 
splits it for the arms of his chimney. 

These are placed on at each end of his back wall, with one end 
of each arm in a crevice between the logs of the cabin, and the 
other lodged against the rough joist, the crook being downward, 
entering the crevice a little below the top of the back wall. Split- 
ting the sticks for his chimney, about the size of plastering lath, he 
now commences building alternate layers of sticks and mud on the 
arms above described, about three feet by six at first, but gradu_ 
ally drawing in until it is about two feet by four, and then run- 
ning up, perpendicularly, until the top of his chimney peers above 
the roof, out of the hole there left for it. Making his hearth of 
clay, well beaten down, he next lays his puncheon floor, makes 



his clapboard door, or bangs up a quilt in place of it, puts in bis 
six ligbt sash, with glass or greased paper to transmit the light, 
lays the chamber floor with clapboard, and, behold, be has a house. 
Now he must furnish it. Well, taking some puncheons left from 
the floor, he cuts them into square pieces, dresses off one side with 
his ax, bores holes for. the legs, hews out rough sticks for those 
legs, drives them in and his chairs are made. Cutting some 
straight ironwood poles, of proper length, for rails and posts, 
boring holes in those posts with a large augur, hewing off the ends 
of the rails with his ax to the necessary size, and then driving all 
together with the same tool, he soon has a bedstead. Stripping a 
young basswood tree of its bark, and weaving it around and 
between the rails — lo, the bedstead is corded! Boring boles in the 
wall, he dresses rough wooden pins, and lays a broad clapboard 
thereon, and behold his cupboard! To close this description, a 
"lytle" anecdote is appropriate concerning the "awful abyss:" 
John P. Widney had just erected such a cabin as above de- 
scribed, save" that it had as yet no floor. His chimney had just 
been finished, and in building it he had dug a deep hole just be- 
tween the door and the hearth. He and his wife, seated on a 
sleeper in front of the fire, were enjoying its genial warmth on a 
cold December night. The earth was covered with a mantle of 
snow, and the wind whistled without; but what cared they, in their 
comfortable dwelling? Two land hunters, Mr. Lytle and another, 
lost and benighted, were pushing through the snow and brush 
when the light of the six-pane window, on the tall bluff of Twenty- 
six Mile Creek, caught their delighted vision, and they waded 
toward it and plunged waist deep in the swollen creek, thick 
with snow and ice. Out again, on the other side, their eyes stead- 
fastly fixed on the beacon light. They soon rapped on the logs at 
the side of the door, and were cordially bade " come in." Turning 
aside the quilt, they entered; and stepping toward the cheerful 
fire, they both plunged, together, into the "awful abyss " from 
which the substance of the chimney had been drawn. And there 
we will leave them to extricate themselves as best they can, and 
warm and dry themselves by Mr. Widney's hospitable fire- 


In addition to the difficulties and privations endured by the 
river settlements, as mentioned above, was that of a scarcity of 
teams. Having as yet raised nothing on which to feed teams 



in the winter, they were willing to make many shifts to get along 
without. " I know," says Mr. Widney, "a highly respected citizen 
of this county, who has filled several offices and is now considered 
wealthy, that between the first of January, 1837, and the first day 
of May following, chopped off five acres of heavy timber, taking it 
nearly all down, burned the brush, rolled the logs and burned 
them off, split the rails and carried them to their place on the 
fence on his shoulders; and thus had his field cleared off and well 
fenced by the time mentioned above, without having a team in 
the clearing, except perhaps one day, to draw the remnants of the 
log heaps together." 

His wife was his sole help, he chopping and she often picking 
the brush. Many nights he worked by moonlight until quite late. 
He "yankeed" the largest logs together, as he expressed it, having 
this in view in felling the trees, and carried the smaller logs, or 
dragged them by one end, or rolled them with a handspike to the 
heap, as best he could. "When I visited him on the sixth of 
May, he and his wife were digging holes among the roots with 
hoes, and putting in seed corn." The crop was tended entirely 
with the hoe; and in this way he raised a good crop of corn and 
potatoes, without having a plow in the field. 


It was said that William Mathews raised a good crop of corn, 
planted with a handspike, and tended with a hoe. His plan of 
planting was to strike a sharp handspike into the rich soil diago- 
nally, draw it out, drop in the seed, and then press down the soil 
by stepping on it as he passed on to plant the next hill. 


The settler often found the season for planting on hand before 
his clearing was "burned off, " and then sometimes the corn or 
potatoes were planted between the log heaps; sometimes the timber 
was thrown into " windrows," some three or four rods apart, and 
the crop planted between the rows, the log being left to be burned 
when the crop came off. 


The first settlers were quite destitute of religious privileges. 
Benjamin Alton, of the Disciples' or Campbellite church, preached 
the first sermon in the county, as nearly as can be learned, in the 


fall of 1S36. For some time, perhaps nearly a year, he was the 
only preacher. He had settled in the woods and had to clear his 
own land and get his provisions in the meantime, often by taking 
jobs of chopping, yet he generally preached on Sunday. 

" He was a man of considerable talent," continues the author of 
" Pioneer Sketches," "and died some years ago, much lamented. It 
was said that he used to preach in the summer, in his rough tow- 
pants, without a coat, and with a shoe on one foot and a boot 
on the other. This is not strange, when I remember that shoes 
and boots were so hard to be had that John P. Widney and I, 
during the summer (1837) I lived with him, could only get one 
good pair of shoes between us, which we wore alternately on 
Sunday, one going to meeting and one staying at home; and that 
John and Hazzard Webster used to come down to JSTewville, even 
to election, barefooted." 


The first Methodist two days meeting was held nea Orange- 
ville, in 1837, by N. L. Thomas and Joseph Miller, botb then 
residing on the Maumee. Prayer-meetings had been held pre- 
viously by religiously inclined persons of various denominations, 
without any distinctions. The origin of the first one is thus 
related by Judge Widney: " We had been in the country for some- 
time without knowing that there was a praying person in the 
settlement besides ourselves, when one Sabbath R. R. Lounsbury 
and another man returning from Port Wayne stopped at my 
house and informed me that Thomos L. Yates (afterward judge) 
was under conviction, and wished me to come and pray with him. 
I went, and found quite a inumber of persons n the house. 

" 1 sang and prayed, and while praying noticed that old Father 
Rhodes was fervently responding to my petitions. I then sang 
again and called on him to pray, and while he prayed I noticed 
that the old lady, his wife, was also praying. I next called on her 
and found that old Mother Yates (mother of the penitent man) 
was engaged, and so I called on her next, and this closed our 
meeting. Afterward we held prayer-meeting nearly every 
Sabbath, at Father Rhodes's, my house, Mr. Lounsbury's, Mr. 
Eakright's, or some other." 


" Revs. Coleman and Warner were the first circuit preachers of 
the Methodist Episcopal church who visited the settlement. I 


think it was some time in the year 1838. They organized several 
classes at different points. Early in the year 1S39 sixteen persons 
who had been members of the Methodist Protestant church in 
Ohio and Pennsylvania met at the house of Samuel Tarney, on 
Bear Creek, and organized them into a Methodist Protestant class. 
I was one of the memhers, and Samuel "Widney, Sr., was our 
leader. He wrote to Rev. Joel Dalbey, Pittsburg, to try to 
procure a preacher. He answered that we had better apply to 
the Ohio Conference. Our leader then wrote to the celebrated 
Nicholas Snethin, at Cincinnati. 

"This letter was sent from the Ohio to the Indiana Conference, 
then just organized and holding its session in Monroe County, and 
Lewis Hickman came on as missionary and organized several 
classes, and finally a circuit. He was the first Methodist Protes- 
tant preacher in Indiana, north of the "Wabash, so far as I know. 
For some time the Disciples, Methodist Episcopal and Methodist 
Protestant churches were the only ones in the county. 

"Jonathan Thomas and Bishop Kumler were the first United 
Brethren preachers. They labored as missionaries through the 
country in 1841 and 1842, if I am correct. S. B. "Ward was the 
first regular Baptist minister in the county, Elders Cherry and 
Miner the first Free-Will Baptist, and James Cather the first 
Lutheran. Mr. Cather commenced his labors early in the year 
J 844, and the others several years earlier." 


"The first man who was married while a resident of the settle- 
ment, we are informed, was Jared Ball to Miss Melinda Slater. 
The father of the bride resided i.n "Williams County, Ohio, near the 
present village of Edgerton, and there they were married, the ec- 
centric bridegroom paying the marriage fee to Mr. Alton, the 
officiating minister, in pumpkins. And, to keep the story from 
being lonesome here, I will state that in later years a certain Judge 
performed a marriage, the bridegroom in which was the fortunate 
possessor of a tract of 'oak opening' and a 'cranberry marsh.' 
After the ceremony, the bland and courteous Judge was informed 
by the happy bridegroom that for his invaluable services he could 
have the privilege of getting some cranberries in his marsh !" 

The first marriage that took place in the settlement was that of 
Nelson Ulm and Elvira Lockwood. It is remembered that the 
bride was too weakly, or too much excited, to stand up during the 


ceremony. It was in the summer of 1837. The first marriage 
licenses taken out in the county were those of Francis Smith and 
Maria Gunsenhouser, and of John Platter and Ann Emmeline 
Walden. Both were issued on the 5th of September, 1837, and 
both were performed by Washington Robinson, of Concord Town- 
ship, the first Justice of the Peace in De Kalb County. 

The first funeral in the settlement was that of Mrs. Barker, who 
died just above where Newville is now located. Judge Widney 
was sent for to perform the funeral services, there being no min- 
ister then in the settlement. He sang, prayed and talked to the 
people a few minutes on the subject of death. 

The first store in the county was opened in what is now Orange- 
ville in the spring of 1S37. John Platter, William Rogers, a Mr. 
Savage and some other person put in each $200, and brought on the 
amount in such goods as the settlers most needed. John P. Wid- 
ney was employed to cut logs for the storehouse, receiving $2 for 
the job, and performing it in half a day. The house was 16x18 
feet in size, of round logs. 

The first grist-mill, or " corn cracker," rather, in the county was 
built by William Mathews, on Bear Creek, on the east part of the 
school section of Concord Township, near George Johnston's. It 
was a small affair, truly. The stones were about two feet in 
diameter, and were turned by means of a "flutter-wheel," on an 
upright post, set in a tub, through one side of which the water 
passed. The whole machinery was set in a small rickety frame, 
without weather-boarding. The corn dropped, a grain at a time, 
from the little hopper; so that perhaps in twenty-four hours, at a 
good stage of water, eight bushels of corn might be "cracked." 
Mr. Widney relates that he carried a half bushel of corn from his 
brother's, at Newville, to this mill, a distance of four miles, on his 
shoulder. He waited half a day to get it gi-ound, and then carried 
the meal back in the same way. Among the numerous tales told 
of this mill, the following will do to repeat ■ James Widney, in 
the fall of 1837, took a bushel of corn to be ground, and after it had 
been grinding for some time went below to see how much meal 
was in the little store box, used for a meal chest, and to his dismay 
found a large yellow dog eating the meal as fast as it came from 
the spout ! 

The first election in the county was held in July, 1837. The 
settlers on the river all voted at the house of Washington Robinson, 
Esq., at Vienna, or Newville, as it is now called. Three county 


commissioners, two associate judges, and a clerk and recorder were 
to be elected, and, perhaps, some other officers. 

On counting out the votes, a ticket came up that sorely puzzled 
the judges, as to whether it should be counted or not. A portion 
of it ran thus: 

" For Commissioners, 

I'll tell you, sirs; 

The oldMajor— 

Or Johnny Blair; 

William Roger 

And Peter Pair. 

For Clerk and Recorder, too, 

John P. Coburn, sure, will do; 

Arial Waldon for a Judge, 

And James Bowman for a drudge." 

Much merriment was had over this ticket. The office of drudge 
was supposed to be intended to accommodate the court with 
whisky, as some judges, at that early day, took their drams. It 
was not then known who put in this ticket, but it has been sup- 
posed that it was one who has since filled the office of judge him- 
self. Who brought his liquor, the records say not. The gentle- 
man voted for to fill the last office mentioned on the ticket was 
not elected. 

Samuel Widney, Peter Fair and Isaac F. Beecher were elected 
County Commissioners; Arial Waldon and Thomas L. Yates, 
Judges of the Court, and John F. Coburn, Clerk and Recorder. 
"John P. Widney carried the returns of the election to Auburn 
(as the cabins of Wesley Park and one or two others were then 
collectively called), and I accompanied him. 

" We went on foot and followed an Indian trail, as there was no 
road, wading all the swamps on the route. On returning, not be- 
ing a very good Indian, I gave out, so as hardly to be able to drag 
my limbs home. This was my first and last experiment in carry- 
ing election returns." 

a backwood's judge. 

Mr. Yates, one of the Judges elected, was rather an odd genius 
of a backwoodsman. When he was elected he dryly remarked 
that they were using up the buckeye timber first, and reserving 
that of a superior quality. This, however, was only his opinion, 
and as he had not yet taken his position on the bench it did not 
amount to law. 

It is said that when called to his seat beside the president Judge, 


Hon. Charles Ewing, he was dressed in his coarse hunting-shirt 
and fox-skin cap, and seemed much embarassed in his new position. 
No doubt he would have felt more at home with a good rifle on his 
shoulder, after a nice fat "buck." He made a good judge, how- 
ever, as did his associate, Judge "Waldon. 


There are some additional names of earl}' settlers along the St. 
Joseph that should be recorded, many of whom afterward were 
prominent in the county; as for instance, Solomon Delong and 
Daniel Strong, of Newville, who have each filled the office of 
County Commissioner ; H. Fusselman, one of the first Justices of 
Stafford Township, and also a County Commissioner; Christian 
and Samuel "Wanemaker, who have also filled offices in Stafford 
Township; Lott Herrick, of Concord, the first Probate Judge of 
De Kalb County; Joseph E. Sawtell, the bland and polite sales- 
man, who was, no doubt, the second man to sell goods along the 
river, and in the county; Rev. N. L. Thomas, the first one to open 
store in Newville; George Barney, one of the first Justices for 
Concord; James Hadsell, one of the earliest and most useful 
pioneers of Concord, who has filled several responsible offices; 
Cornelius Woodcox, one of the first Supervisors for De Kalb 
Township, when it embraced three congressional townships, and 
but two road districts; and especially R. J. Dawson, who has since 
filled so prominent a place in public affairs. But it is impossible 
to give a complete list of the worthy citizens who did the hard 
work of opening up De Kalb County to settlement. 


" I remember," says Mr. Widney, ."I remember clear away 
back beyond ' the flood.' Shall I tell you something about that 
memorable event? "Well, I will. Many of the first settlers along 
the river built their cabins on the bottoms, on account of the rich, 
deep soil, so inviting for corn and potatoes. Now it happened 
that St. Jo., notwithstanding his saintship, had a mighty trick of 
'getting high' occasionally, and on such occasions took a regular 
'spree,' transcending all bounds of propriety, and scattering and 
destroying things in general. It was in the winter of 1838, about 
the first of January, when we were dwelling securely in the neigh- 
borhood of this mild-looking saint, that he unexpectedly ' imbibed' 


too largely, 'got liigb,' and advanced upon us, raging and foam- 
ing terribly, without any provocation whatever, 

" But, lest we should be guilty of what Dr. Clark calls 'making 
a figure go on all fours,' we will drop it and say that the river rose 
until it overflowed its banks, and surrounded the house. This 
alarmed us some, but it seemed to be nearly at a stand, and we 
hoped that it would soon retreat. But instead of falling, it con- 
tinued to rise, until the loose floor began to float. We then raised 
the floor about six inches, being sure that the water would rise no 
more. We were doomed, however, to be again disappointed. The 
water still rose. Being midwinter we had all our firewood to 
' boat' in, with the canoe, which we kept cabled at the cabin, and 
we managed still to keep a fire above the water. 

"The night after raising the floor we retired to rest, and the 
next morning found the floor all afloat again. So we concluded to 
embark for safe quarters. .Running the canoe into the door, we 
took the passengers from the bed, and, packing everything that the 
water could injure above its reach, we crossed the raging river, to 
sojourn with friends till 'after the flood.' The water rose until it 
was two and a half feet deep in the cabin, and then began to sub- 
side. Just then a severe freeze set in, leaving the entire bottoms 
covered with a sheet of thick ice. When the river got within its 
banks again we returned, threw out the ice, and took up our resi- 
dence in the cabin. Other settlers besides us suffered from this 
saintly freak, but we have not the particulars." 


Colin Robinson and his brother Henry came to their half brother 
(Gavin Hamilton), on the Maumee, near Brunersburg, in the year 
1833; and soon after their arrival they went up the Maumee to 
where William Rogers then lived, a little below where the village 
of Antwerp now stands, and from thence struck across the woods, 
by means of a pocket-compass, some fifteen or twenty miles, through 
the unbroken forest, to the St. Joseph River. When in the midst of 
the wilderness they lost their needle from their compass, and had to 
hunt a considerable time among the leaves before they found it. 
Following the direction pointed out by the slender finger of their 
magnetic guide, about dark they struck the bluff of the St. Jo., 
about where Henry Robinson afterward lived, and from thence 
made their way, amid the gathering shades of evening, down the 
river, more than a mile, to within a few rods of where the cabin 


afterward stood, spoken of in the Indian story, and in that of "the 
flood," above described. 

Mr. Lytle then lived in a cabin over the river, and about forty 
rods back from it, and their object was to get over for supper and 
lodgings, as they had eaten nothing since early breakfast. It was 
the 24th of December, and when they reached the river they found 
it frozen in, about one-fourth of the breadth of the river, and there 
was no way of crossing; so they were under the necessity of camp- 
ing for the night. A huge walnut, perhaps six feet in diameter, 
had been cut down, probably by the Indians, and still lay with one 
end on the stump, at the time of the "flood," four years after the 
time of which we are speaking. Under this walnut they took 
lodging for the night, having first struck up a fire. 

The night was passed very uncomfortably, in acute suffering from 
cold and hunger. The next morning (Christmas, 1833), they cut 
down (for they had their axes with them) a dry stump of a tree, 
which broke in its fall. Tying the two pieces together, side by 
side, with basswood bark, they launched it, breaking the ice at the 
margin, and on it crossed the river with their imaginations filled 
with visions of a plentiful warm breakfast. On arriving at Mr. 
Lytle's they found no one at home but the children, and nothing to 
eat but a rabbit, and while they were cooking this a cat ran away 
with half of it! 

The Messrs. Robinson had intended to enter land and make a 
" beginning " on it, but they found provisions so scarce that they re- 
turned the next day. In the following spring Colin Robinson en- 
tered the excellent tract of land on which he afterward fixed his home 
just across the river fromOrangeville, in Concord Township. He 
did not, however, settle on it till three years afterward. 


It was perhaps in the summer of 1834 or 1835 that John Platter 
and Solomon Delong crossed the same wilderness, and getting be- 
wildered in the midst of it, almost famished for want of water,they 
bad to camp for the night. With their axes and hands they dug 
a hole in a prickly ash swamp and found water, but it tasted so 
much like the decoction of gunpowder that they could scarcely drink 
it, though suffering with thirst. 

The early settlers will all bear witness that in the summer mos- 
quitoes were no scarce article in that day of general scarcity, in 
fact, they were as plentiful as we can imagine flies to have been in 


the fourth Egyptian plague; one could not stop two minutes in the 
woods without having them b_v myriads singing their unpleasant 
song with treble voices about his ears, or poking into him their 
tormenting bills, almost as much to be dreaded as the doctor bills 
of the early day. Well, to protect themselves against these impu- 
dent serenaders, these unwilling lodgers of the wilderness men- 
tioned above (Platter and Delong) cut bushes, then covered with 
green leaves, and covered themselves deeply in these until the 
mosquitoes were utterly at a loss how to get at them, and thus they 
passed the night. 


In the winter of 1836-'7, in the month of January, the above- 
named Colin Robinson, having lately married a wife, set out on a 
bridal (or bridle, if you please) tour from the Maumee to the cabiu 
built on his land on the St. Jo., she on horseback and he on foot. 

Coming to the " Mer-d el-arm," a considerable creek between the 
rivers running through broad cottonwood swamps, he found it 
swollen by recent rains and melted snow, until it spread over the 
swamps, about a mile on each side. Through this wide-spread 
water he waded along the narrow trace, sometimes waist, deep, 
and she followed on her horse. Coming to the main channel of the 
creek he found it covered with thick ice, raised up several 
feet by the swollen waters, so that the ice was nearly on a 
level with the horse's breast, as he waded up to it. Here Mr. Rob- 
inson got his wife off the horse, on a stump, and prevailed on the 
horse to jump on the ice, walk over it, and then jump down on the 
other side of the channel. He then, by means of a pole placed from 
the stump to the ice, got Mrs. Robinson on the ice, and from the 
ice on the other side, on her saddle again, wading out as he had 
waded in. The next summer Mr. Robinson and his brother went 
down the St. Joseph to Fort Wayne, and then down the Maumee 
to near where Defiance now is, for seed wheat, and corn to get 
ground. They performed the voyage in a large-sized pirogue; load 
ing it with sixty bushels of grain, they started back. They ex- 
perienced considerable difficulty in getting along, being both raw 
hands at "piroguing," but they succeeded tolerably well until they 
reached " Bull Rapids," near the State line, about eighteen miles 
below Fort Wayne. Here the wind ruffling the surface, they 
could not see bottom, and, running on the rocks, they stuck fast. 

Getting out into the water, they shoved the pirogue over the 


rocks, and up the rapids, wading sometimes in water up to the 
waist. Getting once more aboard, they got along till they reached 
" Cole's dam," one mile below Fort Wayne. Here they had to un- 
load and carry the grain on their shoulders up a steep bank about 
thirty feet high, go more then half a mile after a rope, which they 
tied to the bow of the boat, and thus pulled it over the dam, coming 
very near sinking it in the operation. They then reloaded, and were 
overtaken by darkness at the mouth of the St. Joseph. From there 
to John's mill they had much difficulty in getting along in the dark- 
ness and shallow water. Getting to the mill they unloaded that 
part of the grain they intended to be ground, and took their lodg- 
ings for the night, on the bare ground, and no covering but the blue 
sky. In fact during the entire trip they had the same bed and 
covering every night. From John's mill the rest of the way home 
they got out nearly every ripple, and pushed the boat up, and 
sometimes it was necessary to unload and reload, laying the bags 
on rocks in the ripples until they got the boat over. Soon after 
his return Colin Robinson was prostrated with a severe attack of 
the pleurisy, brought on by exposure. 


We again quote from "Pioneer Sketches:" " We spoke, just now, 
of doctor bills as compared with mosquito bills; that you may have 
some idea of the force of the comparison, we will give one instance 
of the sickness of the early settlement. Mr. Isaac Meeks, now of 
Union Mills, Lagrange County, is my informant. 

" ' I came into the Coburn Settlement, Concord Township,' says 
he, 'soon after Mr. Asher Coburn (who was the first settler) and 
built a cabin fourteen feet square and moved therein. Some time 
after this Mr. Coburn and John H. Coburn, the one my father-in- 
law, moved into the settlement, and I offered them both the hospi- 
talities of my cabin. We were now fourteen in number, in a cabin 
fourteen feet square, and one story high. In a little while every one 
of us took down sick, and we had to swing up beds to the sides of 
the cabin, one above the other, to accommodate all the sick. I was 
sick four or five weeks, and the rest almost as many months!' " 


We spoke on a previous page of the difficulties and hardships of 
the settlers, in getting to mill and to market. We will now give 
another instance, exceeding in painful interest any yet mentioned. 


The sufferer was a resident of Hicksville, just over the State 
line in Ohio, but the scene of his suffering was in this county; 
hence we will relate the circumstances, so far as the facts can be 
accurately obtained. 

It was in the winter of 1837-'8 that Mr.Osburn started from where 
Hicksville had just been laid out, with an ox team, to go to mill at 
Fort Wayne. Returning to the east side of the St. Joseph River 
he was overtaken by night above where Leo now is. Having had 
to wade into the creeks, and break ice before his oxen, his clothes 
were wet, and it was freezing severely. Onward, however, he made 
his way, through the snow and darkness, on a stormy winter night, 
until he began to feel that he w. reezing. 

Leaving his slow team in the road, he then started hoping 
to reach Mr. Brant's, across the river from where Spencerville 
now is, but soon found his legs becoming so stiff that he could 
no longer walk. Knowing that his life was at stake, he then 
crawled on his hands and knees about a mile, until he found that 
his strength was too far gone to proceed in this way. He 
now commenced crying for help, and Mr. Brant's dog hearing 
his voice commenced barking ; and some of the family going 
out to see what was the matter, were led by the dog to the poor 
sufferer, about a mile off, and he was borne into the house. 

Both his legs, however, had to be amputated just below the 
knees. He remained several days at Mr. Brant's, and was drawn 
home on his sled. 


As mills were so scarce and distant, the pioneers had to tax their 
inventive powers to provide a substitute. So, in process of time, 
nearly every settler had a family hand-mill, made after the 
ollowing description: Take a round log of some hard wood, 
such as beech or sugar, about twenty inches in diameter. Saw it 
off, about three feet in length. Set on end, and with an inch 
augur commence boring down diagonally into the upper end, from 
near the circumference to the center of the log, and continue until 
you have surrounded the end of the log, with augur holes meeting 
in the center. Take a chisel and cut down between the holes until 
you get the block loose that has thus been bored under, and it 
comes out in the form of an inverted cone. Trim out the funnel- 
shaped hole thus left with the chisel as well as you can, and then 
to make entirely smooth and to harden it build a fire of coals 
therein. When sufficiently burned for the purpose mentioned, 


ta e out the fire and scrape the coals off cleanly as possible, and 
you have a large mortar. Now take a stick as thick as your wrist 
and two and a half feet long, and, splitting one end, iusert an iron 
wedge with its edge in the split. Put on an iron ring and drive it 
over the iron wedge, so as to hold it fast. Trim off the stick so as 
to handle conveniently, and you have a pestle. Now you may 
p t a little corn in your mortar, and beat it with your pestle as 
fine as you can. Sift out the finest, and you have corn meal. 
Blow the bran out of the balance, and you have "hominy." 


It is much to the credit of the pioneers of our county that 
amidst all the difficulties of the early settlements they did not 
neglect the education of their children. There are settlements in 
the south part of this State that existed twenty years without a 
school-house. Not so in this county. No sooner had a few 
settlers got their cabins raised and fixed so that they could live 
in them, than they raised their school-house — rough and uncom- 
fortable, it is true, but on an equality with their residences. 
They were of round logs, with clapboard roofs, chamber floor and 
door also of clapboards; ground floor of puncheon; benches of the 
same, or, rather, generally of small logs split in two and turned 
with the flat side up, and with rough wooden pins driven into 
augur holes for legs; chimney of sticks and mud built as described 
before, but generally larger than the chimnej's of private residences 
so that twenty or twenty-five children might surround it in a 
semicircle, while a burning "log heap " flamed on the hearth in 
the winter, or to get light from its ample throat in the summer. 
The windows were generally made by cutting out a log nearly the 
whole length of the house, leaving a hole say a foot wide and 
eighteen or twenty feet long. Into this a long sa9h was inserted, 
consisting of single panes joined together horizontally until the 
long hole was filled. In some cases that came under my notice, 
however, this long hole was filled with a kind of lattice work of 
sticks, and upon this greased paper was pasted to transmit the 
light. Under this long window large holes were bored into the 
log, rough, wooden pins driven into these holes, and an unplaned 
plank laid on these pins. This was the writing desk. The writers 
sat on a long-legged bench, facing this plank and the window, and 
if they were many in number they prevented the light of the 
window, especially on a cloudy day, from reaching many scholars 


sitting back from it, but on sucb occasions they drew near to the 
huge tunnel of the chimney, and were there " enlightened." 


"In just such school-houses," continues Mr. Widney, "I taught 
several schools in an early day, and experienced the truth of 
Thompson's couplet: 

" 'Delightful task! to rear the tender thought, 
And teach the young ideas how to shoot.' 

"Will you allow me to enliven this prosy chapter with an 

"Well, a New York dandy, better acquainted with books and 
pavements than with ' backwoods' life or character, concluded to 
visit the West and see 'the natives.' As he was riding along on 
a cold day in the winter, when sleighing was good, in his fine 
sleigh, wrapped up in his 'buffalo,' with his great coat on, his 
fur cap tied down over his ears, and his fur gloves up his elbows, 
he passed one of these frontier school-houses. It was 'recess,' 
and the teacher and some of the bigger boys were out at the 
side of the house knocking some squirrels off a tall hickory 
tree with a rifle. The dandy reined up his horse a few minutes 
and as he saw the squirrels drop one after another, perpetrated 
the following parody on the above oft quoted couplet of Thompson: 

" ' Delightful task ! to rear the tender thought, 
And teach the youthful Indian how to sJioot!' 

"The rascal! It was well for him I was not there to hear 



Wesley Park's Narrative. — Milk Diet. — Hotel Crowded. — 
New Arrivals.— County Organized. — Jail in the Loft of 
Park's Cabin. — A Court Scene. — Trying Times. — White and 
Palmer. — Some Indian Customs. — Better Times. — John Houl- 
ton's Narrative. — -Escape from Freezing. — Unwelcome Vis- 
itors. — They Help Themselves. — A Bloody Resolve. — The 
Curse of America. — Trip to the Prairies. — Female Ox- 
Driver. — John Fee and His Big Track. — Incidents by M. M. — 
A Spirited Pet. — Bear Hunt. — A Change in Plan. — Bear 
Hunt Resumed. — A Diversion. 


Good fortune has preserved for us the personal narrative of 
Wesley Park, the first settler and the founder of the town of Au- 
burn, the county seat. We will give the same entire, as it is full 
of important and interesting details : " In the fall of 1835 George 
Stone, Hiram Johnston and myself left Licking County, Ohio, 
in a two-horse buggy, to seek a home in what was then called 
the West. We went by way of Columbus, Sandusky, Maumee, 
Defiance, Fish Creek and Lima, to South Bend. We then returned 
to Lima, where Johnston and Stone settled, and started a tannery. 
I returned to Fish Creek, and entered land adjoining John Houl- 
ton's. I then returned to Ohio, and staid till February, 1836. 
Started to Indiana, then, with a drove of cattle and a load of dried 
fruits, got to Lima, sold out, and started, in company with John 
B. Howe, Esq., to the center of the new county, afterward called 
De Kalb, to locate a site for a county seat. 

"We got to Pigeon River, and the canoe upsetting, I swam, 
over the stream. Howe came over in the canoe, swimming his 
horse along side. Staid all night at Glover's. Started in the 
morning on our journey, and that night reached section 13, 
township 34 north, range 13 east (Union Township now), and 


lay out in the woods. The snow was four inches deep. We 
kindled a fire, and I peeled bark to lie down on, but Howe, be- 
ing tired or lazy, or both, lay down on the snow. In the morning 
he had melted his whole length in the snow and was wet, but I 
was dry. I lay all night with my rifle by my side, to be pre- 
pared for the wolves that howled around continually. After hunt- 
ing a clay for the best site, decided on the piece of land where Au- 
burn now is. Entered the land and laid out the town. I then put 
up a shanty 10 x 12 feet, and cut a road through to Pleasant Lake; 
brought through a cart load of goods, with a yoke of oxen and a 
milk cow. Afterward, Joseph Miller and I started from William 
Miller's (where Mr. Ditmar now lives), I with my cart and oxen, 
and he with me to help cut the road (the road spoken of in a 
former chapter as being cut through from Blair's mill, afterward 
Shryock's), being nothing but a trace with the logs still in and too 
narrow for a cart, as will be hereafter noticed. 

"My object was to get through by the way of Blair's mill to 
Fort Wayne for a load of provisions. It was afternoon before we 
6tai'ted, and night overtook us near the little creek that crosses the 
Fort Wayne road near Mr. John Grube's. We had no provisions 
along, as we expected to get through to Blair's. The cow, how- 
ever, that I brought through from Pleasant Lake, being used to 
following the team, was fortunately with us, and I milked her and 
told Miller that milk was good enough for me. Miller did not like 
to drink the new milk, but there was no alternative, so he took a 
good draught. It did not lie well on his stomach, and he soon 
threw it up. The next morning, after lying out through the night, 
we cut through to the mill, and I went on to Fort Wayne, and 
Miller returned to get his breakfast, no doubt with a good appetite. 

" Getting back with my provisions, I set up tavern iD my shanty. 
I did my own cooking, and was crowded with travelers and land- 
hunters, who came to have me show them land to enter. One 
night I kept fifteen men, who very nearly filled my hotel. Some 
lay on a shelf, and the rest on the ground under it; so there was 
plenty of bed-room. After eating up the first load of provisions, I 
went to Fort Wayne for another. On my return the Little Cedar 
was so high that I had to swim my oxen, and carry the load and 
cart by pieces over the creek on a log, as I had adopted as my 
motto 'Go ahead.' Got back again, finally, to the hotel. 

"I kept travelers, showed land, and erected a cabin 18x20 feet, 
one and a half stories high, with a roof of rafters and clapboards. 


It stood on the lot close to the old water saw-mill. I then returned 
to Ohio and brought out my wife, Sophia, and my son Amos, then 
a child. 'Launcelot Jugman and family also came with me. We 
all arrived at Auburn on the 6th day of August, 1836. We laid 
down a few puncheons and went to housekeeping. A few days 
work completed our cabin. 

" In the winter of 1836 the act passed the Legislature to organize 
De Kalb County. Littlefield, of Lagrange, Gilmore, of Steuben, 
and Eobert Work, of Allen, were appointed Commissioners to lo- 
cate the county seat. I was appointed by the Governor, Sheriff of 
the new county, with authority to appoint the place for the elec- 
tions in the few precincts in the county, and to receive and forward 
the returns. The result of the election is stated elsewhere. 

" After the organization of the count}', my house served as court- 
house, jail, hotel, church, cooking-room, sleeping apartment, etc. 

"As Sheriff appointed, and afterward elected,I had no jail but 
the upper chamber of my cabin. I used to put prisoners up, and 
then take away the ladder and tell them to stay there, and they al- 
ways did so. 

" The lower chamber was the court-house. During the sitting 
of court it had to suspend until dinner was cooked. This gave 
the Judge time for a nap, which was very desirable, as he was 
generally fatigued, and sometimes rather ' boozy. ' Charles Ewing 
was the president Judge. He was brother to the celebrated fur 
traders, W. G. and G. W. Ewing. Judge Yates has been spoken 
of as an odd genius of a backwoodsman. One day he got ' tight, ' 
and sentenced Jo. Bashford to receive a whipping, and swore that 
as he was the court and had passed sentence he would inflict the 
penalty. As the Judge was making toward the criminal, with 
this avowed intention, I seized him, and giving him a whirl, told 
him plainly that if the court persisted in inflicting the penalty 
threatened, the Sheriff would put the court ' up the ladder.' Upon 
this, the court acknowledged the authority of the Sheriff, and ad- 
journed peaceably. 

"trying times. 

"Will you allow me now to go back to the winter of 1836-'7, 
and relate some instances of that hard winter? There were now 
about thirty families in the county, and many of them suffered 
severely, having to bring all their provisions from Fort Wayne,or 
the Northern prairies, with scarcely anything that could be called 


roads. At one time our corn cost us $3.00 per bushel I I 
saw teams that had to travel seventy-live miles for provisions. I 
never drove more than sixty miles for corn, beyond Fort Wayne up 
the St. Mary's River. It was a trying time for me and my wife, but 
she was always cheerful. I took the rheumatism and lay several 
weeks. In December the snow fell two feet deep. 

"Immigrants were still coming in. A man, woman and child left 
Pleasant Lake with a wagon and a yoke of cattle, to go ten miles 
south of Auburn. One of their oxen mired down, in Smithfield 
Township, eight miles north of Auburn. There was then no house 
between Steubenville and Auburn. The mired ox died, and they 
turned the other loose and started for Auburn afoot, carrying the 
child. The waters were then high, and they had to wade the small 
streams. About nine o'clock at night they reached our cabin with 
clothes frozen above the waist. We gave them dry clothes and a 
warm supper, and kept them until the roads were broken. 

"A few moments after the arrival of these sufferers a traveler 
came in and told us that a man and a boy were out in the trail 
about six miles, in a suffering condition, not being able to strike 
a fire, and the man so frozen as to be unable to travel. On receiv- 
ing this information Wesley White and William Palmer got up 
the pony and started for the sufferers. They found the man 
on section 9, township 34, range 13. (We always counted 
by sections, as the trail was very crooked.) They got him on 
the pony, and brought him in, about midnight, frozen to the 
knees; yet he contended that he was not cold. We got his legs into 
a tub of spring water, and thus drew out the frost. But the boy 
must be saved. The old man offered us 50 cents(l) to bring him in, 
which led me to administer him a severe rebuke. 

" I told him if the boy was not worth more than 50 cents he 
was not worth bringing in. He was then ten miles out, in snow 
two feet deep, among swamps filled with water, and swollen streams. 

"No money, however, was needed to induce us to go onto his 
rescue. He had kept traveling, and was thus saved from freezing. 

" They proved to be Mr.Graden and son, of Noble County. They 
had left home in pursuit of cattle. The snow commenced falling 
and they traveled on through Fairfield Township, and until they 
struck the trace, and knew not which way to turn. They were well 
provided for at the cabin, and in a few weeks were able to return 

M Wesley White, who was so active in the above rescue, was a 


good man. He had come down from Lima to stake out some lots. 

" He afterward went to Sparta, Noble County. He was Deputy- 
Clerk for Isaac Spencer, and afterward Clerk of Noble County. 

"After thus saving the life of others, he was drowned in Elkhart 
Biver, west of Albion. William Palmer was a rather mischievous 
old bachelor, and loved to play pranks on the Indians, who used to 
annoy us considerably, though they furnished us with venison, 
bear meat, turkeys, cranberries, etc., for money or such things as 
we had to exchange. 

"They were honest, and some of them religious, before the 
whites gave them fire-water, and stole their ponies and blankets. 

"They used frequently to apply to me to take away 'bad Indian' 
whenever any of their number misbehaved. After the whites had 
created in them the unnatural appetite, they were very fond of 
whisky. One day a poor squaw came to my house and begged 
hard for whisky. Palmer took the pepper-3auce bottle and handed 
it to her; she took a very hearty drink, but as soon as she had re- 
moved the bottle from her lips, she began to spit, sputter, slaver 
and holler 'pizen! pizen!' while Bill Palmer, the perpetrator of 
this joke, rolled and laughed to his heart's content. After her suf- 
ferings were over, I and my good Sophia took a little laugh at her 
and she never troubled us again. 


" The Pottawatomies and Miamies were the principal tribes in 
De Kalb County. Their manner of burying the dead was to dig a 
grave eighteen inches deep, put in the dead, cover with leaves, and 
then build a tight pen of poles over the grave. Sometimes they 
cut down a tree, split off a piece from the top of the log, dug out a 
trough, put in the body, and then covered it up closely with poles. 
They burnt the leaves around these burying places every fall, to 
keep the tire in the woods from getting to them. They disliked 
very much to have their dead interfered with, yet it was done by 
unprincipled whites. It was not uncommon to see their graves 
opened, the bones scattered around, and the skull of an Indian 
set out in the log in full sight. 

"The spring of 1337 was very gladly hailed by the settlers, after 
stemming the storms and suffering the privations of a hard 
winter. During this season immigrants began to come in more 
plentifully, and several cabins went up in Auburn. I hadgiven one- 
thirdof the lots to thecounty,receiving no compensation butthe &e- 



surance that it would be permanent])' the county seat. In most cases, 
too, I gave alot to every settler building thereon. This year (1837) 
I and Mr. Ogden built the saw-mill. The town continued steadily 
to improve, and has been blest with good inhabitants, with but 
few exceptions. Much of the land in the county was taken up by 
speculators. This hindered its settlement to a considerable degree 
for some years. The crash of banks in 1837 and 1S38 was severely 
felt, and many suffered for want of food and raiment. The years 
1836 and 1837 were healthy seasons; 1838 was more sickly; 1S39 
still more so, and from that time till 1850 there was more or less 
of bilious complaints every season. Since 1S50 both town and 
country have been generally healthy." 

Thus ends Mr. Parks's narrative. If other early pioneers had re- 
corded their experience, even thus briefly, the present generation 
woul be the gainers thereby. 


John Houlton, the first settler in Franklin Township, and 
perhaps in the county, wrote a series of reminiscences for Mr. 
Widney in 1859, of which we will give the most interesting 
portion. He was more accustomed to handling the rifle, ax and 
handspike, than the pen, and was also very old, at that time; yet 
the interest contained in the circumstances themselves, together 
with his blunt, honest way of relating them, cannot fail to repay 
attention and perusal. He begins: 

" Mr. Widney: Since yon are writing sketches concerning the 
early settlers of the various townships of this county, for the benefit 
of posterity, I feel it a duty to add my mite; so please have patience 
as I must go out of the bounds of the county, and also note some 
things that happened before any settlement of De Kalb, though 
they are inseparably connected with its settlement. 

" Samuel Houlton, my oldest brother, and Isaiah Hughes went 
into copartnership to build a saw-mill, in the wilderness of Fish 
Creek, in February, 1827. The firm hired David "Williamson, 
John Kilgore, Francis A. Blair and myself to work for them. 
They gave us axes, a little provision, and fire-works, and started 
us where Brunersburg now stands to cut a road through northwest 
to the Indian village on the St. Joseph (the present site of Den- 
mark). We started, and the firm was to follow with the team the 
next day. We cut on till dark; and when we stopped to build a 
fire, behold the flint, which I had put in my pocket to strike fire, 


was not to be found. We were all wet to the knees, and, it being 
very cold, we all expected to perish without lire. 

" The boys threatened to whip me, as they said it was d — d 
carelessness losing the flint. Said I, ' Boys, the night will be dark 
as Egypt; we must make Are or perish. Let us all hunt, and if 
possible find a stone to strike fire with.' They said I was a fool 
to think of finding a flint in those swamps. We had worked hard 
all day, and were tired and hungry, but I well knew there was not 
a moment to be lost; so I started to hunt for stone, while they 
went to eating. It was growing dark rapidly. 

"I struck a small ravine, followed it, and at last found a 
little stone nearly round, with no sharp edge. Feeling along 
awhile, and finding no other, I went back, got the ' spunk ' and 
knife, and after a few strokes had the satisfaction to see it take 
fire; and soon we had a good blazing fire. The boys, who cursed 
me and were almost ready to kill me for losing the flint, now, 
with tears rolling down their cheeks, asked my pardon. Such is 
the instability of poor feeble man! 

"We cut the road to the mouth of Fish Creek, and the team 
came on. We then went to work and made a pirogue of about 
two tons burden, and, crossing the river, built a cabin twenty feet 
square. When our provisions began to fail Samuel Iloulton took 
Blair and went down the river in the pirogue. They started to 
go east of the State line on the Maumee. Hughes, Williamson, 
Kilgore and myself staid. The boat was to be. back in eight days. 
Twelve days passed and no boat appeared. It had rained heavily; 
the river rose high, the weather turned quite cold, and our pro- 
visions entirely failed, except a half bushel of dried peaches. 

"Williamson and Kilgore concluded to leave for the settlement. 
We all made a raft of logs for the boys to cross the river, and the 
next morning they started with empty stomachs. Hughes and I 
went to see them cross. They went aboard the raft, and started 
across the river, the water being high, and the slush ice running. 
At first the raft bore them up; but before they got across they 
were three feet deep in the freezing water. They had flint and 
spunk, but the latter getting wet in their pockets was of course 
useless. They scrambled up the other bank, and there they were, 
their clothes freezing in two minutes, twenty-seven miles from 
the settlement, without food in their stomachs, without any means 
to strike fire, and the snow four inches deep. I shuddered for 
their fate, and told them to start at a good ' turkey-trot,' so as not 


to freeze, and not too fast, lest they should tire out before 
getting through; and, on the peril of their lives, not to sit down. 
They got through, but so exhausted that Judge Perkins had to 
help them into his door. 

" Hughes and I stayed fourteen days after the boys left, during 
which time we had nothing under the heavens to eat but a few 
dried peaches. We had a gun, and went out often with it to try 
to kill something; but there was neither animal nor bird to be 
seen; no, not even so much as an Indian. On the morning of the 
fourteenth day I told Hughes I would make a raft of logs that 
day and leave the next morning. I did so. Next morning 
Hughes accompanied me to the river, to see me start. We both 
felt sure that Houlton and Blair were coming up the river with 
the pirogue, and I was in great hopes to meet them in two or 
three hours. The river was yet high, and the slush ice running 
very thickly. 

" I got some fire and wood on the raft, Hughes loosed the cable, 
and was in the act of handing it to me, when lo! my brother, 
Samuel Houlton, called to us, about a hundred rods up the river. 
He knew we must be starving, and came across from the Maumee 
with a yoke of oxen and sled. He tried hard to reach us the day 
before, but lacked five miles when darkness overtook him. He 
drove on till he could follow the road no longer, and then struck 
fire and camped for the night. It was fortunate indeed for me 
that he came just when he did, for if I had got one hour's start, 
I should as surely have lost my life as I now live, for there 
was no human habitation till within four miles of Fort Wayne. 
The slush ice would have so adhered to the raft as soon to render 
it entirely unmanageable; so that it must have stove, and I would 
have been compelled to swim, or drown. Had I swam out, I 
must have frozen to death very soon. 

,l Now, kind reader, you would think it pretty hard fare to have 
nothing to eat for fourteen days but dried peaches. I tell you it 
kept soul and body together, and that was all it did. 

" Hughes, Samuel Houlton and myself staid about two weeks, 
then Samuel took an Indian canoe and went down the river to get 
his pirogue load of pork, flour, pjtatoes, corn and whisky (for 
Hughes must have his drain). At Fort Wayne Samuel hired a 
man by the name of Avery, and went a little below where Antwerp 
now is, where they loaded the pirogue and returned without any- 
thing happening worthy of note. We four worked on some time, 


and in May got the mill ready to raise. Without any further help 
we went to putting it up, without ropes or tackle. The size was 
18 x 45 feet. There were five swamp oak sills forty-five feet 
long and thirteen inches square, and two plates ten inches 
square; but the middle bent, with the fender beam fourteen inches 
square, was the heaviest. 

"unwelcome visitors. 

" At that time there was a large Indian village where Denmark 
now is, and some traders came among there with whiskj r and 
made them drunk, so they came to rob us. We had worked 
hard all day until nearly sundown, when we went to the house 
to eat supper. The Indians came yelling and soon filled the 
house. They then drew their knives, bows and arrows and 
tomahawks, stuck their hands into our supper pot, and our 
supper was gone in a trice. Samuel Houlton drew a large 
poker and was about to strike, when Avery exclaimed, 'Don't 
strike, Sam, or they will kill us all!' Hughes also told him 
not to strike, but let them take what they wanted, and he 
would go to the Indian Agent at Fort Wayne and make them 
pay for it. They then acted as true lords of the soil. 

" They poured out the whisky into their camp kettles, knocked 
in the head of a flour barrel and also of a pork barrel, and in fif- 
teen minute; flour, pork and whisky were gone. They crossed the 
creek about twelve rods off and camped for the night. While 
they were making their fires and drinking the whisky, we rolled 
out our last barrel of flour and hid it in a brush heap. We had 
also about thirty pounds of pork up in the chamber that they did 
not get, and that was all that saved us from starvation. The 200 
Indians fought and screamed all night. A better sample of the in- 
fernal regions never could be gotten up in this world. 

" As soon as we had secured our barrel of flour, we next re- 
solved that when they had generally got drunk we would alight on 
them with a vengeance and kill the last one of them. So we 
loaded our four guns with slugs and then got two tomahawks and 
two hand axes, and waited until they would become more drunk. 
In this, however, we were disappointed. They did not seem to 
get more intoxicated. After drinking twenty gallons of whisky, 
eating 230 pounds of pork, and using up 250 pounds of flour, with 
several bushels of potatoes, they started off about eight in the 
morning well satisfied with what they had done. 


" We made application to the Indian Agent, at Ft. Wayne, but 
never got any compensation for the articles taken. Every time I 
think of the Indian tragedy I feel thankful that we were prevented 
from imbruing our hands in their life blood. It was the traders, 
with their whisky, that made all this trouble. 

" Whisky, whisky, bane of life, — 
Spring of tumult, — source of strife ; — 
Could I but half thy curses tell, 
The wise would wish thee safe in hell. 


" I will now give you a narrative of another danger that I and 
three others passed through. The escape was almost miraculous; 
and do not forget that all this has something to do with the settle- 
ment of De Kalb County. 

"In the summer of 1831 Samuel Houlton sent me, and the 
Widow Fee sent her son, John Fee, with me,out to the prairies with 
two yoke of oxen and a large Pennsylvania wagon, to buy a load 
of provision. They let Moses Fee, a boy seven or eight years old, 
go with us. Before this Sarah and Cynthia Fee were working on 
the prairies to help support the family, and the old lady sent word 
for the girls to come home. So we went out and got our load 
ready to return, when John Fee got a good chance to work awhile 
and ace >rdingly staid, leaving me and the girls and little boy to 
get home through the woods and swamps, with the teams and 
wagon, as best we could. 

"We were three days and a halt' getting home, ' miring down' 
several times on the way. The road being narrow and very 
crooked, I got fast frequently against the trees, and finally told the 
girls that one of them would have to drive the forward cattle, so 
Sarah came and drove the team. As we were thus driving along, 
we came to a dead cherry-tree that had partly fallen and lodged on 
another tree. The wagon ran over one of the large roots of this 
dead tree, and it broke suddenly about fifty feet from the root. 
The top part fell back on the wagon, within about six inches of 
the heads of Cynthia and the boy, smashing the boy's hand se- 

"The body of the tree fell along the road in the direction in 
which we were driving. By suddenly throwing myself back, I got 
barely out of its way, and having screamed to Sarah when I first 
saw it coming, to run for life, she ran with all her speed, the top 


of the broken tree just brushing her head and clothes. Cynthia 
Fee married William Bender, and she and the little boy mentioned 
above are living within a few miles of me, and are parents of large 
families. I married Sarah, the girl that drove the oxen and out- 
ran the falling tree, on the 5th of February, 1833. 

" In September of the same year I took three hired men, a yoke 
of oxen, a cross-cut saw and fro, and came on to forty acres I had 
entered , and in four days we four cut the logs for and raised and 
covered the house where I yet live, in Franklin Township, De Kalb 
County. I also hauled out and buried twenty bushels of potatoes 
on my land and left them till we moved on, about a month after, 
and, though the Indians were thick around, my potatoes were not 
disturbed — proving that they were more honest than some of their 
white brethren. 

" And now I want to show how the Hughes and Houlton mill, 
though in "Williams County, Ohio, had a bearing on the settlement 
of De Kalb County. When the mill had been in operation some 
years, the people began to settle on the St. Joseph, and would 
come and get lumber, often on credit, to build with, and thus the 
mill aided greatly the settlement of this county, though a few miles 
over the county and State line." Mr. Houlton here gives a de- 
tailed account of a trip through the wilderness to Highland County, 
Ohio, in the summer of 1831, when the streams were all foaming 
high, exposing him to death by drowning; and of a narrow escape 
from being murdered for money it was thought he had, and from 
which untimely death a supposed pistol (which existed only in sup- 
position) saved him, etc., etc. 


Mr. H. goes on to say: "In 1S34 John Fee entered the large 
and excellent farm of 500 or 600 acres on which he now lives, and 
which lies on each side of the line between Steuben and De Kalb 
counties. Indulge me in telling an anecdote of him. He had 
been out to the prairies for grain, and froze his feet badly, so that 
for a long time he could not wear boots or shoes. So he got the 
Indians to make him a very large pair of moccasins which he wore. 
One day, after his feet got better, he went out hunting, and after 
sauntering through the woods awhile, he crossed the largest mocca- 
sin track he ever saw. He looked with astonishment at the mon- 
ster track, and said to himself: ' What an almighty big Indian has 
been along here! It's the d — dest big Indian that has ever been in 


these woods.' About the time that his astonishment and curiosity 
got to its highest, he chanced to look behind him, and lo! it was his 
own track/" 


"We had a large fire-place in one end of our cabin, and the 
main thing for us in the winter was to get in a big back-log every 
evening to last all night and the next day. and then make a big fire. 
After the rest of the folks had gone to bed I would stay up and 
parch about a peck of corn in the big skillet for the next day. I 
could live on it, honey and jerked venison, and call it ' high life in 
America.' A hunter can live longer on parched corn, without 
water, than on anything else. Sometimes when parching corn or 
baking Johnnie-cakes on a smooth clapboard, I would play Daniel 
Boone, and imagine myself camped out in the woods by a big fire 
and living on roasted coon. "We moved to this country in a cov- 
ered wa*onand camped out and that is when I first fell in love with 
camping out and running wild; and it is hard for me now to go 
back on my first love and keep from following off every covered 
wagon that comes along. 

" We had a new comer who had moved so often that he declared 
that whenever a covered wagon drove up or passed his cabin his 
chickens would fall in line, march over the fence, lay down and 
cross their legs ready to be tied, thinking that they were going to 
move again. 

"At night after we had gone to bed the ground squirrels would 
come up through the puncheon floor, and it was fun to see them 
play hide-and-go-seek, blind man's buff, or whatever their innocent 
games are, in their language. They were so plenty that we had to 
watch our corn patch when it was first planted, or they would dig 
it all up and eat it. 

"One night I woke up and saw something lying on the floor by 
the fire, that looked very bright and glistening. I thought, per- 
haps, I was dreaming about 'Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp, 
or ' Cinderella and the Glass Slippers;' but come to look closer it 
was a huge rattlesnake that had come up through the floor to warm 
himself The gun stood within reach and was always loaded, and 
I drew a bead on him, fired and shot his head off A gun shot off 
in a room makes an awful noise, and it scared the rest of the folks 
almost to death. Father wanted to know what in the world was the 
matter, and I told him that I had killed a boa constrictor or an an- 
aconda, and that I had saved the whole family. The snake was 


very fat, and we saved the oil for rheumatism and weak back, and 
always found it a sure cure. 

"One day Tom and George Hollenback, father and myself were 
out hunting, and the dogs made a big fuss in a thicket, and we 
rushed in to see what was the matter, and found that they had 
come across a den of young wolves, and the old one was not at 
home. There were six of them, about a quarter grown, but very 
active and ferocious; and we had hard work to catch them as they 
had such a careless way of feeling round for a fellow's fingers, and 
would snap at you like steel traps. At last we got a forked stick 
and held their necks down while we tied them. One of the boys 
had a big pocket in his coat and concluded to carry one in it. We 
got ready and started for home with our menagerie, when all at 
once the wolf in the pocket grabbed the boy by the hind part of 
his leg and held on like grim death. The poor fellow ran around 
and howled. We tried to break the animal's hold, but it would not 
let go. We could not beat or choke it off, and we had to cut its 
head off. 

"That made the boys so mad that they killed all the wolves but 
one, which I took home and tied by a chain to a stake in the yard. 
In five minutes he could dig a hole in the sand big enough to hide 
himself, and then he would lay with his nose sticking out and let 
on that he was asleep; and the chickens would come around to in- 
vestigate the subject, and woe unto the chickens that came within 
the length of his chain. He could figure on it to an inch; and then, 
when they got within reach, he went for them like lightning, and 
would gobble them up, pick them and eat them before you could 
say Jack Robinson. 

"One morning he came up missing. He was out and gone, 
chain and all. I did not care anything about him, as he had eaten up 
most all our chickens except an old sitting hen that he did not 
relish; but I did not like to lose my chain. In the fall, while out 
hunting in the woods, and the wind was blowing very hard, I heard 
a rattling noise like a horse-fiddle, and went to see what it was ; 
and lo and behold, there was my chain hanging to the limb of a 
tree with a bunch of bones to it, and the wind was making music 
on them. It was the remains of my wolf; but I never could tell if 
it was a case of intentional suicide, or he got fast and hung himself 
accidentally. As he was already dead, I cut him down, took my 
chain, and left him for the wild winds to mourn his requiem. 

" It was in the spring, the time to plow for corn, aud in the dark 


of the moon, when you could not see your nose before you. One 
evening some of our neighbor boys saw a big black bear going 
north. They came down with dogs to stay all night with me, and 
get an early start in the morning after the bear. We had camped 
out on the floor, and in the night we heard a rattle at our clapboard 
door, and I asked, 'Who comes there?' An answer in a musical 
voice, said 'Mingo.' On opening the door, in stepped an Indian 
boy well known to us. He said that a little girl seven or eight 
years old, who belonged to Mr. Tobby, living about eight miles 
north of us had got lost in the morning, and that they had hunted 
for her all day and had not found her; and that they wanted us to 
go over and help hunt for her. 

" I told the boys that was our best hold, and that we would let 
the bear go until we had found the little girl. We got up long 
before day and made our breakfast off of a wild goose and a sand- 
hill crane that we had killed the day before, and barbecued them 
by the fire. We were off early on a trail, and arrived at Tobby's 
about nine o'clock in the morning; and oh, such a sight ! There 
was the mother crying and weeping, nearly heart-broken, and call- 
ing for Mary, the lost child. 

'-There were two or three women with her, trying to console 
her. The men were all out looking for her, and nothing had been 
heard from the child up to this time, one day and one night out. 
They had an old-fashioned dinner horn, four or five feet long, and 
as big as a saucer at the lower end, and it could be heard for miles. 
It was understood that when any one brought in any news or found 
the child, the horn should be sounded. It appears that on the 
morning little Mary was lost her father was plowing a piece of 
ground for corn, and she started to go to him but never reached 
him; and that Obbenobbe, an old Indian from the Tippecanoe, and 
Mingo, his grandson, had come over to Mr. Tobby's, and while he 
went out to hunt for the child, sent Mingo after us. 

"Just then Obbenobbe came in with a little piece of yellow 
calico that he said he had found on a bush about three miles east 
of there. Mrs. Tobby said at once that it was a piece of the dress 
that Mary had worn, and it had been torn off by the bush. That 
gave her some hopes; but the terrible thought was, ' Was she still 
alive?' The country was then full of wolves, and the chances were 
against her, but we hoped and hoped ever. We then made the 
woods and prairies ring with the old horn, and we then agreed 
that not a gun should be fired until Mary was found, dead or alive, 


and broke for the place where Obbenobbe had found the piece of 
her dress. "We made good time and soon reached the spot, and 
began to look for more signs. After looking around for a long 
time we found her little foot prints in the sand, and also in the 
mud, going from home. She was barefooted, and from that day to 
tins I have never forgotten those little tracks in the sand and mud. 
We hunted all day and found no other trace, and our hearts had 
begun to sink. We were tired and hungry, having had nothing to 
eat all day. We could have killed deer, but had resolved not to 
fire our guns off. We had a large greyhound that could catch a 
deer any time, and two coon dogs. As night was coming on, we 
prepared to camp. While we were fixing our camp, the dogs 
barked up a hollow tree, and we supposed there was a coon in it. 
We made an Indian ladder, and Obbenobbe climbed up and put 
some fire in the tree and came down. As the tree was dry it soon 
began to burn and made a bright light from the top. 

"At last two coons rolled out, pretty well singed. We killed 
and skinned them, and were getting ready to roast them. It was 
not dark yet, and we heard a noise; and looking up we found that 
something had scared two deer, and they came running right to 
camp. We put the dogs after them, and a short distance from us 
was the creek. In jumping it one ol the deer fell back in the 
creek ; in a minute the dogs were on him, and we ran in and pulled 
him out and killed him, and in fifteen minutes from the time we 
first drew blood, every one of us had a piece of it on a stick and 
roasting it; and such a feast we did have ! The body wanted 
more food than the soul did, and for the time being we forgot our 

"Night came on, and a dark one it was ; and the wolves were 
howling around us. The worst of all, it began to rain, and 
our only thought was, 'Where was Mary Tobby?' We had 
listened all day for the big horn or the report of a gun, but all 
in vain. Remember, my dear friends, that this is a true story, and 
some of the parties are still living in Pulaski County. Remem- 
ber, too, this was the second night and second day that she was 
lost, and how could the heroine live so long among the wolves, 
with nothing to eat and nothing to protect her from the weather 
but a little calico dress. We did not sleep much that night, and 
were up early and started on our search. We hunted all da}- up 
and down, backward and forward, as the grasses and bushes 
were very thick, hallooing and listening, but all in vain. 


" At last about three o'clock we gave it up and hope died within 
us, and we turned our faces homeward with heavy hearts. There 
is something in man called the dormant or latent powers or ener- 
gies. For instance, I have been hunting all day and was returning 
tired and weary, hardly able to lift one foot before the other, and 
game would start up before me, and I could run for hours, and 
forget that I was tired. Now hold your breath. "We had given 
up and started for home, and away off north of us we heard a gun's 
discharge. So then our dormant powers and hope went up, and 
we all broke and ran, and reaching the edge of a prairie we saw a 
man on horseback in his shirt-sleeves with something wrapped up 
in his coat before him. It was Bridge Ward, and he had found 
Mary Tobby in this way: He too had given up and started home 
in despair. As he was riding along he saw a grove north of him 
in the bend of the creek, and something told him or influenced him 
to take a last look there. He turned his horse to the right and 
through the grove, and then on to the edge of the creek, and 
there he found Mary Tobby, who had lain down for her last sleep; 
but, thauk God, she was still alive. 

" Her little feet, limbs and hands were all torn and bleeding 
from the briars and grass, and her golden hair was all matted to- 
gether. He picked her up gently and wrapped her in his coat and 
started for home. But how had she lived and escaped so long trora 
wild animals? (Here is special providence for you.) Although 
Obbenobbe was the oldest, he was still the best runner, and we 
started him on the wings of wind to carry the glorious news to 
Mary's home, that she was found and still alive. It was not long 
before we heard the guns firing and the horn blowing, as the rest 
of them had all given up and retired to the house. As Mary was 
weak we had to go slow, and as we neared the house they all came 
out to meet us, and the mother was frantic with joy. 1 thought 
she would kill the child by hugging and kissing it, and then 1 
could see the truth of the sayiug in the Bible that there is more 
joy in Heaven over one sinner who repents and is saved than the 
ninety and nine who went not astray; although Mary was not ex- 
actly a sinner. She was very weak, but after careful nursing soon got 
strong again, grew up to womanhood, married and raised a family. 
Her father, Mr. Tobby, and Mr. Ward, who found her, are still 
living in Pulaski County. 


"Now for the bear. After going north, lie turned east and 



killed a couple of hogs in the neighborhood of Brunk's, and then 
turned northwest and killed a calf near Stephen Jons's, the bee- 
hunter. We sounded the tocsin, called in our forces, and with the 
Forrence and Hollenback boys started on the war path, resolved to 
do or die for the rising generation. We were provided with guns 
and five dogs, including the big greyhound given to my father by 
Samual Matlock, of Lancaster, Ohio, which money could not buy. 
We soon got on the bear's track, crossing the sand ridges and 
soft places in the prairie. He was a smasher, and made a track 
more like the human family than any animal we had ever seen. 
We were almost led to believe in Darwin, who teaches that man 
came up from the lower orders of animals, and this bear's track 
did look as if he might be a connecting link between man and the 
monkey. But I never liked Darwin's idea of running you out to a 
tad-pole or a grease spot. The bear traveled fast and had a kind 
of elephant trot, or engineer swing. The dogs wonld runway 
ahead of him for miles, and then come back pretty well ' chawed 
up.' They at last became frightened and would not follow him. 
The greyhound was game and wanted to pitch in, but we kept 
him back, as we did not want him to get hurt. Several times we got 
sight of the old fellow crossing the prairie from one side ridge to 
another. He made good time, and we had hard work to keep any- 
where near hi in. 


" While crossing a ridge, we saw a deer coming right toward us 
with tongue out and very tired. One of the boys was going to 
shoot, but I told him to hold on, that there was something the 
matter with it. We kept the dogs in and it came right up to us. 
Just then five or six big gray wolves (none of your little prairie 
wolves) and one big black one, the only one we ever saw, came run- 
ning after it. We opened fire on them and killed the black and 
one gray one, and wounded another, which got away with the rest. 
As we had heard that a black wolf skin was very valuable, we 
skinned them. While doing so we heard a noise, and looking around 
saw an old she-wolf and four young ones coming in on the home 
stretch, to be at the death and feast off the deer. We fired at them, 
but without efieot, and they ran one way and the deer another, 
without saying good-bye. 

"We hung up the wolf skins in a safe place and followed up 
Bruin, who had gotten the start of us and had come across bees in 
an old hollow tree, and tore the honey out; he had made a mess of 


it, but bad left enougb for us. Bears are great for honey or any 
thing sweet, and do not mind the sting of bees more tban we would 
a mosquito bite. Along toward night his tracks became most too 
fresh, and we were afraid; so we concluded to camp on his track. 
While preparing to camp a couple of the boys went out to get 
some game for supper, and in about au hour came in with a fine 
fat buck, from which we had a fine feast. We sat by the camp fire 
and 'chawed' roasted ribs and broiled venison, and thought 
how the old fellows who dressed in purple and fine linen, and fared 
sumptuously every day, but had lost their appetite and digestive 
powers, and got the gout and dyspepsia, would give a million if 
they could just eat such a meal as we did. There are some who 
live only to eat, but in those days we ate to live and keep soul and 
body together, and were happy. I long for those days again. 
The night was dark and we made two big fires, one on each side 
of us, as we had heard that wild animals will not go through fire 
for a meal of victuals. Several times we were badly frightened in 
the night, and even our dogs were afraid. We kept out a picket 
guard, but it was hard to get anyone to leave the fire very far, as we 
were afraid that the bear would make a raid and gobble us up be- 
fore we could say our prayers. 

"The morning came and found us with our scalps all right, and 
we were soon off on the trail. He had turned east and gone north 
of Fletcher's Lake, and by Mud Lake, and then west near the In- 
dian camp where Obbenobbe and Mingo were. Through the day 
we found where he had made a meal off a dead or wounded deer, 
as bear cannot catch a sound deer. As it was nearly night we con- 
cluded to stay with the Indians, and they agreed to go with us in 
the morning. After a good night's sleep we were off early, with 
Indians, guns, and a new supply of dogs, and with their aid soon 
found the trail. After following him till almost noon, we saw him 
go into a swamp filled with thick elbow brush. The Indians said 
he would make his last fight there. We prepared to give battle, 
surrounded the swamp and then sent the dogs in. 

'' One of the Indians who had a rifle that carried an ounce ball 
got sight of him, fired and broke one of his fore legs, and that 
brought him to bay. He stood up on his hind legs and looked 
like a gorilla, and I almost thought that Darwin was right. We 
all closed in on him, but could not fire for fear of killing the dogs, 
they were so close around him. After he had killed and wounded 
four or five dogs the greyhound broke loose and went in. The bear 


grabbed bim with his well fore leg, and was about to crush and 
kill him, when Obbenobbe rushed in with a big knife and struck 
the bear under the shoulder, and that settled his case. He let the 
dog go and gave up the ghost. He was an ugly old rascal and had 
a bad breath. According to phrenology and physiology, and 
judging from his head and countenance, which were bad, his moral 
character had not been good in the neighborhood and vicinity 
where he had formerly resided. 

"The Indians said he was the largest they had seen for many 
years. They supposed that he was a wanderer from the far North, 
on an exploring expedition. We skinned him and gave the hide to 
Obbenobbe, as it was him who struck the fatal blow and saved my 
father's dog. He was not very fat, and tasted like a mixture of 
coon, pork, shad and codfish. We took a scout around and got 
our wolf skins, and returned home well satisfied with our bear hunt, 
which was the last and only one in my life." 



Political Complexion of De Kalb County. — First County 
Election and Officers Chosen. — Presidential Campaign of 
1840, Harrison and Van Buren. — Polk and Clay in 1844. — 
Taylor and Cass in 1848. — Pierce and Scott in 1852. — 
New Constitution. — Rise of the Republican Party. — Bu- 
chanan and Fremont in 1856. — Crisis of 1860, Lincoln and 
Douglas. — Close Vote in 1863. — Lincoln and McClellan in 
1864. — Grant and Seymour in 1868.— Biennial Elections 
Adopted. — Grant and Greeley in 1872. — Hayes and Tilden 
in 1876. — Garfield and Hancock in 1880. — Cleveland and 
Blaine in 1884. — Summary of Elections from 1839 to 1884. — 
Official List for DeKalb County. — Clerks. — Recorders. — 
Auditors. — Treasurers. — S heriffs. — Commissioners. — Other 

DeKalb County is considered safe for a Democratic majority of 
from 200 to 300, in presidential years. Rather an unusual amount 
of interest is taken here in politics, though a strict party division 
takes place only at National or State elections. In choosing 
county officers, the custom has been very popular to shake off 
party fetters, and vote for the best men. 

The first election after the organization of the county was held 
Aug. 6, 1838, and resulted in the choice cf Luther Keep for Com- 
missioner, Wesley Park for Sheriff, Lott Herrick for School Com- 
missioner, and Robert Work for Coroner. None of these had any 
serious opposition. In addition to these, a Representative was 
voted for, and a majority of fourteen given to David B. Herriman. 
In 1837 commissioners were elected, but the county could hardly 
be said to be organized at that time, and no record exists of that 
election. Peter Fair, A. F. Beecher and Samual Widney were 

The first presidential election in which De Kalb participated 
was the exciting one of 1840, and some old pioneers yet remember 
that" hard cider" campaign, when " Tippecanoe and Tyler too" 


and other euphonious phrases were enthusiastically sung in cam- 
paign songs. Only 334 votes were cast by this county, of which 
177 were lor Harrison, and 167 for Van Buren — a "Whig majority 
of ten. 

Four years later occurred the memorable campaign of 1844, 
when Kentucky's favorite son, Henry Clay, had a good chance 
for election, as the representative of the Whig party. A com- 
promising letter written by Clay before the election resulted in a 
sufficient defection from the Whigs to the Free-Soilers to elect 
James K. Polk. Polk's plurality in the State of New York 
was barely 5,000. Had one-third of the votes given to James G-. 
Birney in that State been given to Clay, the whole course of 
history would have been changed; for New York would then have 
given a Whig majority, Clay would have been elected, the annexa- 
tion of Texas defeated, and the Mexican war probably never 
have taken place. At this important election, De Kalb gave 
Polk 327, Clay 269, and Birney six votes respectively — a Demo- 
cratic majority of sixty-eight. The total vote was nearly double 
that cast at the previous election. 

In 1848 the Democrats nominated Cass and Butler, the Whigs 
Taylor and Fillmore, and the Free-Soil men, Yan Buren and 
Adams. This was a closely contested campaign, resulting in the 
election of the Whig candidates. De Kalb gave 968 votes to Cass, 
the son of Michigan, 547 to Taylor, and 347 to Yan Buren — a 
plurality for Cass of 391, and a majority of forty-four. The 
strength of the Free-Soil movement in this county at that period 
is noticeable. 

The election of 1852 came just after the celebrated compromi ses 
of 1850, and before the renewal of slavery agitation, caused by 
the Kansas-Nebraska troubles. Both Whigs and Democrats 
adopted plat orms endorsing the 1850 compromises, but General 
Scott, the Whig candidate, though a popular military hero, was 
distrusted by both the friends and the opponents of slavery restric- 
tion. The result was that he carried only the States of Massa- 
chusetts, Yermont, Kentucky and Tennessee — four in all, 
choosing forty-two electors; while General Franklin Pierce, the 
Democratic standard bearer, carried twenty-seven States, choosing 
254 electors. Never before or since was there such an overwhelm- 
ing defeat of a party that had hoped for success. The vote in 
De Kalb County was as follows: Pierce, 780; Scott, 391; Hale, 164; 
Democratic majority for Pierce, 389. 


In 1852 a new State Constitution was adopted, fixing the 
general annual election in October. It had previously been held 
in August. With the defeat of 1S52 came the death of the Whig 
party, and on its ruins was erected the Republican party which 
nominated for President John C. Fremont. The Democratic 
party put in nomination James Buchanan, and the American 
party Millard Fillmore. The result was the election of Buchanan 
by a strong vote. In this county his majority was seventy -five, 
and his plurality 150, out of a total vote of 2,419. 

The most important presidential election in our whole century 
of constitutional government was of course that of 1860, when 
the struggle between parties became one between sections. The 
Republican party, representing the North, nominated Abraham 
Lincoln; the Democratic party of the South chose John C. Breck- 
inridge. These two parties represented the extreme views of the 
slavery question and the regular Democratic nominee, Stephen A. 
Douglas, represented a middle ground — that of popular sovereignty. 
A fourth, or " Union" party, named John Bell as its candidate, 
but its platform meant really nothing, and was of little importance 
in the campaign. By running Breckinridge, the South gave the 
presidency to Lincoln, when it might have had Douglas. In 
De Kalb County, the natural opposition to the spirit of slavery 
extension dominant at the South naturally strengthened the Re- 
publican vote, and it gave Lincoln a plurality of 101, and a 
majority of seventy -five. Breckinridge received only two votes; 
Bell, twenty-four; Douglas, 1,399; Lincoln, 1,500. The townships 
giving Lincoln majority were eight in number, as follows: Butler, 
eighteen; Concord, twenty-five; .Newville, forty-four: Stafford, 
fifty-two; Wilmington, fifty-two; Union, thirteen; Franklin, four- 
teen; Troy, thirty-nine. Those giving Douglas majorities were 
four in number: Jackson, thirty-six; Richland, forty-seven; Fair- 
field, fifty-two; Smithfield, twelve. The election of Oct. 13, 1863, 
was remarkable for its being almost a tie between the two parties. 
The vote for Recorder was a tie, John Butt and George R. Hoff- 
man each receiving 1,391 votes. George Barney was elected 
Treasurer by a majority of two over Isaac Hague, and Moses 
Gonser received an equally small majority over A. Dewitt Goetch- 
ius for the office of Real Estate Appraiser. Spencer Dills was 
defeated for Surveyor by David Eberly by a majority of nine; and 
the largest majority given any candidate was twenty-eight for 
John Ralston for Clerk, over William M. Mercer. The Demo- 


cratic townships this year were Butler, Jackson, Concord, Auburn 
(village), Eichland, Fairfield, Smithtield and Franklin — eight out 
of thirteen. 

The war naturally strengthened the Republican party. In the 
October election of 1864 the distinguished Oliver P. Morton was 
chosen Governor of Indiana, receiving in De Kalb County a 
majority of ninety-eight, over Joseph E. McDonald. For Presi- 
dent the Democrats nominated this year General George B. Mc- 
Clellan, while the Republicans renominated Abraham Lincoln, 
and re-elected him. There was no third party in the field, as 
emancipation had settled the slavery question forever, and in the 
presence of the momentous issues of the war, prohibition, paper 
money, etc., had not yet become issues. The vote in this county 
was very close, McClellan receiving 1,472 votes, and Lincoln 
1,4S1 — a majority of twelve. The Democratic townships (six in 
number) and majorities were as follows: Butler, eight; Jackson, 
sixty-three; Richland, forty-five; F.urfield, ninety-seven; Smith- 
field, thirty; Franklin, ten. Five townships gave majorities for 
Lincoln: Newville, forty-five; Stafford, ten; Wilmington, 121; 
Union, fifty-eight; Troy, thirty-one. In Concord the vote was a 
tie, each party polling 132 votes. Two years later, in 1866, the 
Republican majority on the State ticket was about sixty. 

In 1868 the Democracy chose as its leader the respected Governor 
of New York, Horatio Seymour, while the Republicans gave in 
their adhesion to the war hero, Ulysses S. Grant, who was elected 
by a large majority. In this county Grant received the trifling 
majority of twenty-four, out of a total vote of 3,476. Five town- 
ships went Democratic by the following majorities: Butler, 
nineteen; Jackson, seventy-tour; Richland, sixty-nine; Fairfield, 
seventy-three; Smithtield, fifty-four. Seven townships gave the 
following Republican majorities: Concord, two; Newville, fifty- 
one; Stafford, fifteen; Wilmington, 141; Union, seventy-one; 
Franklin, five; Troy, twenty-eight. Up to this time annual elections 
had been held for county officers but this was now changed by 
law, so that since 1867 elections have beeu held biennially in the 
eveu numbered years. They occurred in October until 1882, when 
Indiana ceased to be an October State, and all fall elections are 
now held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. 

In 1870 the Democratic ticket was generally triumphant in 
this county. 

In 1872 Grant was renominated by the Republican party. 


Some dissatisfied leaders, calling themselves Liberal Republicans, 
nominated Horace Greeley, who was also endorsed by the Demo- 
cratic convention. The resnlt was a general stay at home 
throughout the United States of a large number of Democrats, 
who could not reconcile themselves to voting for a Republican 
like Horace Greeley, and General Grant was reelected by a very 
heavy majority. In this county he received 317 more votes 
than Greeley. A third ticket ("straight Democratic ") headed by 
Charles O'Conor, received ninety-four votes in De Kalb County. 
The twelve townships were equally divided between Grant and 
Greeley. The Democratic townships and majorities were: Butler, 
four; Jackson, twenty-four; Richland, eighteen; Fairfield, eighty- 
seven; Sinithtield, forty-two; Franklin, four. Those giving Re- 
publican majorities were: Concord, sixty; Newville, eighty-six; 
Stafford, ten; Wilmington, 155; Union. 136; Troy, forty-nine. 

The following paragraph, written after the presidential election 
of 1872, in the Courier, illustrates at once Mr. May's facile pen, 
and his genial good temper : 

" From a careful glance over the late battlefield, the probabilities 
are that we have met the enemy and they have somewhat gobbled 
us in. That's nothing. Twelve years' experience has taught us 
that Salt River is a navigable stream. The air at its head waters 
is pure, but not so very 'healthy.' The country is inhabited by 
white men exclusively, and although many of these are barefooted 
they submit with Christian fortitude. There is not a postoffice in 
the neighborhood. National banks are as scarce as hen teeth, and 
there is not a very large number of Brigadier-Generals in the 
country. A few army contractors are there, but they are as poor 
to-day as they were ten years ago. Our boat on this occasion 
started from the Ohio River and was propelled by Kentucky 
darkies. When we shall leave the country is not yet determined. 
It is only a question of time. We shall return to plague our ene- 
mies who have contributed so freely to send us 'up the river.' " 

And again : 

" We have a mournful pleasure, or a pleasing mournfulness, we 
don't know which, to perform. Greeley, you know Greeley. He 
was for President. Now he ain't. Well, Greeley, he wore a run- 
ning for an orfice, and Grant, being on horseback, beat him. You 
see there was a hole, or a chasm, as H. G. called it, in the way, 
and he thought it was nothing, that he could reach across it just as 
easy as falling off a log. But he reckoned without a host (of 



voters). When U. S. came to it he jumped it with his horse, but 
Uncle Horace, in attempting to shake with a fellow on the side, 
fell in, and that was the eend on him.' The main reason why H. 
G. was not elected was that he did not get enough States. If 
Grant hadn't been round, Greeley would have been ahead, as he 
beat O'Conor in every State. There was another reason, the 
hor(ac)se disease was bad in New York, and it kept spreading un- 
til it was everywhere. Whenever a thing spreads, then you may 
know it gets thin, and thus you may account for H. G.'s vote. 
We'll be opposed hereafter to having elections, when such tilings 
are around." 

In 1874, although not a presidential year, a much fuller vote was 
polled, 3,974 against 3,405 in 1872; and John E. Neff, for Secretary 
of State, received in De Kalb County a majority of 1,862. The 
Democrats have since carried the county with commendable uni- 

Samuel J. Tildeu, Governor of New York, and Rutherford B. 
Hayes, Governor of Ohio, were nominated in 1876 by the Demo- 
cratic and Republican parties respectively, while Peter Cooper was 
put forward by the Nationals, or Greenbackers. The result is fresh 
in the memories of all. Tildeu received a popular majority of a 
quarter of a million, while Hayes received a majority of one of the 
electoral votes. De Kalb County gave Tilden 172 votes more than 
Hayes. The total vote was 4,962, of which thirty-eight were for 
Cooper. Eight townships declared for Tilden, as follows : Butler, 
twenty; Jackson, sixty-one; Concord, thirty; Richland, thirty-one; 
Fairfield, 108; Smithfield, eighty; Franklin, five; Keyser, forty-one. 
Five townships gave the following majorities for Hayes : Newville, 
thirty-eight; Stafford, six; Wilmington, 122; Union, six; Troy, 

In 1878, Shanklin's (Democrat) plurality for Secretary of State, 
was 240. The prominent feature this year was the Greenback 
vote, which was 606, the largest they have ever polled in De Kalb 

In the campaign of 1S80, the contestants were the late James A. 
Garfield, representing the Republican party, and Winfield S. 
Hancock, nominated by the Democratic party. The Greenbackers 
placed in the field General James C. Weaver, of Iowa. Garfield 
was elected, but De Kalb County gave a plurality of 141 for Han- 
cock. The eight townships giving Democratic majorities were 
Butler, twenty-seven; Jackson, sixty-one; Stafford, one; Union, 



thirty-four; Kichland, thirty-seven; Fairfield, 123; Smithfield, 
thirty-seven; Keyser, fifty. The Republicans carried five : Con- 
cord, eight; Newville, forty-six; Wilmington, 102; Franklin, 
thirty-three; Troy, forty. 

In 1882 the Democratic plurality in this county for Myers, 
Secretary of State, was 268. 

The campaign of 1884 was a hotly contested one, but resulted in 
an increased Democratic majority, Cleveland receiving in this 
county a plurality of 348. The Democrats also elected their county 
ticket throughout, although the Republicans had hoped to win one 
or two offices. The majorities ranged from 104 to 461. The six 
townships giving pluralities for Cleveland and Hendricks were 
Butler, seventy-two; Jackson, eighty-four; Richland, twenty-three; 
Fairfield, 130; Smithfield, eighty-seven; Keyser, 113. Seven town- 
ships gave pluralities for Blaine and Logan : Concord, five; New- 
ville, twenty-five; Stafford, twenty-three; Wilmington, 136; Union, 
seventy-seven; Franklin, twenty-three; Troy, twenty-seven. 

Scanning the vote from 1860 to the present time, it is found that 
Jackson, Richland, Keyser, Fairfield and Smithfield have uniformly 
given Democratic majorities, while Newville, Wilmington and 
Troy have as steadily voted for Republican candidates. Butler 
was Republican in 1860, but Democratic ever since. Concord was 
Democratic in 1876, but Republican in other years, except 1864, 
when the vote was a tie, 132 votes being given for each party. 
Union has been Republican, except in 1880, Stafford the same, and 
Franklin has been rather "on the fence." 

Following is a summary of the votes cast at every election since 
the organization of De Kalb County : 


David B. Herriinan 44 

Joshua T. Hobbs 30 

Joseph B. Allison 11 

Oliver C. Ward 11 

Drusus Nichols 3 


Luther Keep 78 

Elisha Sheldou , 18 

Isaac T. Aldrich 1 


Wesley Park 88 

Joseph A. Coats 4 

School Commissioner. 
Lott Hernck 94 


Robert Work 70 47 

John Blair 23 

ELECTION OP AUG. 5, 1839. 

James Rariden 100 44 

Wilson Thompson 56 

Jonathan McCarty 4 


Elias Baker 86 19 

E. M. Chamberlain 67 


Asa Brown 84 12 [ 

David B. Herriman 72 

Commissioner, 1st Dist. 

Isaac B. Smith 138 12 

Willis O.Hyde 12 



Commissioner, 3d Disi. 

Daniel Strong 128 112 

Samuel Farney 16 

William Rogers 2 

Probate Judge. 

Scott Herrick 87 33 

Hannibal Frink 54 

School Commissioner. 

RobertWork 108 98 

Thomas J. Freeman 10 

Lot B. Coe 3 

Byron Bunnell 128 128 

ELECTION OF AUG. 3, 1840. 

Tightman A. Howard 122 26 

Samuel Bigger 96 


Benjamin S. Tuley /. .122 26 

Samuel Hall 96 


Madison Marsh 122 30 

John B. Howe 92 


Thomas J. Freeman 181 128 

William W. Burley 53 


DanielMoody 234 234 

Wesley Park 167 167 

ELECTION OF NOV. 2, 1840. 
President and Vice-President. 

Harrison and Tyler 177 10 

Martin Van Buren 107 

ELECTION OF AUG. 2, 1841. 

David B. Herriman 175 76 

John B.Howe 99 


Madison Marsh 159 41 

Seth W. Murray 118 


Samuel W. Sprott 240 235 

James S. Stanley 5 

Wesley Park 1 

O. A. Parsons 1 


Wesley Park 163 81 

Aaron Hague 82 

O. A. Parsons 1 


Warren Spooner 152 19 

Pharos Blake 133 


William P. Means 229 228 

R.J.Dawson 1 


John O. P. Sherlock 172 171 

Rilev Jacobs 1 

W. P. Means 1 

Wesley Park 1 

ELECTION OF AUG. 1, 1842. 

Madison Marsh 186 97 

EnosBeal 89 


John Helwig 126 64 

Lott Herrick 62 

Samuel Henderson 59 

John P. Widney 25 

Sam.Todd 1 


Jonathan Puffenbarger 205 137 

O. A. Parsons 68 


Samuel W. Sprott 273 273 


AaronHague 243 242 

John Rose 1 

Peter Browsher 1 

School Commissioner. 

RobertWork 244 230 

Henry Miller 14 

Samuel Henderson 1 


James Goetschius 80 59 

Daniel Altenburg 21 

A.F. Beecher 16 

John Rose 8 

Asa Shaw 2 

Aaron Hague 1 

ELECTION OF AUG. 7, 1843. 

James Whitcomb 290 78 

Samuel Bigger 213 


Jesse D. Bright 293 83 

John H. Bradley 210 

Scattering 9 


Andrew Kennedy 291 75 

L. G. Thompson 216 


David B. Herriman 293 81 

William Mitchell 212 


Jacob Helwig 264 32 

Benjamin Alton 232 




Reub°n J. Dawson 291 97 

R. J. Douglass 194 

Associate Judges. 

Samuel Widney 363 127 

Wm. R. McAnually 136 

Nelson Payne 229 55 

Arial Walden 174 

Rufus R. Lounsberry 70 


Daniel Moody 258 27 

Riley Jacobs 231 

Scattering 2 


Samuel W. Sprott 352 32 

Lanslot Ingnian 120 

Scattering 4 


Samuel W. Sprott 302 140 

Thomas J. Freeman 162 

James P. Plummer 29 

0. A. Parsons 1 


William P. Means 287 81 

George Barney 206 


O. A. Parsons 298 239 

Joseph Sawtell . . 59 

Nelson Payne 29 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1844. 

Jacob Helwig 304 50 

Ariel Walden 254 


Oliver D. Keep 319 135 

Jason Hubbell 184 


Jonathan Pubbenbarger 246 45 

Luther B. Weeks 201 

Riley Jacobs 82 


Wesley Park 269 34 

John P. Widney 235 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1844. 

President and Vice-President. 

Polk and Dallas. 327 68 

Clay and Frelinghuysen 269 

James G. Birney 6 

ELECTION OF AUG. 6, 1845. 

Andrew Kennedy 316 79 

L. G. Thompson . .237 

Daniel Worth 13 


Clark Powers 317 81 

Enos Beal 236 

Samuel Barr 14 


John W.Dawson 284 18 

E. A. McMahon 266 


Amzi Seely 327 115 

S. B. Ward 212 

Scattering 22 


Miles Waterman 190 33 

E. B. Mott 157 

Aaron Hague 116 

John Helwig 70 

J. A. Coats 17 

D.H. Rose 10 


William P. Means 293 30 

William Showers 263 

Scattering 8 

School Commissioner. 

I.C.George 282 22 

George Barney 260 

D.B. Mead 13 


David Weaver 330 135 

John Carpenter 195 

D. H. Mathews 14 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1846. 


James Whitcomb 366 147 

Joseph G. Marshall 219 

Scattering 6 


Paris C. Dunning 366 153 

Alex. C Stevenson 213 

Scattering 9 


Madison Marsh 367 165 

Wm. H. Nimmons 202 

Reuben Bement 11 


David B. Wheeler 346 111 

Wm. P. Means 235 

Scattering 7 


James M. Goetschius 336 88 

George Baker 248 

Probate Judge. 

JohnC Wade 298 66 

Egbert B. Mott 232 

Scattering 18 




Samuel W. Ralston 340 106 

Lyman Chidsey 234 


David Weaver 306 306 

ELECTION OP AUG. 4, 1847. 


William Rockhill 406 65 

William G. E wing 341 


John P. W'dney 376 25 

William Hough 351 

Wesley Park 1 


Andrew S . Casebeer 389 48 

Jeremiah Hemstreet 341 


Reuben J . Dawson 446 436 

Scattering 10 


Wesley Park 481 208 

John Helwig 273 


Wm. P. Means 424 90 

Wm. Showers 334 


Joseph Nodine 170 135 

Scattering 35 

ELECTION OF AUG. 7, 1848. 

Reuben J. Dawson 586 243 

C. Luce 343 

Associate Judge. 

Robert Work 550 195 

Nathaniel S. Thomas 355 

County Commissioner. 

AmziSeely 596 255 

Henry Pusselman 341 


Samuel W. Ralston 582 225 

Daniel W. Altenburg 357 

School Commissioner. 

Orlo A. Parsons 568 229 

Joel C. Hendr.cks 339 

John McClellan 582 582 

ELECTION OP NOV. 7, 1848. 

President and Vice-President 

Cass and Butler 968 391 

Taylor and Fillmore 577 

Vanburen and Adam3 347 

ELECTION OF AUG. 6, 1849. 

A. Wright 568 270 

John A. Matson 298 

Scattering 11 


James H.Lane 563 262 

Thomas S. Stanfield 301 

Scattering 5 


Andrew T. Harlan 565 263 

David Kilgore 302 


Reuben J. Dawson 493 167 

Dr. E. H.Drake 326 


Edward R. May 564 306 

John latman ... 258 i 

Scattering 2 


Timothv R. Dickinson 445 144 

Daniel Hardsock 301 

Scattering 5 


James M. Goetschius 529 215 

James C. George 314 

Scattering 3 


John Baxter 534 248 

Jeremiah Rhodes 286 

Scattering 3 

Charles C. Knapp 557 557 

ELECTION OF AUG. 5, 1850. 

Robert Work 665 661 

Ephraim Walters 104 

Scattering 23 


Edward R. May 697 397 

Wesley Park 300 

Associate Judges. 

Gilman C. Mudget 734 515 

George E. Harlsuck 219 

Abraham Cope 653 313 

Henry Fusselman 340 

Commissioner 1st Dist. 

Oliver D. Keep 709 429 

Andrew S. Casebeer 280 

Commissioner, 2d Dist. 

William Showers 997 997 


William K. Straight 583 200 

Joseph Miller 383 



Egbert B. Mott 317 270 

Scattering 47 


Miles Waterman 748 508 

Hiram W. Hatch 243 


Samuel W. Ralston 724 457 

Bushrod Catlin . . .267 

John McCune 710 454 

John Butt 256 

ELECTION OF AUG. 4, 1851. 

Samuel Brenton 485 11 

James W. Borden 474 


Gilman C. Mudget 743 161 

G. W. McConnell 582 

Israel D. Morley 395 

Commissioner, 1st Dist. 

Jacob Helwig 725 725 

Commissioner, 3d DUt. 

John Hursh 698 695 

Scattering 3 


Wm.P. Means 478 32 

Joseph Woolsey 446 


Lyman Chidsey 649 649 

New Constitution- 

For 710 615 

Against 95 

Colonization of Negroes. 

For 461 46 

Against 415 

ELECTION OF OCT. 12, 1852. 

Joseph A. Wright 684 298 

Nicholas McCarty 386 

Andrew L. Robinson 95 


A. P. Willard 

Wm. Williams 

James P. Wilkin 


E. M. Chamberlain 676 

Samuel Brenton 456 


Circuit Judge. 

E. A. McMahon 692 

Scattering 4 

J. M. McConnell 668 

D. E. Palmer 76 


George W. McConnell 649 

A. W. Hendry 437 

Scattering 2 


E. F. Hammond 659 

A.P.Clark 396 

Robert Work 631 

S. B.Ward 504 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

John Morris 616 

R.J.Dawson 474 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

W. W. Griswold 721 

D.E. Palmer 289 


Solomon De Long 681 

A. S. Bissell 415 

Joseph Walter 674 

Henry Fusselman 453 

Jeremiah Hemstreet. 594 

Jason Hubbell 459 


William K. Straight 708 

Joel E. Hendricks 583 

Noyce Coats 528 


Joseph Nodine 565 


Lyman Chidsey 681 

David Roger 392 

Scattering 5 

President and Vice-President. 

Pierce and King 780 

Scott and Gr»hain 391 

Hale and Julian 164 

ELECTION OF OCT 11, 1853. 

Commissioner . 

Solomon De Long 221 

Henry Fusselman 184 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10, 1854. 
Congressman . 

Samuel Brenton 675 

EM. Chamberlain 516 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

John W. Dawson 676 

E. R. Wilson 518 




A. P. Clark 669 139 

Joshua J. Hoffman 530 

James Hadsell 658 124 

Clark Powers 534 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Asa M. Tinker 652 117 

W. I. Howard 535 

Commissioner . 

Joel E. Thompson 621 162 

Henry Earnest 459 


Isaac Brandt 676 176 

George W . Maxwell 500 


Edward Fosdick 608 27 

John Ralston 581 


Joseph Nodine 556 86 

Joseph Miller 470 


LymanH. Coe 651 120 

John McClelland 531 

ELECTION OP OCT. 14, 1856. 

Ashbell P. Willard 1,191 80 

Oliver P. Morton 1,111 


Abram A. Hammond 1,193 83 

Conrad Baker 1,110 


Robert Lowry 1,191 79 

Samuel Brenton 1,112 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

SanfordJ. Stoughton 1,194 87 

Robert Parrott 1,107 


Miles Waterman 1,200 97 

Alanson W. Hendry 1,103 


Bushrod Catlin 1,195 87 

Thomas B. Sloss 1,108 

W. I. Howard.... 1,193 77 

Stephen B. Ward 1,116 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

Theron Storrs . .. 1,186 76 

Egbert B. Mott 1,110 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Lei and H. Stacker 1,198 95 

Win. H. Dills 1,098 


Jeremiah Hemstreet 1,190 85 

Willard Childs 1,105 


Ralston 1,177 52 

Isaac Brandt 1,125 


Daniel W. Altenburg 1,191 112 

James Colgrove 1,079 


Jeremiah Plum 1,170 51 

William Vallou 1,119 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1856. 

James Buchanan 1,247 150 

John C. Fremont 1,097 

Millard Fillmore 75 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1857. 


James S. Warden 975 3 

Charles Case 972 


AmziSeely 983 15 

John Helwig 968 


Jacob Helwig 954 79 

Edward H. Taylor 875 

Valentine Weaver 128 

ELECTION OF OCT. 12, 1858. 

Reuben J. Dawson 1,157 110 

Charles Case 1,047 

Scattering 3 

Circuit Judge. 

Wm. W. Casson 1,147 110 

Edward R . Wilson 1,037 

Scattering 3 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

James M. Schell 1,151 101 

James M . Defrees 1,050 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Abner F. Pinchin 1,038 1,038 


Miles Waterman 1,168 165 

Jason Hubbell 1,003 

Wm. C. Roberts 27 

Samuel W. Ralston 1,124 89 

Orrin C. Clark 1,035 

J. B. Goldsmith 21 

Thomas Weldin 17 


Christian Sheets 1,087 tie 

Thomas F. Daily 1,087 

George Wagoner 26 



Daniel W . Altenburg 1,134 94 

John McCune 1,040 

H. C. Roberts..,. 23 


Jeremiah Plum 1,129 78 

Joshua Stevens 1,051 

E. R. Schoemaker 22 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1859. 
Circuit Prosecutor. 

George D. Copeland 1,169 55 

Moses Jenkinson 1,114 

Commissioner 1st Dist. 

David Buchanan 1,203 135 

Jeremiah Hemstreet 1,068 

Commissioner 2d Dist. 

Alexander Provines 1,171 69 

James McClellan 1,102 


Milton J. Pierce 1,136 tie 

Albert J. Hunt 1,136 


John Ralston 1,142 5 

Edward H. Taylor 1,137 


Romeo B. Catlin 2,187 108 

Christophers. Hare 1,079 


Samuel W. Widney 1,144 68 

John Butt 1,076 

James B. Bishop 18 

ELECTION OF OCT. 9, 1860. 

HenryS. Lane.... 1,517 145 

Thomas A. Hendricks 1,372 


Oliver P.Morton 1,517 145 

David P. Turpie 1,372 


William Mitchell 1,512 138 

Philip Heukle 1,374 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Augustus A. Chapin 1,514 139 

Wm.S. Smith 1,375 


Timothv R. Dickinson 1,462 80 

Robert Patterson 1,382 


Henry Feagler 1,504 123 

Bushrod Catlin 1,381 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

Wm. M. Clapp 1,509 134 

Abrum W- Myers 1,375 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Joseph W . Cummings 1,516 143 

Theodore Richmond 1,373 


Henry Fusselman 1,532 203 

Amzi Seely 1,329 


James M. Chamberlain 1,486 92 

John Miller 1,394 


AlbertJ. Hunt 1,529 176 

Miles Waterman 1,353 


Marius Buchanan 1,484 93 

Daniel W. Altenburg. . , 1,391 

Hannibal C. Roberts 12 

Coi oner. 

Henry Willis 1,518 164 

Jeremiah Plum 1,354 

J. M. Rex 11 

ELECTION OF NOV. 6, 1860. 

Abraham Lincoln 1,500 101 

Stephen A. Douglas 1,399 

JohnBell 24 

John C. Breckinridge 2 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1861. 

John Brandon 1,171 225 

Alexander Provines 946 


George Barney 1,241 360 

Romeo B. Catlin 881 

. ELECTION OF OCT. 14, 1862. 

Joseph K. Edgerton 1,450 272 

William Mitchell 1,178 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

James H. Schell 1,459 275 

Augustus A. Chapin 1,184 


Wm. H. D.lls 1,406 1,406 


Miles Waterman.. 1,464 316 

Joshua W. Winslow 1,148 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Alexander B. Kennedy 1,458 270 

LewisCovel 1,188 


Jesse M. Brumback 1,469 292 

Andrew S. Casebeer 1,177 


John N. Miller 1,471 299 

Samuel Headley 1,172 



George Kuhlman 1,471 307 

Joel E. Hendricks 1,164 


Daniel W. Alteuburg 1,461 280 

Herman P. Colegrove 1,181 


Jeremiah PI um 1,446 256 

Thomas Weld in . 1,190 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1863. 

Amzi Seely 1,401 18 

Wm. Mathews 1,383 


John Ralston 1,399 28 

Wm. M. Mercer. 1,371 


George Barney 1,394 2 

Isaac Hague 1,392 


John Butt 1,391 tie 

Geo. R. Hoffman 1,391 

Real Estate Appraiser. 

Moses Gonser 1,396 2 

A. Dewitl Goetscnius 1,394 


David Eb rly 1,399 9 

Spencer Dills 1,390 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1864. 

Oliver P. Morton 1,503 98 

Joseph E. McDonald 1,405 


Conrad Baker 1,533 45 

Mahlon D. Manson 1,488 


Joseph H. Defrces 1,533 45 

Joseph K. Edgerton 1,488 

Circuit Judge. 

James C. Collins 1,533 44 

Robert Lowry 1,489 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Jos. W. Cunningham 1,533 41 

James H. Schell 1,492 


EnosB. Noyes 1,531 40 

Dewitt C. Deuuy 1,491 


Robert M.Lockhan 1,526 41 

Freeman Kelly 1,485 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

Wm. M. Clapp 1,530 38 

Samuel Jacobs 1,492 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Asa M. Tinker 1,528 36 

Gay Plum 1,486 


Henrv Willis 1,524 

Geo. W. Maxwell 1,488 


Alexander Provines 1,532 

John Brandon 1,484 


Geo. R. Hoffman 1,518 

John Butt 1,495 


Henry M. Stoner 1,530 

Spencer Dills 1,492 


Geo. W. A. Smith 1,532 

Jeremiah Plum 1,490 

ELECTION OF NOV. 8, 1864. 


Abraham Lincoln 1,484 

Geo. B. McClellan 1,472 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10, 1865. 

Reuben G. Daniels 1,312 

Jesse W. Brumback 1 : 265 


Lewis J.Blair 1,289 

Eli J. Sherlock 1,250 


Geo. W. Weeks 1,342 

Oliver T. Learned. 1,243 

ELECTION OF OCT. 9, 1866. 

Wm. Williams 1,818 

Robert Lowry 1,759 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Thomas Wilson 1,830 

Moses J. Long 1,747 


Ezra D. Hartman 1,817 

Freeman Kelly 1,760 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Joseph D. Ferrall 1,817 1 


William Henderson 1,826 

Aaron W. Allen 1,751 


Henry Willis 1,795 

Geo. W. Maxwell 1,735 


Geo. Kuhlman 1,773 

Whedon W. Griswold 1,769 


Henry Feagler 1,821 

Jeremiah Plum 1,725 


~* = T 



ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1867. 
Circuit Judge. 

Andrew Ellison 1,733 119 

Hiram S. Tousley 1,614 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Thos. J. Smith 1,722 96 

Ezra D. Hartman 1,626 


Jos.R.Lanning 1,758 197 

JohnL. Kryder 1,561 


William Mclntyr. 1,773 196 

Orrin C.Clark 1577 


Francis D. Ryan 1,760 203 

Solomon De Long 1,557 


Joseph W. McCasslin 1,735 139 

Casper Altenburg 1,603 

ELECTION OF OCT. 13, 1868. 

Thos. A. Hendricks 1,768 55 

Conrad Baker 1,709 


Alfred P. Edgerton 1,764 32 

Will Cumback 1,709 


ADdrew Ellison 1,764 59 

William Williams 1,705 


Geo. A. Milnes 1,764 2 

Edward W. Fosdick 1,702 


Lewis D. Britton 1,770 82 

Henry Feagler 1,688 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

Alexander J. Douglass 1,764 55 

Wm. M. Clapp 1,709 

Common Pleas Proseaut or. 

Wm. G.Croxton 1,753 45 

Jos. L. Morlan 1,708 


Daniel Gonser 1,794 117 

Jeremiah Lewis 1,677 


Jeremiah Plum 1,782 112 

Nathan H. Mathews 1,670 


Daniel Z. Hoffman 1,759 69 

Geo. R. Hoffman 1,690 

Land Appraiser. 

JohnG. D racer 1,735 20 

Robert Culbertson 1,715 


George Metcalf 1,758 57 

Samuel D. Long 1,701 

ELECTION OF NOV. 3, 1868. 

Ulysses S. Grant 1,750 

Horatio Seymour 1,726 

ELECTION OF OCT. 11, 1870. 

William Williams 1,597 

Milo S.Hascall 831 

Andrew Ellison 770 

Circuit Court Prosecutor. 

Thos. Wilson 1,702 

James McGrew 1,645 


Lewis D. Br. tton 1,687 

Horatio S. Hine 1,658 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Wm. G. Croxton 1,679 

Jos. L. Morlan 1,646 

Commissioner, 1st Dist. 

Daniel Gonser 1,800 

Cyrus Bowman 1,535 

Commissioner, 2d Dist. 

George Ensley 1,777 

Thos. D. Daily 1,537 

Commissioner, 3d Dist. 

Wm. Richmond 1,697 

Isaac B. Goldsmith 1,623 


Jeremiah Plum 1,714 

Jno. A. McKay 1,626 


Wm. Mclntyre 1,715 

Geo. W. Gordon 1,612 


Jos. R. Lanning 1,797 

Hermon P. Colegrove 1,538 


F. D. Ryan 1,711 

Elihu Ocker 1,622 


Isaac K. Shaffer 1,702 

Abraham L. Rheinoehl 1,635 


Q. D. Metcalf 1,700 

Adam Kinney 1,647 

ELECTION OF OCT. 8, 1872. 

Thos. A. Hendricks 1,918 

Thos. M. Browne 1,886 

Alfred P. Edgerton 13 


Jno. B. Cravens 1,924 

Leonidas Sexton 1,884 

Green Durbin 15 




E. Van Long 1,930 44 

Henry B. Sayler 1,886 

Circuit Judge. 

James I. Best 1,890 1890 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Leigh H. Haymond 1,868 1,868 

Judge of Common Pleas. 

L.H.Goodwin 1,924 37 

Wm.M. Clapp 1,887 

Common Pleas Prosecutor. 

Daniel Y. Husselman 1,939 - 66 

Jos. L. Morlan 1,873 


Wm. G. Croxton 1 934 51 

W. I.Howard 1,883 


Sam. S. Shutt 1,952 87 

Jacob D. Leighty 1,865 


Chas. R. Wanemaker 1,914 16 

Wm. Richmond 1,898 

Nelson Griffith 1,932 48 

Lewis Britton 1,884 


Wm. L. Meese 1,909 20 

Geo. W. Maxwell 1,889 


Nicholas Ensley 1,920 51 

Freeman Kelley 1,869 


Daniel Z. Hoffman 1,961 22 

Geo. R. Hoffman 1,839 

Real Estate Appraiser. 

Samuel Learned 1,943 61 

John Buchanan 1,882 


Chauncey C. Clark 1,920 30 

Henry C. Peterson 1,890 


Jas. J. Latson 1,942 66 

Adam Kinney 1,876 

ELECTION OP NOV. 5, 1872. 

Ulysses S. Grant. . 1,861 317 

Horace Greeley 1,544 

Chas. O'Conor 94 

ELECTION OP OCT. 14, 1874. 
Secretary of State. 

Jno. E. Neff 2,018 62 

Wm.W. Carry 1,956 


Freeman Kelly 2,013 101 

Jno. H. Baker 1,912 


Circuit Prosecutor. 

Wm. B. McConnell 2.025 120 

Jos. L. Morlan 1,905 


Miles Waterman 1,961 1 

Edward H. Saylor 1,960 


Geo. H. Duncan 2,076 190 

Henry Hood 1,886 


Wm. L. Meese 2,283 671 

JohnFreesh 1,612 


Isaac Hague 2,089 276 

Wm. Mclntyre 1,813 


Geo. H. K. Moss 2,039 55 

Lewis D. Britton 1,884 


Nicholas Ensley 2,046 160 

Davil H. Marry 1,886 


Christian Sheets 2,006 58 

Robert Calbertson 1,948 


Winfleld S. Bangs 1,885 9 

Jay J. Van Auken 1,876 


Jas. J. Latson 2,042 126 

Geo. M.Crane 1,916 

ELECTION OF OCT. 10, 1876. 

Jas. D. Williams 2,597 188 

Benjamin Harrison 2,409 

Henry W. Harrington 13 


Isaac Grav 2,592 186 

Rob't S. Robertson 2,406 

Richard Gregg 19 

Secretary of State. 

Jno. E. Neff 2,592 183 

Isaiah P. Watts 2,409 

Allen W. Monroe 20 


Freeman Kelly 2,597 198 

Jno. H. Baker 2,399 

Circuit Judge. 

Hiram S. Tousley 2,558 111 

Jas. E. Rose 2,447 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Daniel H. Moody 2,558 153 

Jno. W.Bixler 2,406 


Samuel S. Shutt 2,610 230 

Wm. M. Mercer 2,380 





Albert Robbins 

Cyrus C. Walter 

Jno. J. Hoopengarner 


Gto. H. K. Moss 

Thos. C Mayo 

A. Byron Darby 





Geo. H. Duncan 2,698 

Wm. R- Emerson 2,230 

Benjamin F. Blair 2,503 

Rob'tN. Crooks 2,498 







Daniel Gonser 



Wm. Cornell 2,409 


Willis P. Andrews 


. 564 

Elam B. Cutler 2,458 


Jay J. Van Auken 



Daniel Gonser 2.621 


Geo Buchanan 

Allen Schultz 

. 631 

Michael Boland 2,622 


Jas. J. Latson 




Samuel Greenemeyer 

. 595 

Jay J. Van Auken 2,648 



12, 188C 


Elbert M. Woodford 2,366 


Cor oner. 




Albert G.Porter 

Reuben G-. Bailey 2 399 

Richard Gregg 

. 137 




Isaac P. Gray 



Samuel J. Tilden 2,553 


Thomas Hanna 

. 140 

Rutherford B. Hayes 2,381 

Secretary of State. 


John G. Shanklin 

EmaDuel R Hawn 




Secretary of State. 

Francis J . Warring 

. 142 



Walpole G. Colerick 

Robert S. Taylor 

Isaac S. Moore 1,897 




Jno. B. Stoll 2,168 

Jno. H. Baker 1,887 


Circuit Prosecui 



Henry C. Peterson 

Circuit Prosecutor. 



Jesse H. Carpenter 2,702 

Francis McCartney 2,422 

Joint Representative. 


Henry C. Peterson 2,096 



Samuel S. Shutt 2,221 

Wm. L. Meese 1,894 

Hiram Iddings 


. 2,355 


Daniel D. Moody 




Wm. T. Hopkins 


Augustus S^Leas. 1,871 

Joshua M. Winslow 

. 125 

Wesley I. Work 1,679 

Robert N. Crooks 1,015 




F. D. Oberlin 

Ephraim Shipe 

Emanuel R. Shoemaker. . 

. 2,475 
. 153 



Augustus S. Leas 



John Shoub 2,094 

Robert Arford 1,906 

Jay J. Van Auken 

- 2,434 

Henry M. Milliman 608 

Jno. W. Rowe 




J. o. W. Baxter 2,510 

Jno. A. Provines 2,429 

Hamilton H. Keep. . .• 143 


Lafayetie J. Miller 2,563 

Wm. Henderson 2,422 

Orris Danks 120 


Michael Boland 2,640 

Charles Hanes 2,321 

Isaac B. Goldsmith 129 


Azam P. Foltz 2,522 

Abel L. Hollopeter 2,456 


Jas. J. Latson 2,566 

Henry Espy 2,420 

Daniel Zahner . . 128 


Wiufield S. Hancock 2,582 

James A. Garfield 2,441 

Jas. C. Weaver 110 

Secretary of State. 

Wm. R. Myers 2.559 

Emanuel R. Hawn 2,291 

Leonard Ill 


Robert Lowry 2,565 

Wesley C. Glasgow 2,279 

Butler 118 

Circuit Judge. 

Wm. H. Dills 2,470 

R. Wes. McBride 2,352 

Goodwin 98 

Prosecuting Attorney. 

Harry Reynolds 2,588 

Henry C. Peterson 2,347 

Joint Representative. 

EliB. Garber 2,552 

O. Z. Hubbell 2,313 


Daniel D.Moody 2,472 

Jeremiah Lewis 2,368 

Edge 76 


Joseph Sew^ll 2,493 

Fred D. Oberlin 2,360 

Shultz 102 

Oliver H. Widney 2,602 

Russell G. Coburn 2,247 

Milliman 103 

Briggs D.Thomas 2,545 

Amos Rakestraw 2,289 

Scattergood 103 


Jno. W. Bovle 2,650 

Jonathan Hazlett 2,321 

Murphy 81 


Thos. H. Tomlinson 2,499 

John A. Shull 2,366 

Cathcart 79 


D. Y. Husselman 2,472 

Ezra D. Hartman 2,368 

Wallace 75 


L. J. Miller 2,816 

Chas. Bengno 2,019 

Stoner 68 


John Butt 2,570 

Thaddeus D. Meese 2,295 

Shaffer 74 


Jay J. Van Auken 2,628 

Samuel G. Flint 2,286 

Chapman 96 


J.J. Latson 2,599 

Jno. A. Cowan 2,228 

ELECTION OF NOV. 4, 1884. 


Grover Cleveland 2,799 

Jas. G Blaine 2,451 

Benj. F. Butler 95 

Jno. P. St. John 59 


Isaac P. Gray 2,798 

Wm. H Calkins.... 2,443 

Hiram Z. Leonard 94 

Rob't S. Dwigiins 70 

Lieutenant-Governor . 

Mahlon D. Manson 2,804 

Eugene H. Bundy 2,442 

Jno. B. Milroy 93 

Elwood C. Siler 09 

Secretary of State. 

Wm. R. Mvers 2,804 

Rob't Mitchell 2,441 

Thompson Smith 93 

Benj. F. Carter 68 


Robert Lowry 2,770 

Theron P. Keator 2,484 

Geo. D. HaiUuck 87 

Jesse M. Gale 57 

Circuit Prosecutor. 

Francis M. Powers 2889 

Henry C. Peterson 2,456 


I Representative. 

Jnrt. W. Boyle 2.756 224 ' Daniel D . Mood %m 

ElamB. Cutter 2,532 , Ju0 s Jackman ^ 2 593 

Geo.Lautzenberger 80 ! Wm. Wallace 83 

Treasurer. | 

Silas J. Brandon 2,765 237 Joint Representative. 

Jno. L. Davis 2,528 ! Wm. Barney 2,810 

Charles Imas 77 


Francis Picker 2,760 

Richard Bison 2,505 

Enos Vian 96 


Jay J. Van Auken 2,848 

Augustus Obendorf 2,403 

Wm. F. C. Francis. 


Lafayette J. Miller 2,913 

Nicholas Ensley 2,452 

Jno. E. Thompson 2,465 

Jas. D. McAnally 96 

Commissioner 2d Dist. 

Henry Probst 2.810 

Ephraim Farrington 2,465 

Jno.A.Walker 96 

Commissioner, 3d Dist. 

Oliver H. Widney 2,835 

OtisS. Blood 2,452 

Miles Chapman 86 

Both for the interest of the reader and for a permanent record 
of value for reference the names are here given of those who have 
filled the principal offices in De Kalb County. 


The following have held the office of County Clerk: John F. 
Coburn, 1837-'41; S. W. Sprott, 1841-'51; J. P. Widney, 1851-'5; 
S. W. Sprott, 1855-'9; John Ralston, 1859-'67; J. R. Lanning, 
1867-'75; G. H. K. Moss, 1875-'80; John W. Baxter, 1880-'4; D. 
Y. Husselman, 1884. 


The office of recorder was combined with that of clerk for the 
first fourteen years of the county's existence, since which time it 
has been a distinct office. The incumbents have been: John F. 
Coburn, 1837-'41; S. W. Sprott, 1841-'51; John McCune, 1851-'5; 
W. E. Griswold, 1855-'9; S. W. Widney, 1859-'64; G. R. Hoff- 
man, 1864-'8; D. Z. Hoffman, 1868-76; M. Boland, 1876-'84; 
John Butt, 1884. 


The auditors have been: S. W. Sprott, 1841-'2; Aaron Hague, 
1842-' 9; Miles Waterman, 1849-'55; M. F. Pierce, 1855-'60; A. J. 
Hunt, 1860-'2; George Kuhlman, 1862-'6; W. W. Griswold, 1866- 
'70; W. Mclntyre, 1870-'4; Isaac Hague, 1874-'8; Albert Robbins, 
1878-'82; Thomas H. Tomlinson, 1882. 


Twelve men have been the custodians of De Kalb County's 



| money, as follows: "Wesley Park, 1837-'51; S. W. Ralston, 1851- 
'3;J.E. HeDdricks, 1853-'5; E. W. Fosdick, 1855-7; Jacob Hel- 

! wig, 1857-'9; R. B. Catlin, 1859-'61: George Barney, 1861-'5; L. J. 

: Blair, 1865-7; F. D.Ryan, 1867-72; Nicholas Ensley, 1872-'6; 
Daniel Gonser, 1876-'80; L. J. Miller, 1880-'4. 

From 1837 to 1850 Wesley Park, Thomas J. Freeman, Jona- 
j than Puffenbarger, and S. W. Ralston successively kept the county's 
;■ disorderly citizens under lock and key. Since 1850 the time has 
I been divided as follows: W. K. Straight, 1850-'4; Isaac Brandt, 
i 1854-'6; S. W. Ralston, 1856-'60; J. N. Chamberlain, 1860-'2; J. 
; N. Miller, 1862-'4; H. Willis, 1864-'8; J. Plum, 1868-72; W. L. 
'■ Meese, 1872-'6; John St. Clair, 1876-'8; A. S. Leas,1878-'82; John 
W. Boyle. 1882. 


The Legislators of our county are three in number, and the 
board for each year since the organization of the county has been 
as follows: 

1837 — Peter Fair (Chairman), Samuel Widney and Abram F. 

1838— Peter Fair (Chairman), David Strong and Isaac T. Al- 

1839 — Daniel Strong (Chairman), Peter Fair and Isaac B. 

1840 — Daniel Strong (Chairman), Isaac B. Smith and Daniel 

1841 — Daniel Strong (Chairman), Daniel Moody and Warner 

1842 — Daniel Moody (Chairman), Warner Spooner and John 

1843 — Warner Spooner (Chairman), John Helwig and Daniel 

1844 — John Helwig (Chairman), Daniel Moody and Oliver D. 

1845— Daniel Moody (Chairman), Oliver D. Keep and Amzi 

1846 — Oliver D. Keep (Chairman), Amzi Seely and James M. 

1847 — Amzi Seely (Chairman), James M. Goetschius and An- 
drew S. Casebeer. 


1848 — Amzi Seely (Chairman), James M . Goetschius and Andrew 
S. Casebeer. 

1849 — Amzi Seely (Chairman), Andrew S. Casebeer and James 
M. Goetschius. 

1650 — -Amzi Seely (Chairman). Oliver D. Keep and William 

1851 — "William Showers (Chairman), Jacob Helwig and John 
C. Hursh. 

1852 — Jacob Helwig (Chairman), Solomon De Long and Joseph 

1853 — Solomon De Long (Chairman), Joseph Walter and Jere- 
miah Hemstreet. 

1854 — Joseph Walter (Chairman), Solomon De Long and Joel 
E. Thompson. 

1855 — Solomon De Long (Chairman), Joel E. Thompson and 
James M. Goetschius. 

1856 — Solomon De Long (Chairman), James M. Goetschius and 
Jeremiah Hemstreet. 

1857 — James M. Goetschius (Chairman), Jeremiah Hemstreet 
and Amzi Seely. 

1858 — Jeremiah Hemstreet (Chairman), Amzi Seely and James 
M. Goetschius. 

1859 — Amzi Seely (Chairman), David Buchanan and Alexander 

1860 — Alexander Provines (Chairman), David Buchanan and 
Henry Fusselman. 

1861 — David Buchanan (Chairman), Henry Fusselman and John 

1862 — Henry Fusselman (Chairman), John Brandon and J. M. 
Brum back. 

1863 — John Brandon (Chairman), J. H. Brumback and Amzi 

1864 — J. M. Brumback (Chairman), Amzi Seely and Alexander 

1865 — Amzi Seely (Chairman), Alexander Provines and R. G. 

1866 — Alexander Provines (Chairman), R. G. Daniels and 
William Henderson. 

1867 — R. G. Daniels (Chairman), William Henderson and 
William Mclntyre. 

186S — William Henderson (Chairman), William Mclntyre and 
Daniel Gonser. 


1869 — William Hclntyre (Chairman), Daniel Gonser and Will- 
iam Henderson. 

1870 — Daniel Gonser (Chairman), George Ensley and William 

1871 — William Richmond (Chairman), George Ensley and 
Daniel Gonser. 

1872 — George Eusley (Chairman), Daniel Gonser and William 

1873 — Daniel Gonser (Chairman), Nelson Griffith and Charles 
R. Wanemaker. 

1874— Nelson Griffith (Chairman), Charles R. Wanemaker and 
George H. Duncan. 

1S75 — Nelson Griffith (Chairman), Charles R. Wanemaker and 
George H. Duncan. 

1876 — George H. Duncan (Chairman), Charles R. Wanemaker 
and A. D. Goetschius. 

1S77 — A. D. Goetschius (Chairman), B. F. Blair and George 
II. Duncan. 

1878 — B. F. Blair (Chairman), George H. Duncan and A. D. 

1879 — George H. Duncan (Chairman), Edward Kelham and B. 
F. Blair. 

1880— Edward Kelham (Chairman), John Shoub and F. D. 

1881— John Shoub (Chairman), F. D. Oberlin and Edward 

1882— F. D. Oberlin (Chairman), B. D. Thomas and O. H- 

1883—0. H. Widney (Chairman), B. D. Thomas and Joseph 
Sewell. (B. D. Thomas died in June, 1884, and Henry Probst was 
appointed to complete the term.) 

1884 — O. H. Widney (Chairman), Joseph Sewell and Henry 


DeKalb County has furnished the following Circuit Judges: R. 
J. Dawson, James I. Best, C. A. O. McCIellan and R. Wes. Mc 
Bride; Common fleas Judges, John Morris and E. B. Mott; As- 
sociate Judges, A. Walden, T. L. Yates, Samuel Widney, Nelson 
Payne, Robert Work, David Martin, Abraham Cope and G. C. 
Mudgett; Probate Judges, Lott Herrick and J. B. Wade; State 
Senator:-, R. J. Dawson, T. R. Dickinson, E. W. Fosdick and 




William Mercer. The county has been represented in the lower 
branch of the Legislature by Joseph Helwig, John P. Widney, 
R. J. Dawson, G. C. Mudgett, Robert Work, S. B. Ward, Miles 
Waterman, Henry Feagler, R. M. Lockhart, E. D. Hartman, L. 
D. Britton, S. S. Shutt and D. D. Moody. The County Surveyors 
have been Joseph Miller, C. Probst, Joseph Nodine, Daniel Alten- 
burg, Marius Buchanan, David Eberly, G. W. Weeks, I. K. Sheffer, 
Chauncey Clark, and J. J. Van Auken; School Examiners and 
Superintendents, Edward Wright, Spencer Dills, W. H. Mcintosh 
and James A. Barnes. 



Devotion to Country. — Sadness of War. — First Enlistments. — 
De 'K at.b County Guards. — Munitions of War. — De Kalb 
County Not in the Background. — But One Voice. — Loyal 
Meetings. — Meeting at Spencerville. — Drafting. — Koll of 
Honor. — Ninth Regiment. — Eleventh. — Twelfth. — Thir- 
teenth. — Seventeenth. — Nineteenth. — Twentieth. — Twenty- 
first. — Twenty-ninth. — Thirtieth. — Thirty-fourth. — Thirty- 
fifth. — Thirty-eighth. — Forty-second. — Forty-fourth. — ■ 
Forty-eighth. — Forty-ninth. — Seventy-fourth. — Eighty- 
seventh. — Eight it-eighth. — Ninety-first. — One Hundred and 
Eighteenth. — One Hundred and Nineteenth. — One Hundred 
and Twenty-seventh. — One Hundred and Twenty-ninth. — 
One Hundred and Fortieth. — One Hundred and Forty-second. 

The brightest pages in the history of De Kalb County are those 
which record her loyal support of the Government in its long 
struggle to crush the slaveholders' rebellion. Various opinions of 
public policy there might be, and were; and party lines were as 
strongly drawn here as anywhere ; but when it came to deeds, all 
differences were forgotten, and all joined in an emulous rivalry 
in patriotism. The world will never forget that sublime devotion 
to country which made fathers forsake their families, brothers their 
sisters, lovers their betrothed, and enlist under the stars and stripes 
for three years or the war. They marched all over the South, 
through swamps and rivers, over mountains and plains; they ex- 
posed their bodies to every form of unhealthy surroundings; they 
bared their breasts to the murderous bullets by thousands; they 
died of disease by tens of thousands; and, worse than all, they 
starved slowly by regiments in Andersonville and other Southern 
prison pens until 60,000 and more were relieved of their sufferings. 

Many brave deeds, indeed, were performed that could only be 
done in the intense excitement of battle. This excitement carried 
men through prodigies of valor, and was followed by reaction of 


languor and gloom after the battle. When a furnace is in blast, 
the red fountain sparkles and plays like a mountain spring, and 
the rude surroundings brighten to the peak of the rough rafters 
with a strange beauty. "When the fire is out, and the black and 
ragged masses of dull iron lie dead upon the ground, with a dumb, 
stubborn resistance, who would dream that they ever leaped with 
life and light? 

A battle and a furnace are alike. It is wonderful how dull 
natures brighten and grow costly in the glow of battle; how the 
sterling worth and wealth there are in them shine out, and the 
common man stands transfigured, his heart in his hand and his 
hand and his foot in the realm of heroic grandeur. But ah, when 
the fire is out, and the scarred earth is heaped with clay, the black 
moutlis of the guns speechless, mighty hammers and no hands, the 
flao;s furled, the wild hurrah died away, and all the splendid action 
of the charge vauished from the rugged field like a last flash of sun- 
shine, and you wander among the dull remainders, the dead em- 
bers of the intensest life and glow that swept your soul out. only 
yesterday, and drifted it on with the skirmish line, you begin to 
know what those words mean, "After the battle." 


Not alone for the men were the horrors of war. It was in our 
civil strife as in all wars of history, while the women shared the 
suffering, the men received all the glory. "What an immense 
amount of heroism among the wives of soldiers passed unnoticed, 
or was taken as a matter of course ! For the soldier, he had his 
comrades about him, shoulder to shoulder; he had excitement; he 
had praise, if he did well; he had honorable mention and pitying 
tears, if he fell nobly striving. But alas for the soldier's wife! 
Even an officer's wife, who had sympathizing friends; who had 
the comforts and many of the luxuries of life; whose children's 
future was provided for if their father fell, what hours of dreadful 
suspense must she pass, even under these favorable circumstances ! 
How hard for her! But for the wife of the poor soldier, who, in 
giving her husband to her country, had given everything; who 
knows not whether the meal she and her little ones are eating may 
not be the last for many a hungry, desolate day; who has no 
friend to say " well done" as the lagging weeks of suspense creep 
<>n. and she stands bravely at her post, keeping want and starva- 
tion at bay; imagination busy among the heaps of dead and 


wounded, or traversing the wretched prison pens, and shuddering 
at the thought of their demoniac keepers ; keeping down her sobs, 
as the little daughter trustingly offers up her nightly prayers " tor 
dear papa to come home;" or when her little son, just old enough 
to read, traces slowly with his forefinger the long list of killed and 
wounded, "to see if papa's name is there;" shrouding her eyes 
from the possible future of her children, should her strength give 
out' under the pressure of want and anxiety; no friend to turn to 
when her hand is palsied by labor; there are no waving banners, 
nor martial music, nor long processions to chronicle her valorous 
deeds; none but God and her own brave heart the witnesses of her 
own unaided struggle. When we think of these solitary women 
scattered through the length and breadth of the land, our hearts 
warm toward them; and we would fain hold them up in their silent 
heroism for all the world to admire. When the history of the 
Rebellion shall be properly written, and that cannot be in this gene- 
ration, let the historian, what else soever he may omit, forget not 
to chronicle this sublime valor of the hearthstone all over our 
struggling land. 


With the first call of the President, numerous volunteers from 
De Kalb County offered their services, but as they were not organ- 
ized in a body by themselves, such as were accepted were assigned 
to various commands, and in many cases credited to other counties. 
Thus the county furnished men enough for two whole companies 
before any company was raised and officered entirely in De Kalb. 
The first company to receive a large representation from De Kalb 
was Company G, Nineteenth Regiment, in connection with which 
the following incident occurred : 

While the people of Waterloo were enthusiastically manifesting 
their warlike spirit, there occurred in the village July 10, 1861, an 
accident so fatal in its character and effect as to shock the entire 
community. The sadness was much deeper than was felt at ten 
times the loss of life in the field of war; for the latter was felt to 
be necessary, and the former only a deplorable accident. 

The cannon belonging to the citizens of the village was being 
fired in honor of the volunteers belonging to Captain Clark's com- 
pany who were leaving on the express train at 3:55. Two rounds 
had been fired, the third and fatal one was reserved for the de- 
parture of the train. It had been heavily charged, and was wad- 


Jed with green leather shavings from the tannery, within a few 
inches of the muzzle, and as the train started it was fired, resulting 
in a most terrible explosion, bursting the gun to atoms and scatter- 
ing the pieces in all directions, over houses and tree tops, carry- 
ing several heavy pieces to a distance of over eighty rods, such was 
the terrible force of the explosion. 

J. H. Shoemaker, who had himself assisted in loading the gun 
and who applied the fatal match, was hit by a piece which inflicted 
a frightful incision in his right side, in the region of the lower ribs, 
severing the spinal column, and causing his instantaneous death. 
About to fire the piece, he was heard to remark that "those boys 
over there," pointing toward the crowd at the depot, "said they 
would not touch it off for $500;" another instant, and 
" Death had marked him for his own." 

It seems almost incredible that in all the crowd that stood around 
in the immediate range of the death-dealing fragments, that no one 
else was injured. There were several who must certainly have had 
a hair-breadth escape. The funeral of this upright, industrious 
young man wa6 held the following Friday, at the residence of F. 
C. Francis, the services being conducted by Rev. Mr. Osmun. 


The first company raised entirely in this county, and officered by 
men from the county, was Captain BLawley's, which entered the 
Thirtieth Regiment. This company was the pride of De Kalb County, 
and numbered in its body some of the best citizens. When fully or- 
ganized, the ladies of Auburn presented the organization with a 
splendid banner. It was enthusiastically received, and the follow- 
ing letter returned to the editor of the New Era, for publication. 
It was the last farewell word received from many brave hearts who 
never returned to their friends : 

"Camp Allen, Fort Wayne, Ind., Sept. 9, 1861. 

"Editor Era : — At a meeting of the De Kalb County Guards, 
while on duty in company drill, in Camp Allen, the following 
preamble and resolutions were adopted : 

"Whereas, The citizens of De Kalb County have, by their 
energetic efforts, been instrumental in effecting the organization of 
the De Kalb County Guards, and in contributing to their aid and 
comfort, in both physical and social wants, therefore be it resolved, 

" 1. That we tender to the citizens of said county, one and all, 


who have so contributed to our wants, our heartfelt thanks, as a 
testimonial on our part for their kind aid and sympathy. 

"2. That words fail to give expression to the feelings we ex- 
perienced on receiving the warm and kind pressure of the hand, in 
seeing the eyes of our friends dimmed with the tear of regret, and 
in hearing the fervent 'God bless you,' at our departure from our 
homes, to join in sustaining the Government from foes without 
and traitors within. 

"3. That the ladies of Auburn are particularly entitled to our 
thanks for the bountiful collation prepared by them for us on the 
day of our departui-e from that place; and we also owe our grate- 
ful thanks to those who accompanied us to this camp. 

"4. That as it would be impossible to specify all the acts of 
individual kindness which have helped to contribute to our relief, 
we will only say with true feeling, that they are all duly appreci- 
ated, and will never be forgotten. 

" 5. That the flag we have received will not be disgraced by 
any act of ours, but that in its defense we will imperil our lives, 
and never bring reproach upon the name of De Kalb. 

"6. That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be signed by 
the commissioned officers of our company, a copy be forwarded to 
the Era at Auburn and the Press at Waterloo, for publication. 
"Captain Cyeus Hawley, 
"First Lieutenant W. W. Griswold, 
" Second Lieutenant J. C. Smith." 

munitions of war. 

Very early in the war the people had accustomed themselves to 
the sight of soldiers and stores of war. The following is taken 
from the Waterloo Press of Sept. 20, 1861 : 

"Two special trains, laden with cannon, powder, balls, shells, 
etc., have passed here this week. The cannon were of large size, 
and destined for fortifying the Mississippi Valley. The following 
isthe 'bill of goods': Ten 64-pounders; twenty 32-pounders; 2,467 
32-ponnd balls; 147 64-poimd balls; and sixty-four 96-pound balls; 
an aggregate of 91,840 pounds of shot, shell and ball." 

Among the most loyal supporters of the Government in this 
county was the Waterloo Press, which kept up a never-faltering, 
uncompromising Union spirit throughout the war. From the first 
it called on the people of the county to furnish volunteers. The 
following is taken from the issue of Oct. 4, 1861 : 



"The intrinsic value of virtue is measured by the effort made to 
acquire and maintain it. Probably there is no county in the north 
half of the State where so much opposition of various characters 
has been met as in this goodly county of ours. From the first many 
manly and brave hearts have been ready to respond to the call to 
defend uiir Government. Our citizens have gone forth in twos, 
fives, tens, twenties and forties to fill up vacant places in othe 
counties and States; then came one full company, Captain Hawley's, 
and it is so written on the pages of history and tablets of many 

" Now two more companies are being formed, already in camp, 
Captain Merrill's and Captain Parks's. The latter is too favorably 
known in this county to add to his character by further notice here; 
it commends itself; but the former is not so well known. But he has 
recommendations from those who are acquainted and qualified to 
judge, which command a favorable consideration. He has been a 
military man for a number of years, and was once elected Captain of 
Company A, Toledo Guards, which post he resigned when he came 
among us. 

"Patriots, will you at once heed the call, and within four days 
fill up these companies? You may still be further called upon to 
place more men in the field. The prompt response to the calls 
already made upon you is a sure guarantee that your patriotism is 
equal to the demand. These companies cannot fail of being filled 
by the brave boys of old De Kalb. Do I overestimate your pa- 
triotism? Time will tell. 

"Newville is thus far the banner township. The voters of that 
town number 170, and forty of them are volunteers in the Govern- 
ment service. "What township speaks for the banner next? 

" Everything for the cause." 


There were, it is true, many in this county, as elsewhere in the 
North, who honestly thought that the strife could have been 
averted, and opposed a resort to the sword. But after the war was 
begun, these proved themselves as loyal as any. The following, 
from the New Era of March, 1861, just before the breaking out of 
hostilities, shows the position of the peace advocates: 

"Coercion stands boldly out in the inaugural, and coercion car- 
ried into effect will no doubt lead to war. The Southern Confed- 


eracj has 30,000 troops encamped in the field ready to resist coer. 
cion. Virginia and Kentucky declare that if the President sends 
an arm j* South to take the forts, and compel submission to the laws, 
that they will join the seceded States and resist such coercion; and 
the remainder of the border slave States would in all probability 
do the same, and then we will have war. But Mr. Lincoln 
would not be to blame; he is bound by his official oath to sustain 
the Constitution and execute the laws, and we would not give a 
straw for a President who does not regard the sacred obligations 
of his oath, and who will not do his duty. If we get into trouble, 
simply by the Chief Magistrate discharging his duty, the fault will 
not attach to him, but to those Republican and secession members 
of Congress who, in defiance of the will of the people, refuse to 
vote for compromises that would have given peace to the country." 

But the same paper, in August, 1861, said: 

"What we most wish is the present and future sacred observ- 
ance of the Constitution. We are strong enough to maintain the 
Union and the Constitution, too. What is past cannot be remedied, 
and we need not stop at present to discuss. We are in the midst 
of war — a war begun by reckless rebels at Charleston. The Presi- 
dent had lawful power to call out troops to serve until thirty days 
after the meeting of Congress. He did so, and we urged the en- 
listment of troops. The capital was in danger, and its capture by 
the Confederates would have curtailed on us everlasting disgrace 
and incalculable evils. 

"Since then other acts have been done by the Executive, which 
we could not approve. But let them pass, and let us look at mat- 
ters as they now stand. Congress has authorized the raising of 
troops, and the capital is probably at this moment in greater dan- 
ger than ever before. What is to be done? Why, troops must be 
raised at once for its defense and for the preservation of the Union. 
We hold it to be the duty of every loyal citizen to do all in his 
power to aid the speedy enlistment of troops, and accordingly we 
have exerted all our influence to this end, although bitterly de- 
nounced therefor by some misguided friend. Bnt at the same 
time that we would do all in our power to increase our power to 
meet the present exigency — and while Jwe invoke all patriotic 
young men who can possibly leave home to enlist at once in some 
of the regiments now recuiting, and to rush to the rescue of our 
country's flag, we also would extend the olive branch with one 
hand, while keeping the sword firmly grasped in the other." 



And again: 

" Our nation is now passing its fiery ordeal. It will come from 
the contest a power among the nations, or it will sink to a disunited 
conglommeration of petty States. Nothing so vital to every citizen 
can be conceived as the decision of the question, Have we a Gov- 
enment? Shall we maintain it intact despite domestic dissension 
and foreign intervention? To fail would be to sink millions of 
property as well as to cover the face of each patriot with chagrin, 
and to ruin the hope of a Government like ours ever becoming per- 

"But we know no such word as fail. Sooner than this, the loyal 
States would see twice 500,000 more brave men spring to the aid 
of the gallant army who are now winning laurels upon the field, 
and who are fast regaining our soil from the grasp of the traitors." 

And in August, 1862: 

"It is truly gratifying to know that this county can show so 
proud a record — prouder than any other county of its size and 
population in the State — in the cause of the Government. Her 
page in the history of this revolution will shine bright among the 
brightest, her name live forever. When the present companies 
forming under the late calls go into camp, which they will have 
done before this item reaches our readers, De Kalb County will 
have sent out six full companies, and enough men have gone out of 
the county and enlisted to number at least two more, making in all 
eight companies, or 808 men. And yet if the Government had not 
seen fit to stop enlistments she could have turned out more men. 
The fact is, the people of little De Kalb are a Union, a loyal people. 
They desire to seethe rebellion put down, the Constitution preserved 
and the glorious old Union restored. For this purpose they are 
sacrificing their lives and their means, and for this object they will 
toil, if necessary, to the bitter end." 


The enthusiastic spirit of loyalty did not die away in a few 
weeks or months. Recruiting went on throughout the war with- 
out cessation, and the soldiers in the field were constantly sus- 
tained by the uncompromising supporters of the Union who were 
obliged to stay at home. Frequent meetings of the people gave 
expression to this sentiment. Even in 1863, the darkest year of 
the war, when the rebels' chances of success seemed improving, 
loyal meetings were held in nearly every village and district 


school-house in De Kalb County. As a sample, we extract from 
the proceedings of one held at the Methodist church Auburn 
Feb. 20, 1863: 

The meeting was called to order by Rev. S. W. Widney, and 
Captain L. J. Blair, of the Eighty-eighth Indiana Infantry, was 
chosen President; Captain F. F. Smith, of the United States 
Navy, was selected Secretary, and the following were named as 
Yice-Presidents: Captain Cyrus Hawley, Corporal J. McMillen 
and Lieutenant James McKay, of the Thirtieth Indiana; Solomon 
Delong, R. Lockwood, L. Hoodlemire, I. Ditmars, J. Hoffman 
and J. Link, of the Forty-fourth Indiana; C. Carr, of the For t 
eighth Indiana; A. McClellan, of the Fifty-second Illinois; and 
William Fisher, of the Seventeenth Michigan. 

Dr. J. IS". Chamberlain, Rev. S. W. Widney and John McCune 
were appointed a Committee on Resolutions, and while they were 
maturing a report W. S. Smith, of Fort Wayne, addressed the 
meeting in an eloquent and argumentative manner, with telling 
effect. The following spirited resolutions were then reported by 
the committee, and enthusiastically adopted: 

Whereas, Since the commencement of the present infamous 
rebellion against the Government of the United States every 
reasonable means of conciliation has been used by the Govern- 
ment, so far as national honor would at all admit; and 

Whereas, The President of the United States thoroughly tried 
the Border-State policy of non-interference with the institution of 
slavery, which the rebels boast of as the corner-stone of their so- 
called Confederacy, and found that the more than 3,000,000 slaves 
of the rebels were continually used to furnish supplies for, and do 
the hard work of the Rebellion; and even in some instances (so 
far as they dare trust arms' in their hands) to help murder our 
gallant soldiers and the Union men in the rebellious States; and 

Whereas, The Chief Magistrate of our Nation and the Congress 
of these United States have found it necessary, at length, after 
giving fair warning to the rebels, to take this weapon used 
against us out of their hands: therefore 

Resolved, 1st — That we cordially endorse the policy of the Ad- 
ministration in using every means consistent with civilized war- 
fare to crush out this wicked rebellion as speedily as possible. 

Resolved, 2d — That we are willing to make every sacrifice, 
personal and pecuniary, to sustain the armies in the field, so nobly 
fighting for our national Government and its existence. 


Resolved, 3d — That we feel a patriotic pride in contemplating 
the achievements of the armies of the Union, in driving back the 
rebels from Maryland, Western Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri 
and Tennessee, and in taking possession of so many important 
points on the sea-coast of the rebel States; and we are especially 
proud of the gallant boys of our own State, who have never 
failed on any battle-field. 

Resolved, 4th — That while we render beartfelt thanks to our 
surviving soldiery, and while we will honor them as long as they 
live, we also mourn the many noble hearts, once beating with 
high patriotism that are now still in death. Their memories 
will always' be hallowed. 

Resolved, 5th — That we sincerely thank those heroes and 
heroines among us who have given up husbands, sons, brothers 
and friends at the call of our country; and especially do we sym- 
pathize with those that mourn the loss of those loved ones, fallen 
honorably in their country's cause. 

These resolutions were published in the Chicago Tribune, 
Indiana State Journal, and the Waterloo City Press; they were 
also adopted in substance or verbatim by meetings subsequently 
held in several of the townships. Democrats joined with Re- 
publicans in supporting the Government; for the former felt no 
sympathy with those professing the same party name at the South. 
In De Kalb County there was but one party, the Union party. 


At a meeting of the citizens of Concord Township and its 
vicinity, without respect to former party position, to take into 
consideration the state of the country" and to express opinion 
thereon. George Barney was called to the chair, and John F. 
Coburn chosen Secretary. 

On motion, a committee of three, consisting of John P. Widney, 
Newton Thomas, and Newton Arkew, were selected to draft 
resolutions. After they had retired, "Yankee Doodle" was 
played by the band, and then an address, thrilling and patriotic, 
was delivered by Robert Johnson, followed by music and other 
proceedings, until the committee reappeared, and made their re- 
port by presenting the following preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, Insurrection and civil war now exist within our 
borders, States hitherto loyal and patriotic have, with the most 


singular infatuation, raised the standard of rebellion against the 
constitutional authorities of the Federal Government; and 

Whereas, It is right and proper that not only States, but 
neighborhoods, should, in unmistakable terms, define their 
position, and with promptitude say whether they favor the cause 
of traitors or whether the p y have sufficient patriotism to stand by 
and defend the Constitution and the Union; therefore 

Resolved, That we, throwing aside all part}' predilections, sym- 
pathize with the efforts of our Federal executive in putting down 
the present rebellion, and that we will co-operate with and sustain 
him in retaking and protecting the public property. 

2. Resolved, That we feel called upon by every tie that can 

j bind a citizen to his country, and by every means within our 

reach, not excepting our personal services in the battle-field, to 

labor to transmit to our children the glorious fabric of civil 

government bequeathed to us by our ancestors. 

The report was accepted, aud the resolutions adopted. After 
discussion, the following additional resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That we distinctly repudiate the right of secession as 
claimed by a portion of the States; that our Federal Government 
is a government of the whole people, and not a mere federation of 
States, and that with the powers conferred by the Constitution 
on the Federal Government, that Government is as full, ample, 
and complete as the several State Governments; and that a State 
can no more secede from the Federal than a county can from a 
State Government. 

After which proceedings, the roll of a company of minute-men 
was presented, and the people called upon to enlist in their 
country's cause. 


During the last two years of the war, voluntary enlistments 
were not sufficient to fill the quota of the county, and drafts were 
resorted to. These drafts were cheerfully submitted to, though 
they often wrought hardship in families who could ill afford to 
lose their working members. There was a humorous side to the 
proceedings, too, and they generally bronght to notice an un- 
expectedly large number of invalids and disabled men. The 
following, from the New Era of August, 1861, portrays one of 
the drafting scenes as follows: 

"Last Tuesday was the day appointed by the Militia Enrolling 


Commissioner for this county ' to hear and determine the excuses 
persons claiming to be exempt from military duty.' The morning 
opened out brightly, and at an early hour in the day the debilitated 
came pouring into town in wagons, on horse-back, and by every 
conceivable mode of conveyance, until the streets were literally 
packed with the lame, the halt and the blind. To the eye of the 
stranger it would seem that the Government had located a military 
hospital at this point, and that the battle-scarred veterans of the 
present crisis had come here to receive the care and attention due 
the brave soldier of the bloody field. The sight was painful to be- 
hold, and the most hardened wretch could not do otherwise than 
blow his nose and weep. We passed more tha n one philanthropic 
' cuss ' on the street that day, with eyes swollen from excessive weep- 
ing, and out from beneath whose coat there plainly protruded the 
neck of a bottle. It would not have taken long to have recruited 
men enough for the Crutch Brigade out of the crowd, and officered 
the same by Old Age and General Debility. The ' menagerie ' will 
be continued on next Monday." 

Wilmington, Stafford, and Newville townships were never 
brought under the draft, as they furnished their full quotas by vol- 
untary enlistment. The number drafted in Troy Township was 
eight; Franklin, twenty-two; Richland, forty-one; Union, two; Jack- 
son, twelve; Butler, eight; Concord, one; Smithfield, twenty-five; 
Fairfield, thirty; total in county, 149. 

During the war the county paid in bo unties to volunteers $126,- 
600.50, and the townships expended for the same purpose $12,600. 
The county also gave in the way of relief to soldier's families 
$22,481.63; and the townships, $2,000. Thus a total of $163,682.- 
63 was officially expended in this county because of the war. 


Nothing in the history of De Kalb County is more worthy of 
preservation than the personal record of those who placed their 
lives at the disposal of the Government. The following list, com- 
piled with some difficulty, is as nearly complete as it can be made 
from the published reports of the Adjutant-General of the State. 
It is intended to give, under the appropriate regiments and com- 
panies, the name of every soldier from De Kalb County, rank, 
date of muster in, promotion and date of muster out — above all. 
what became of them; whether died, discharged, captured, or other- 
wise lost or disposed of. 




Brownlee, James, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, died of disease, 
March 14, 1S65. 

Culver, David, mustered in Oct. 13, 1S64, deserted at Nashville, 
June 15, 1865. 

Company E. 

Dutcher, John AV., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, out Sept. 5, 1864. 
Renner, David H., mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out Sept. 28 , 1865. 

Stausbro, Orin, mustered in Sept. 5, 1861, out Sept. 5, 1864. 


Company E. 

Knight, John B., mustered in Aug. 31, 1861, discharged for 
disability June 6, 1862. 

Rhodes, Elijah, mustered in Aug. 31, 1861, died July 3, 1863. 

Zimmerman, Hiram, mustered in Feb. 22, 1864, discharged for 
disability March IT, 1865. 


oany A. 

Lock, Robert, mustered in Sept. 28, 1864, transferred to Fifty- 
ninth Infantry. 


Company A. 

Alton, Benjamin, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Beggs, AlvinD., mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, discharged June 
13, 1865. 

Carr, Fredrick D., mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5,1865. 

Casebeer, Edward, mustered in Oct. 29, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Faunce, Daniel M., mustered in Oct. 3, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Hamilton, Benjamin, mustered in Nov. 7, 1864, out Sept. 5,1865. 

Hathaway, Harvey D., mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5, 

Hoyt, Benjamin, mustered in Nov. 10, 1S64, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Huffman, Geo. H, mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Johnson, Nathan, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 


Johnson, Thomas, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, died May 27, 
1865, from wounds received at Fort Fisher. 

Snively, Isaac N., mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 
Stafford, James, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, out May 27, 1865. 


Hull, Henry, mustered in Nov. 1, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Noles, William, mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Overhalzer, Isaiah, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

fteisner, Daniel, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Eodensbaugh, Gilbert, mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Sept. 5, 

Shearer, Israel, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Stewart, James L., mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, died Feb. 13, 1865, 
in hospital. 

Company C. 

Smith, Oscar, mustered in Oct. 5, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 
Tousley, Charles, mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 
Wyatt, Nathan, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 5, 1865. 

Company D. 
Horney, Frederick, musician, mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out 
Sept. 5, 1865. 

Fergason, George C, mustered in Oct. 18, 1S64, killed Jan. 16, 
1865, by an explosion at Fort Fisher. 

Company R. 
Sthair, Luther, Corporal, mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, out Sept. 5, 


Craw, Frederick, mustered in Sept. 17, 1864. 
Hornie, Frederick, mustered in Oct. 25, 1864. 
Inghum, George, mustered in Nov. 9, 1864. 


Stout, Orville, mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out June 12, 1865. 


Company Q. 
Baxter, Charles K., mustered in as First Sergeant July 29, 1861, 




commissioned Second Lieutenant April 7, 1862, Lieutenant Jan. 
9, 1863, mustered out Oct. 25, 1864. 

Curd, Johnston D., commissioned Second Lieutenant July 29, 
1861, mustered in same date, resigned April 1, 1862. 

Fisk, Elias, mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, wounded at battle of 
the Wilderness, transferred to Twentieth Indiana Infantry. 

Fisk. Warren, mustered in Dec. 7, 1863, transferred to Twentieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Serry, Alvin, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, transferred to Twentieth 
Indiana Infantry. 

Shirts, Michael, mustered in April 20, 1864, transferred to 
Twentieth Indiana Infantry. 

Smith, Moses, mustered in Dec. 6, 1863, transferred to Twentieth 
Indiana Infantry. 


Company C. 

Hague, Ithamar, veteran from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, mustered in as Sergeant 
Jan. 1, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 

Balch, William L., veteran from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Jan. 1, 1864, discharged Dec. 2, 1864, for disability. 

Burn, John A., veteran from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Nov. 28, 1S63, captured at the battle of the Wilder- 

Fisk, Elias, transferred from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Dec. 26, 1863. 

Fisk, Warren, transferred from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Dec. 7, 1863, mustered out Feb. 28, 1865. 

Gray, John, veteran from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, mustered 
in Jan. 1, 1864, out July 12, 1865. 

Serry, Alvin, transferred from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out July 12, 1S65. 

Turner, Benjamin, transferred from Nineteenth Indiana Infantry, 
mustered in Jan. 1, 1864, captured at North Anna, mustered out 
June 28, 1865. 


Company A. 
Smith, David, mustered in July 24, 1861, died at Corunna 
March 14, 1864. 

Altenburg, Caspar, mustered in March 20, 1864, out Jan. 13,1866. 


Baughmari, Isaiah, mustered in April 1, 1864, out Jan. 13,1866. 

Brown, Lewis, mustered in Sept. 17, 1864, out Aug. 5, 1865. 

Culbertson, James K., mustered in March 21, 1864, out Jan. 13, 

Draggoo, James, mustered in March 28, 1864, out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Dixon, Owen, mustered in Sept. 26, 1864, out Aug. 5, 1865. 

Hay, George, mustered in March 26, 1864, out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Jones, John, mustered in March 15, 1S64, appointed Corporal, 
mustered out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Jones, John W., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Knight, Osborn, mustered in March 26, 1864, died on steamer 
Olive Branch, Sept. 28, 1864. 

Keed, John O, mustered in March 27, 1864, out Jan. 13, 1866. 

Smith, Burton, mustered in Feb. 26, 1S62, died at New Orleans, 
Sept. 12, 1862. 

Company M. 

Altenberg, Daniel W., mustered in 'Oct. 25, 1864, out Oct. 23, 

Altenberg, Isaac L., mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Oct. 23, 


Bush, John T., mustered in Oct. 25, 1864. 


Company A. 

Garrett, Kobert H., mustered in Oct 5, 1864, died at Chatr- 
tanooga, April 11, 1865. 

Healey, Stephen E., mustered in Oct. 16, 1862, died at Nash- 
ville, July 21, 1863. 

High, Frederick, mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June26, 1865- 

McNabb, James, mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 26, 1S65. 

Martorrf, Noah, mustered in Dec. 2, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Newhouse, Lewis Y., mustered in Oct. 5, 1864, out June 
26, 1865. 

Shook, Henry, mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, died at Nashville, 
June 10, 1865. 

Sweeney, ffm. O, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out June 26,1865. 

Company H. 

Smith, David, mustered in Aug. 27, 1S61, discharged July 2, 


Company I. 
Watson, .Nathan, mustered in Sept. 1, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 
Walker, Jeremiah, mustered in Dec. S, 1864, out Dec. 2, 1865. 

Company K. 
Stone, Ed. A., mustered in Oct. 15, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 


Company H. 

Hawley, Cyrus, commissioned Captain Sept. 15, 1861, resigned 
Feb. 1, 1863. 

G-riswold, Whedon W., commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 15, 
1861, Captain Feb. 2, 1863, transferred to Company C, Residuary 
Battalion, commissioned Major Dec. 3, 1864, Colonel One Hundred 
and Fifty-second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, March 9, 1865. 

Eberly, Joshua, mustered in as First Sergeant Sept. 24, 1861, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant April 5, 1862, First Lieutenant 
Feb. 2, 1863, killed at Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863. 

Welden, Leander F., mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 24, 1861, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant Sept. 20, 1863, 
Captain Company D, Residuary Battalion, Dec. 19, 1864, Major 
April 24, 1865. 

Smith, Job O, commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 15, 1861, 
resigned in January, 1862. 

McKay, Joseph, mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 24, 1861, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Feb. 2, 1863, resigned Oct. 23, 1863. 

Likens, Jeremiah D., mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 24, 1861, 
promoted Second Lieutenant. 

Hodges, Perry, mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 24, 1861, 
discharged March 19, 1863, for disability. 

Hodges, Cyrus O, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1861 } 
discharged July 16, 1862, for disability. 

Phelps, William H., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1861, 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Sept. 30, 1863. 

Conner, Lorenzo D., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 21, 1861. 

Noel, Philip, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1861, out as 
Sergeant Sept. 29, 1864. 

Miller, William, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1861, killed 
at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1S62. 

Stoner, Henry M., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1861. 


Whysong, John C, mustered in a3 Corporal Sept. 24, 1S61, out 
as Sergeant Sept. 29, 1864. 

Snyder, Martin V., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 24, 1S61 , 
discharged July 5, 1S62. 

Feagler, William, mustered in as Musician Sept. 24, 1861, 
captured at Chickamauga, mustered out Jan. 25, 1865. 

Johnson, James F., mustered in as Musician Sept. 24, 1861, 
out Sept, 29, 1864. 

Murry, Joseph S., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, as "Wagoner. 

Arthur, David S., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Altenburg, Caspar, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
in 1862. 

Boughman, Isaiah, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
Feb. 23,1862, for disability. 

Barnhart, Peter, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died Dec. 31, 
1862, from wounds received at Stone River. 

Beard, William II. H., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
May 8, 1863, for wounds received at Stone River. 

Brown, Adna, mustered in Sept. 21, 1S61, died at Tuscumbia, 
Ala., June 28, 1862. 

Buchanan, Florence, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61. 

Bolinger, Henry, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Baltsley, George, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Mur- 
freesboro', Feb. 8,~ 1863. 

Church, Israel, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged July 9, 
1862, for disability. 

Cole, George, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, killed at Stone River, 
Dec. 31, 1862. 

Collar, Alvin, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Culbertson, Zephania B., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, killed at 
Shilob, April 7, 1862. 

Connoway, William, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at home 
March 7, 1862. 

Crusan, William, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Stevenson, 
Ala., Oct. 17, 1864, of wounds. 

Crusan, Abel, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged June 30, 
1862, for disability. 

Cox, William U., mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, died at Nashville, 
Sept. 4, 1862. 

rooks, Mathew, mustered in Sept 24, 1861, killed at Shiloh, 
April 7, 1862. 


Delong, Ebenezer, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged June 
25, 1862, for disability. 

Delong, Charles, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Dilno, Lester, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, captured at Chick- 
amauga, mustered out May 22, 1S65. 

Drury, ColvertJ., mustered in Sept. 24,1861, died fit Nashville, 
Dec. 11, 1862. 

Eberly, John N., mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, died at Upton, 
Ky., Dec. 31, 1861. 

Feagler, Robert, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Upton, 
Ky., Dec. 31, 1861. 

Fisher, Leslie, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61. 

Fisher, Lewis, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61. 

Furney, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Louisville, 
April 17, 1862, of wounds. 

Ford, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Ford, "William C, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, killed at Shiloh, 
April 7, 1862. 

Frederickson, Nathan, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Freeman, ffm, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Franks, "William, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died Jan. 27, 1863. 
of wounds received at Stone River. 

Fike, William, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, killed at Stone 
River, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Gingerick, Jesse, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, killed at Shiloh, 
April 7, 1862. 

George, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, discharged Feb. 
23, 1863, for disability. 

Hamilton, George W., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Hoose, Marquis L., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
June 4, 1862, for disability. 

High, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Healey, Henry, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, discharged Nov. 8, 
1862, for disability. 

Hull, Peleg, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Hull, Amos, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died Nov. 18, 1863, of 
wounds received at Chickamauo;a. 

Hornberger, Isaac, mustered in Sept. 4, 1861. 

Hughey, James S., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Highes, David, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Hoover, Benton, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 


Johnson, Kobert H., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Knowderer, David, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged June 
30, 1862, for disability. 

Kennedy, Philip, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Lightner, St. George, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Mun- 
fordville, Ky., June 12, 1862. 

Lawrence, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged July 
24, 1862, for disability. 

Long, Asbury J., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Lockmire, Jos., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept.29, 1864. 

McMillen, John P., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
Feb. 28, 1863, for disability. 

Mullen, Perry, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Marcnm, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Myers, James C, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Louisville, 
Dec. 30, 1861. 

Munger, Dexter, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged May 
5, 1862, for disability. 

McCush, Keason, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged July 
27, 1863, for disability. 

Musser, Samuel L., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Nash- 
ville, Dec. 18, 1862. 

Osborn, Nathaniel, mustered in Sept. 4, 1861, killed at Stone 
Eiver, Dec. 31, 1862. 

Park, Henry J., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged July 
16, 1862, for disability. 

Plummer, Hezekiah, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged 
March 10, 1862, for wounds. 

Provines, John A., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, captured at 
Chickamauga, mustered out Jan. 25, 1865. 

Rigby, David, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Eigby, Eli, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1864. 

Rickles, Riley, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Reed, Albert, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged May 1, 
1863, for disability. 

Rutan, Levi, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Sponhower, Benjamin F., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, trans- 
ferred to Veteran Reserve Corps Aug. 1, 1863. 

Showers, Alfred Gr., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died Dec. 10, 
1863, from accidental wounds. 

Showers, Nathan M., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 


Skull, Epkraim, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Camp 
Nevin, Ky., Nov. 17, 1861. 

Skaffstall, Epkraim, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, killed at Camp 
Nevin, Ky., Oct. 8, 1S61, by mistake, wkile on picket. 

Skinner, Alexander, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Skinner, James, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, died at Upton, Ky., 
Dec. 31, 1861. 

Ulem, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, disckarged March 
26, 1863, for disability. 

Watson, Jokn W., mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 

Wallace, Jesse, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, out Sept. 29, 1S64. 

Weeks, John C, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S61, discharged Aug. 
21, 1863, for disability. 

Wagner, Henry, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged July 

24, 1862, for disability. 

Weir, James, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861, discharged. 
Zimmerman, Jonas, mustered in Sept. 24, 1861. 


Company C. 

Griswold, Whedon W., commissioned Captain Feb. 2, 1863, pro- 
moted Major and afterward Colonel One Hundred and Fifty-second 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 

Likens, Jeremiak D., commissioned First Lieutenant Dec. 19, 
1864, Captain Feb. 4, 1865. 

Hugkey, James S., commissioned Second Lieutenant Dec. 19, 
1864. First Lieutenant Feb. 4, 1865. 

Hornberger, Isaac, commissioned Second Lieutenant Feb. 4. 

Hamilton, George W., mustered in as First Sergeant Dec. 12, 
1863, out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Fisker, Lewis, mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 12, 1863, out Nov. 

25, 1865. 

Heiges, David, mustered in as Sergeant Dec. 12, 1863, out Nov. 
25. 1865. 

Dawson, William, mustered in as Sergeant Jan. 9, 1864, out 
Nov. 25, 1865. 

Beard, Solomon, mustered in as Sergeant Oct. 22. 1862, out Oct 
21, 1865. 

Delong, Ckarles, mustered in as Corporal Dec. 12, 1862, out as 
Sergeant Nov. 25, 1865. 


fo ^ . , 






Fisher, Leslie, mustered in as Corporal Dec. 12, 1S62, oat Nov 

25, 1865. 

Stafford, William H., mustered in as Corporal April 30, 1864, 
out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Delong, Ebenezer, mustered in Jan. 17, lS64,out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Fisk, "Washington, mustered in Jan. 7, 1S64, out Oct. 27, 1865. 

Frets, Samuel, mustered in April 4, 1864, out Oct. 27, 1865. 

George, James, mustered in Sept. 19, 1862, out June 9, 1865. 

Inks, William, mustered in Oct. 22, 1862, deserted June 5, 1865. 

Johnson, James, mustered in Feb. 10, 1864, out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Keesler, Harvey, mustered in Jan. 31, 1864, out June 1, 1865. 

Lightner, John, mustered in April 19, 1864, out Oct. 21, 1865. 

Lock, Martin, mustered in April 1, 1864, deserted July 20, 1865. 

McCoy, A. J., mustered in Feb. 10, 1S64, out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Moore, Nathan B., mustered in Jan. 1, 1864. 

Penicks, Samuel, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out June 26, 1865. 

Eockwell, John H., mustered in Dec. 1, 1864, out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Smith, Edwin, mustered in Oct. S, 1864, out Oct. 21, 1865". 

Thomas, Theo., mustered in April 28, 1862, out Nov. 25, 1865. 

Williamson, Norris, mustered in Sept. 30, 1864, out June 23, 

Company D. 

Tegarden, Joseph, mustered in Nov. 14, 1S64, died at Jefferson- 
yille, April 8, 1865. 

Company E. 

Kyle, Jacob, mustered in Oct. 4, 1S64, out June 13, 1865. 
Weaver, Abraham, mustered in Sept. 2S, 1S64, out June 23, 1S65. 

Company F. 
Roberts, Charles, mustered in as Corporal March 8, 1864, de- 
serted June 19, 1865. 

Company G. 

Johnston, Rob. H., commissioned First Lieutenant Dec. 19, 1S64. 


Company D. 
Campbell, Chas. W., mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, out Oct. 26, 1865. 


Company C. 
Abel, James, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Ser>t. 30, 1865. 


Blue, Uriah, mustered in Nov. 9, 1S64, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Bloomfield, John, mustered in Oct. 25, 1S64, deserted June 20, 

Farver, Isaac, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Horn, Israel, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Horner, Henry M., substitute, mustered in Dec. 9, 1864, out 
Sept. 30, 1865. 

Koch, Joseph, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Kester, Eichard, mustered in Not. 9, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Kimes, Daniel S., mustered in Oct. 6, 1S64, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Kline, Henry J., mustered in Jan. 16, 1865, deserted June 23, 

Leighty, John, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, died at Pulaski, Tenn., 
Nov. 23, 1864. 

Monroe, William, mustered in Nov. 9, 1864, discharged May 22, 
1865, for disability. 

Miller, David A., mustered in Oct. 6. 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Miller, Judson S., mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Woodcock, Byron, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out Sept. 30, 1865. 

Yarnell, Jacob, mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, died at Camp Stanley, 
Texas, Sept. 7, 1865. 


Company D. 

Burns, George H., mustered in March 9, 1864, out, as Corporal, 
July 15, 1S65. 

Brown, Jacob, mustered in Jan. S, 1S64, out July 15, 1865. 

Bruner, John, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out July 15, 1S65. 

Bryan,- William, mustered in April 6, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Carrell, James O, mustered in March 9, 1864, out, as Corporal, 
July 15, 1865. 

Delong, James O, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Fountain, Alex., mustered in Jan. S, 1S64, out July 15, 1S65. 

Miller, Noah, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Shanks, Alexander, mustered in Feb. 11, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Company E. 

Cochran, Robert, mustered in April 8, 1S64, out July 15, 1S65. 
Delano, George, mustered in March 27, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 
Hammond, Daniel F., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, out, as Corporal, 
July 15, 1865. 


Hose, Joseph, mustered in April 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Hose, Solomon, mustered in April 8, 1S64, out July 15, 1865. 

Imhoff, Elijah, mustered in April 28, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Jones, Thomas J., mustered in March 26, 1864, out July 15, 

Jones, Adolphus G., mustered in April 7, 1864, out July 15, 

Larkeus, Stephen, mustered in Dec. 31, 1863, out July 15, 1865. 

Pennick, Joseph, mustered in April 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Sandy, Frank B., mustered in March 1, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Sandy, Henry J., mustered in March 26, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Sinclair, Silas W., mustered in March 9, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 
Company F. 

Crooks, Henry, mustered in April 28, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Concklin, Alonzo, mustered in April 8, 1864. out July 15, 1865. 

Finney, Erastus, mustered in April 8. 1S64, out, as Corporal, 
July 15, 1865. 

Milleman, Henry, mustered in March 1, 1S64, out July 15, 1865. 

Stout, Francis M., mustered in April 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Freeman, John, mustered in April 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 

Wood, John W., mustered in April 8, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 


Company C. 
Bungard, Henry, substitute, mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, out July 
21, 1865. 

* Hart, Samuel, substitute, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, out, as 
Corporal, July 21, 1S65. 


Company B. 

Gobal, "William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged. 

Goodrich, Ralph, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died April 9, 1862, 
of wounds received at Shiloh. 

Harrison, Isaac, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, out, as 
Corporal, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Huffman, Peter, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 1, 

Scobey, Clinton, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as Sergeant Sept. 14, 1865. 


Barnes, John H., mustered in March 9, 1864, out Sept. 14,1865. 
. Brings, James W., mustered in Feb. 6, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ballenger, Joshua, mustered in Feb. 6, 1865, deserted Aug. 1, 

Cummins, Samuel, mustered in March 9, 1864, deserted Aug. 5) 

Corder, Joseph BL, mustered in Feb. 6, 1865, out Sept. 18,1865. 

Cox, Francis M., mustered in Feb. 6, 1865, out Sept. 15, 1865- 

Cary, Isaac K., mustered in Feb. 6, 1865, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Havens, Isaac C, mustered in March 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

"Walters, John L., mustered in April 14, 1864, deserted May 4, 

Company D. 

Lounsberry, Joshua, mustered in, as Wagoner, Nov. 22, 1861, 
discharged Jan. 9, 1863, for disability. 

Bartlett. Francis, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Bruner, Frederick, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evans- 
ville, Ind., March 16, 1862. 

Collier, Henry I., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Lavergne, 
Sept. 28, 1862. 

McClellan, Jacob H, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, killed at Shi- 
loh, April 6, 1862. 

McCord, David, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Pittsburg 
Landing, April 2, 1862. 

Luce, Norman, mustered in April 5, 1864, out Sept. 14", 1865. 

Luce, Henry, mustered in March 5, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1864. 

Company F. 

Merrill, George "W., commissioned Captain Sept. 20, 1S61, re- 
signed June 24, 1862. 

Kinmont, Thomas C, commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 
20, 1861, Captain March 20, 1862, resigned Feb. 25, 1863. 

Gunsenhouser, John, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, 
commissioned First Lieutenant March 20, 1862, Captain Feb. 28, 
1863, killed at Chickamauga Sept. 20, 1863. 

Thomas, Irviu N., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Dec. 20, 1862, First Lieutenant Feb. 
28, 1863, Captain Sept. 21, 1863, resigned as First Lieutenant Jan. 
2, 1864. 

Casper, George H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant Feb. 28, 1863, First Lieutenant Sept. 21, 1863, 


Captain Jan. 3, 1864, mustered out with regiment Sept. 14, 1865. 

Colgrove, James, commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 20, 1861,- 
Adjutant Jan. 10, 1862, resigned May 27, 1862. 

Kinmont, Alexander, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, 
commissioned First Lieutenant May 1, 1864, Quartermaster Jan. 
17, 1865, mustered out with regiment, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thomas, James M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant March 20, 1865, First Lieutenant June 1, 1865, 
mustered out with regiment Sept. 14, 1865. 

Delong, Solomon, mustered in as First Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant March 20, 1S62, resigned Dec. 19, 
1862, re-entered service as Captain in One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth Indiana Infantry. 

Rose, Alfred, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant June 1, 1865, mustered out with regiment Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Obeli, James H., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Sept. 3, 1862, for disability. 

Nichols, Wilson, mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged Nov. 23, 1864. 

Fuller, Nathan P., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, out 
Nov. 23, 1864. 

Dirrim, James G., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, died 
near Corinth, Miss., May 2, 1862. 

Andrews, Willis, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
commissioned Adjutant Feb. 6, 1865, mustered out with regiment 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Chandler, Francis S., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, re- 
duced to ranks. 

Strole, Andrew J., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, out 
Feb. 1, 1863. 

Hadsell, Marshall, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, out 
Nov. 23, 1864. 

WillimaD, James M., mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, 
discharged in August, 1S62, for disability. 

Aldrick, Simeon, mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
mustered out Sept. 14, 1865, as Principal Musician. 

Totton, Trusterman B., mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, 
veteran, mustered out as Corporal Sept. 14, 1865. 

Matthews, Nathan, mustered in as Wagoner Nov. 22, 1861, dis- 
charged March 9, 1863, for disability. 


Abell, Henry J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged May 10, 
1863, for disability. 

Andrews, David, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Aikins, Hollis B., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 
28, 1862, for disability. 

Brubaker, Michael, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Feb. 
11, 1863. 

Blood, Otis, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to Invalid 
Corps in August, 1863. 

Baird, Lewis, mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Barden, Wilson S., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Hnnts- 
ville, Ala., Aug. 23, 1862. 

Brubaker, Isaac, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as Sergeant Sept. 14, 1865. 

Collier, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died April 7, 1862- 

Craig, Joseph, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Coburn, Edward R, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Cole, Daniel W., mustered in Nov. 22,11861, discharged March 
11, 1863. 

Casebeer, Calvin, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Casebeer, John G., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as Sergeant Sept. 14, 1865. 

Crain, Oscar I., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at St. Louis 
May 21, 1862. 

Countryman, Peter, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 

Countryman, Ludwig, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mus- 
tered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Casper, George H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, promoted Second 

Cochran, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 

11, 1862, for disability 

Deihil, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Sept. 

12, 1862. 

Dickinson, Ezra, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 28, 
1862, for disability. 

Dirrim, Richard, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Ditmar, Isaac, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged June 28, 
1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Danks, Charles O., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Battle 
Creek, Tenn., Aug. 1, 1862. 


Flora, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Nashville, 
Nov. 19, 1863. 

Friend, "William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Green wait, Dauiel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to 
Invalid Corps in August, 1863. 

Gaff, Hiram, mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, died at Evansville, Ind., 
May 3, 1862. 

Ginter, Frederick, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Gunsenhouser, Henry, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 

Greemyer, Chester D., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred 
to Invalid Corps, May 10, 1863. 

Hart. Alexander, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 
28, 1862, for disability. 

Hart, John H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1S64. 

Hart, David N, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Sept. 7, 
1863, for disability. 

Hoffman, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged May 7, 
1863, for disability. 

Headley, Allen S., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Henderson, 
Ey., Jan. 4, 1862. 

Humbarger, John, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at new Al- 
bany, Ind., Oct. 7, 1862. 

Jacques, Samuel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as First Sergeant Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Kirby, Leonard, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at St. Louis, 
Mo., May 16, 1862. 

Myers, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Nov. 6, 
1862, for disability. 

Milliman, Henry, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged in June, 
1862, for disability. 

Milliman, Warren, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evans- 
ville, Ind., April 1,4862. 

Monroe, Henry L., mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, died at St. Louis, 
Mo., April 24, 1864. 

Matthews, "Robert, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 
28, 1862, for disability. 

Nichols, Harvey, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1864. 

Nichols, Alexander L., mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, out Nov. 
23, 1864. 


Oberlin, Orlando, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Pittsburg 
Landing, March 22, 1862. 

Palmer, Geo. W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1864. 

Pryor, Henry C, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 19, 1863. 

Eobe, Bennett S., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1863. 

Revett, James, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged June 24, 
1862, for disability. 

Revett, George E., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Rickel, Samuel R., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 
1, 1862, for disability. 

Smith, William M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evans- 
ville, Ind., March 7, 1862. 

Schainp, Robert S., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 23, 1864. 

Sloan, Thomas O., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged June 
25. 1862? 

Scott, John M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 14, 
1862, for disability. 

Stockwell, Nathan, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 
5, 1862, for disability. 

Tiffany, Lewis R., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died Dec. 31, 
1862, from wounds received at Stone River. 

Totten, Albert P., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evans- 
ville, Ind., March 7, 1862. 

Wallace, Henry L., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as Corporal, Sept. 14, 1863. 

Webster, John H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, killed at Stone 
River, Jan. 2, 1863. 

Williams, Hiram B., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
mustered out as Sergeant, Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Wallace, George W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died Jan. 7, 1863. 

Weeks, George W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Sept. 
21, 1862, for disability. 

Yarnell, David N, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out as Sergeant, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Anderson, Samuel, mustered in Oct. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ashley, Mumford, mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Ashley, James S., mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Brown, John, mustered in April 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1864. 


Brubaker, James, mustered in April 27, 1863, out Sept. 11, 1865. 

Bowlan, Usury, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Baum, John C, mustered in March 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Bailey, Henry A., mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Bright, Hiram, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Banta, Abr. T., mustered in Sept. 22, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Banta, Andrew J., mustered in Sept. 22, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Brown, Geo. W., mustered in Sept. 22, 1864, out May 18, 1865. 

Burris, Seth O, mustered in Sept. 22, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Carnahan, James, mustered in Oct. 19, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Carr, William J., mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Camfield, Amos, mustered in Jan. 6, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Cobell, Nelson, mustered in Nov. 29, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Carr, "William H., mustered in Sept. 21, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Deibl, Wm. A., mustered in April 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ewbanks, Kobert W., mustered in March 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Ford, Rawliu E., mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Fisher, William, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Forbes, John W., mustered in Nov. 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Goodman, Samuel, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Goff, David, mustered in April 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Goff, Alonzo E., mustered in Dec. 31, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Groves, Geo. W., mustered in March 10, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Goff, George W., mustered in April 24, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Goff, William R, mustered in Feb. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Gilley, Benjamin, mustered in Oct. 22, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Gilley, Robert, mustered in Oct. 22, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Goldsmith, John W., mustered in Oct. 22, 1864, out June 13, 

Gibson, John W., mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Green, William F., discharged April 5, 1865. 

Gibbons, Michael, never reported to company. 

Hyatt, Wilson, mustered in Oct. 4, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
July 29, 1865. 

Harwood, Asoph, mustered in Oct. 22, 1863, discharged Nov. 
22, 1864, for disability. 

Harris, John, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Hunter, Roswell, mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out June 13, 1865. 

Hendrickson, Thomas, mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out June 13, 


Hamtn, Anthony, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Huffman, Alexander C, mustered in April 12, 1861, out as Cor- 
poral, Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Hopkins, George G., mustered in April 12, 1861, out Sept. 14, 

Hicks, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hyatt, James W., mustered in Oct. 5, 1861, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hall, Jerritt W., mustered in Dec. 3, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hood, William A., mustered in Dec. 2, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hall, John, mustered in Nov. 12, 1S64, out Sept. 7, 1865. 

Irwin, John, mustered in Dec. ]5, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Joy, Win. H. H., mustered in Sept. 21, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Johann, Julius, mustered in Nov. 11, 1S64, out July 25, 1865. 

Jacques, David, mustered in April 3, 1864, out as Corporal, Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Kooster, Charles, mustered in Oct. 22, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooga, July 3, 1865. 

Knowles, Win. B., mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Lowry, Wesley W., mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out June 17, 1865. 

Ludwick, Samuel, mustered in April 2, 1864, out May IS, 1865. 

Lowry, Joseph D. K., mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Livingstone, John, mustered in Oct. 25, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Lucas, Covert, mustered ih Oct. 7, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Lough, Joseph R., mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Lamb, Basil, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

McCurdy, Stephen, mustered in Oct. 22, 1862, out as Corporal, 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Maples, Resin, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

McClintock, William W., mustered in March 9, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Morris, William, mustered in Dec. 11, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Mayers, George, mustered in Dec. 27, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
May 26, 1865. 

Marquis, Ezekiel, mustered in Nov. 11, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

McFarlan, William E., never reported to company. 

Noatestine, John, mustered in Oct. 2, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Oberlin, Samuel, mustered in Oct. 12, 1862, out as Corporal, 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Oberlin, Adam, mustered in March 10, 1865, out Sept. 10, 1865. 

Overton, Thomas, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

364: HISTORr OF DE kalb county. 

Potts, William H., mustered in Oct. 6, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Robinson, David G, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 

Ritsell. Franklin J., mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Rumble, Isaac, mustered in Nov. 2, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
May 6, 1865. 

Reid, Henry S., mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, drowned at Chatta- 
nooga, July 14, 1865. 

Robb, William P., mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Sleutz, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Sleutz, Henry, mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Schock, Frederick, mustered in Oct. 22, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Shick, George T., mustered in Nov. 12, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smith, John H, mustered in April 22, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stewart, Taylor, mustered in Oct. 28, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stanke, Charles, mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Sloane, Alexander, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smith, John O, mustered in March 10, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smith, John L., mustered in March 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smith, John, mustered in Nov. 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Spaulding, William O, mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Sharp, George P., mustered in March 1, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stewart, William F., mustered in Dec. 11, 1863. 

Syphert, Lorenzo, mustered in Oct. 13, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Feb. 23, 1865. 

Stoy, William H., mustered in Dec. 21, 1864. out June 17, 1865. 

Stewart, Simon H, mustered in Nov. 2, 1864, out July 25, 1S65. 

Stallings, George W., mustered in Nov. 28, 1864, out July 25, 

Straine, William, mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Aug. 14, 1865. 

Shroder, John, mustered in Nov. 6, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Thurston, Jason H, mustered in Oct. 2, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thomas, fin. H., mustered in April 18, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Tull, Isom, mustered in Jan. 7, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Townsend, George W., mustered in Dec. 8, 1862, out Sept. 14, 

Yale, Leander, mustered in March 6, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Welch. Sidney N, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 
1865, as Corporal. 


White, Henry C, mustered in Nov. 3, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Weatherford, David, mustered in Dec. 3, 1862, out Sept. 14, 

Wakeman, Thomas, mustered in Nov. 12, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 

York, Caswell, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Company K. 

Park, Wesley, commissioned Captain Sept. 20, 1861, resigned 
Dec. 10, 1861. 

Wilson, John H., commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 20, 
1861, First Lieutenant Dec. 10, 1861, Captain Nov. 27, 1862, 
mustered out Dec. 5, 1864. 

Willis, Moses B., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 22, 1861, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant April 17, 1863, Captain Jan. 11, 
1865, mustered out with regiment Sept. 14, 1865. 

Ensley, Nicholas, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant Jan. 1, 1865, mustered out with regiment Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Smith, Hiram, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, died at 
Loudon, Tenn., April 25, 1864. 

Cornell, W. H. H, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, 
transferred to Veteran Keserve Corps Aug. 1, 1863. 

Clark, Cabb, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
April 1, 1863, for disability. 

Kimsey, John M., mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, out 
Nov. 22," 1864. 

Kimsey, William T., mustered in as Musician Nov. 22, 1861, 
veteran, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865, as Principal Musician. 

Cornell, Benjamin F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
mustered out, as First Sergeant, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Chilcoat, John M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

Chilcoat, James M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out, as Sergeant, Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Casebeer, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged March 
23, 1863, for disability. 

Ensley, Samuel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Henderson, 
Ky., Dec. 25, 1861. 

Frampton, John J., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to 
marine service Sept. 21, 1862. 


Greenamyer, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
March 19, 1863, for disability. 

Housel, Jerad F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Dec. 
11, 1862, for disability. 

Hall, Eobert, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Dec. 20, 
1862, for disability. 

Hoffman, John H. C, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
July 15, 1862, for disability. 

Hudlemyer, Leonard, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged 
Sept. 20, 1863, for disability. 

Lockwood, Reuben, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged April 
28, 1862, for disability. 

Lockwood, Charles, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out, as Corporal, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Lock, Elijah, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Corinth, Miss., 
June 1, 1862. 

Link, Jacob, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Oct. 1, 1S62, 
for disability. 

Middleton, William, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Jan. 
27, 1863, for disability. 

Mease, Samuel E., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at St. Louis, 
June 15, 1862. 

McDorman, George W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, 
mustered out, as Corporal, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Parnell, Philip, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 1864. 

Pearse, James E., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 
7, 1862, for wounds received at Shiloh. 

Rickey, Lemuel, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged July 5, 
1862, for disability. 

Squier, Daniel W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged Aug. 
25, 1S62, for disability. 

Smith, David, mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, veteran, mustered out, 
as Corporal, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Shatto, John L., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Evansville, 
lnd., Dec. 11, 1861. 

Surface, Colfenous, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out, as Corporal, Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thompson, Joseph, mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to 
Fourth United States Cavalry, Dec. 25, 1862. 

Wilson, George F., mustered in Nov. 22, 1S61, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 


Whipple, O. A., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, died at Nashville, 
Feb. 21, 1863. 

Wood, Isaac M., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, transferred to 
Fourth United States Cavalry, Dec. 25, 1862. 

Wiseman, James G., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, discharged, 
April 12, 1864, for disability. 

Willis, Franklin W., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Nov. 22, 

Wallack, Levi, mustered in Nov, 22, 1861, veteran, mustered 
out Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Arnold, James, mustered in Aug. 19, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Arnold, Fearless, mustered in Aug. 19, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Anderson, Samael E., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Benson, James C, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 2, 1865. 

Bullard, Shurban, mustered in Jan. 9, 1863, veteran, mustered 
out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Barekman, Henry I., mustered in Oct. 27, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., June 28, 1865. 

Boran, Wm. H., mustered in April 4, 1864, out May 15, 1865. 

Barnes, John, mustered in Sept. 27, 1S64, out July 25, 1S65. 

Chilcoat, John, mustered in March 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Cook, Daniel C, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Connell, Joseph, mustered in Feb. 20, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Curry, Archibald, mustered in Jan. 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Chance, John W., mustered in Jan. 27, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Chamberlin, Francis M., mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Clark, Wm. H., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Cullison, Jer., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Cannon, Wm., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Clark, Wm., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, captured June 9, 1864. 

Catt, Fielding, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S64, out July 25, 1865. 

Diersch, John, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Dull, And. F, mustered in Feb. 24, 1864, out Sept. 14,1865. 

Dunwiddie, Isaac, mustered in Feb. 29, 1864, out Aug. 24, 

Elliott, John D., mustered in Jan. 23, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1S65. 

Englebright, John, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out Jul 

Ernst, And., mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 


Ebert, Isaac, mustered in March 11, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Fair, James A., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Frazer, David, mustered in Jan. 16, 1864, out July 29, 1865. 

Foster, James, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Foster, Rhhard, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Aug. 22, 1865. 

Fanning, Hiram L., mustered in Jan. 20, 1862, out Jan. 26, 

Guthrie, Levi, mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Green, Alexander D., mustered in Oct. 25, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Glass, James, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Gerard, Simon, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, deserted Dec. 23, 

Holcomb, Martin L., mustered in Jan. 9, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Harkrader, James H., mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Hay, John, mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Harris, ¥m. A., -mustered in Sept. 29, 1864,out July 25, 1865. 

Harroll, Irwin C, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 

Hoodlemeyer, Leonard, mustered in April 14, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Hensler, Albert, mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Hickson, Charles, mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Hodshire, Yictor D., mustered in Dec. 26. 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Hooker, Abraham W., mustered in June 16, 1864, out Aug. 
16, 1865. 

Imboden, Henry J., mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 

Jones, James, mustered in Aug. 19, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Jordon, "W"m. M., mustered in Sept. 24. 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Jackson, Milton, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, out April 18,1865. 

Javins, Wm. H., mustered in Sept. 30, 1864, out June 13,1865. 

Killura, Jediah, mustered in Aug. 9, J862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Keith, George W. H., mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out July 
25, 1865. 

Kynett, Wm. H., mustered in Nov. 22, 1861, out Jan. 11, 1865. 

Koehler, August, mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out July 2, 1865. 



Lockwood, Lyman, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Lynch. Wm, mustered in Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Lorch, David C, mustered ia Sept. 29, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Morse, Jerome, mustered in March 11, 1864, out Sept. 6, 1864. 
Michael, John A. J., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 

Montgomery, James, mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 
Moffatt, Joab, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Morehouse, Silas, mustered in Feb. 21, 1865, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Malott, William H., mustered in Dec. 5, 1862, out as Sergeant 
Sept. 14, 1865. 

Moore, Samuel, substitute, mustered in Sept. 15, 1864, out June 
13, 1865. 

Moore, Thos. J., mustered in Sept. 12, 1864, out June 24, 1865. 
Muckenstorm, Joseph, mustered in Sept. 24, 1S64, out July 
25, 1865. 

Newman, Jacob, mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 14. 

O'Byrne, George F., mustered in Jan. 13, 1864, out Sept. 14. 

Pepple, Albert, mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Parker, De Forrest, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Purcell, Isaac F., mustered in Sept. 21, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Ross, William A., mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Jan. 5, 1S65. 
Reynolds, Reuben E., mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 

Rustan, Matt., mustered in Sept. 27, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Rust, Francis M., mustered in Dec. 26, 1863, out Sept. 14, 
Ryan, John M., mustered in Dec. 23, 1863, out Sept. 14, 1865. 
Rosell, Zachariah, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14. 

Rex, Emanuel, mustered in Nov. 21, 1862, out as Corporal Sept. j 
14, 1865. 

Smith, Joel, mustered in March 15, 1864, discharged June 2, 
1865, for disability. 
Sodder, Benj., mustered in Sept. 23, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 
Smith, Ambrose, mustered in April 2, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 


Smith, Isaiah, mustered in April 2, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Simon, Christopher C, mustered in March 15, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Snyder, Isaac, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, died at Chattanooga, 
April 8, 1865. 

Stacy, John L., mustered in March 15, 1S64, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Segur, George, mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Smart, Wm. F., mustered in Jan. 31, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Stutsman, Adam, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Thompson, David R., mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Sept. 14, 

Thomas, Samuel, mustered in Feb. 20, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

"White, Dillard, mustered in Oct. 26, 1864, out Jan. 15, 1865. 

White, Robert, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Westfall, Charles, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Welton, Andrew, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

Witman, John, mustered in Sept. 24, 1864, out July 25, 1865. 

"Whittig, Martin, mustered in Jan. 7, 1864, transferred to Vet- 
eran Eeserve Corps May 11, 1865, mustered out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Williams, David, mustered in Jan. 14, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Washington, James E., mustered in March 17, 1864, out Sept. 
14, 1865. 

Washington, Isaac, mustered in March 17, 1864, ont Sept. 14, 

Webb, Kufus, mustered in April 17, 1864, deserted Dec. 30, 1864. 

Willis, Moses B., mustered in Feb. 26, 1864, promoted. 


Company C. 
Hacker, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1864, out July 15, 1865. 


Hamacher, John R., commissioned Major Sept. 6, 1865, mus- 
tered out as Captain Sept. 13, 1865. 

Company B. 

Ball, Isaac, mustered in as Corporal Nov. 21, 1861, died at 
Memphis, April 11, 1863. 

Mills, Henry, mustered in as Wagoner Nov. 21, 1861, deserted 
Nov. 25, 1862, 

Carter, Asa, mustered in Nov. 21, 1861, out Nov. 29, 1864. 


Cravens, Pleasant R., mustered in Nov. 21, 1861, died at Cum- 
berland Ford, May 21, 1862. 

Cravens. Pleasant A., mustered in Nov. 21, 1861, veteran, mus- 
tered out Sept. 13,1865. 

Cravens, John A., mustered in Aug. 18, 1864, .out Sept. 13, 1865. 

"Whitson, Wm. A. mustered in Aug. 1, 1864, out July 18, 1865. 

Company D. 

Hamacher, John P., mustered in as Sergeant Nov. 21, 1861, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant June 19, 1863, Captain Nov. 30, 
1S64, Major Sept. 6, 1865, mustered out as Captain Sept. 13, 1865. 
ravens, William H., mustered in Nov. 21, 1861, died in Sep- 
tember, 1863, from wounds received at Jackson. 

McColough, George F., mustered in Nov. 21, 1861, out as Com- 
missary Sergeant, Sept. 13, 1865. 

Fitch, Wm. U., mustered in March 4, 1865, out Sept. 13, 1865. 



Lypsett, Thomas, mustered in July 12, 1862, as Corporal, out 
June 9, 1865, as Sergeant. 

Chacey. Joseph G., mustered in July 17, 1862, out June'9, 1865. 

Seberts, William, mustered in July 20, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 9, 1865. 

Boren, Edward, mustered in Sept. 20, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Cobler, Philip, mustered in Sept. 20, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Link, John, mustered in Oct. 18, 1864, transferred to Twenty- 
second Indiana Volunteer Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Eawson, Preston, mustered in July 19, 1863, transferred to Twen- 
ty-second Indiana Volnnteer Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Tarny, Samuel J., mustered in Sept. 20, 1864, out June 9, 1865. 

Company F. 

Lochemeyer, Curtis, mustered in Nov. 12, 1864, transferred to 
Twenty-second Indiana Volunteer Infantry June 9, 1865. 


Company I. 

Wernce, Wm., transferred to Forty-second Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry June 9, 1S65. 


Company K. 

Baird, Marcus M., mustered in Oct. 13, 1861, transferred to For- 
ty-secoud Indiana Volunteer Infantry June 9, 1865. 

Ensign, Benjamin, mustered in Oct. 7, 1864, discharged. 

Presler, John, mustered in Oct. 13, 1864, transferred to Forty- 
second Indiana Volunteer Infantry June 9, 1865. 


Myers, William D., commissioned Surgeon Aug. 30, 1862, re- 
signed Dec. 26, 1862. 

Willard, Henry W., mustered in as Hospital Steward Aug. 8, 
1862, commissioned Assistant Surgeon May 1, 1865, mustered out 
as Hospital Steward with regiment June 7, 1865. 

Company A. 

Beers, Jensen P., commissioned Captain Aug. 12, 1862, resigned 
Jan. 27, 1863. 

Steele, James H., commissioned Second Lieutenant Aug. 12, 
1862, Captain Jan. 28, 1863, killed at Mission Ridge, Nov. 25, 

Cutter, Elam B., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 6, 1862, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Jan. 28, 1863, First Lieutenant April 
22, 1863, Captain Nov. 26, 1863, mustered out with regiment June 
7, 1865. 

Stough, Samuel L., commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 12, 
1862, died April 20, 1863, of disease. 

Boley, Walter E., mustered in as Sergeant July 26, 1862, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant Nov. 26, 1863, killed at Resaca, Ga. , 
May 15, 1864. 

Edgerly, Royal H, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 8. 1862, 
commissioned First Lieutenant May 16, 1864, mustered out with 
regiment June 7, 1865. 

Fisher, William A., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 7, 1862, 
promoted First Sergeant, commissioned Second Lieutenant May 1, 
1865, mustered out as First Sergeant with regiment June 7, 1865. 

Sharp, George, mustered in as First Sergeant July 20, 1862, 
transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps July 1, 1863. 

Woods, David, mustered in as Sergeant July 27, 1862, dis- 
charged Jan. 27, 1863. 

Smith, Josiah C, mustered in as Sergeant July 28, 1862, died 
at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Feb. 12, 1863. 


McQueen, Calvin W., mustered in as Corporal July 26, 1861, 
died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 25, 1863. 

Jones, George, mustered in as Corporal July 20,1862, died at 
Bowliug Green, Ky., Nov. 6, 1862. 

Eathburn, Matthew E., mustered in July 18, 1862, died at New- 
bern, N. O, from wounds received, March 19, 1865. 

Sanders, George W., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 8, 1862, 
out as private June 7, 1865. 

Baughman, Josiah, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 2, 1862, dis- 
charged April 20, 1863, for .wounds. 

Edinger, George W., mustered in as Musician Aug. 8, 1862, 
out as Principal Musician June 7, 1865. 

Beidler, Franklin N., mustered in as Musician July 25, 1862, 
out June 7, 1S65. 

Rogers, Thomas £L, mustered in as Wagoner July 18, 1862, 
discharged Oct. 29, 1862. 

Bowman, Charles, mustered in July 22, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Bailey, Ira S., mustered in July 29, 1862, discharged Oct, 8, 

Brown, Lewis, mustered in July 31, 1862, discharged Dec. 6, 

Brown, Thomas, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, discharged March 7, 

Baughman, Geo. W., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Bromley, John, mustered in July 20, 1862, discharged April 11, 

Blaker, George E., mustered in Aug. 6, 1S62, died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., Nov. 13, 1862. 

Biglow, Harvey D., mustered in Aug. 5, 1862, out June 23, 

Bruner, John, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, discharged Jan. 27, 

Beck, Emanuel, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps April 30, 1864. 

Cotrill, John L., mustered in Aug. 1, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Crain, Ezra, mustered in Aug. 9, 1S62, discharged Jan. 15, 1863. 

Collins, John V., mustered in Aug. 8, 1S62. 

Chittenden, Charles H., mustered in July 30, 1862, transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps April 10, 1864, 

Canon, Abram L., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out as Sergeant 
June 7, 1865. 


Daniels, George, mustered in July 30, 1862, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, Sept. 20, 1863. 

Daniels, Archibald, mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, deserted Aug. 1, 

Duck, William, mustered in Aug. 8, 1865, out June 7, 1862. 

Daniels, Kinsey, mustered in July 20, 1862, died at Camp An- 
drew Johnson, Tenn., Dec. 16, 1862. 

Day, Samuel, mustered in July 14, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Everett, George W., mustered in July 7, 1S62, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps Feb. 16, 1861, mustered out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Ferriman, John, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, captured, paroled. 

Frick, Henry, mustered in Aug. 12, 1S62, discharged. 

Fetters, Lawrence, mustered in Aug. 7, 1S62, killed at Beuton- 
ville, N. C, March 19, 1S65. 

Franks, John EL, mustered in Aug. 1, 1862, discharged April 
25, 1863. 

Gonser, William H., mastered in July 19, 1862, died at Louis- 
ville, Ky., Jan. 23, 1863. 

Gundrum, George, mustered in July 25, 1862, died at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., March 18, 1863. 

Goodrich, David, mustered in Aug. S, 1862, transferred to En- 
gineer Corps July 29, 1864. 

JEornberger, William, mustered in July 18, 1862, discharged 
Feb. 22, 1863. 

Hendricks, Franklin B., mustered in July 18, 1862, died at 
Mitchellsvilie, Tenn., Dec. 15, 1862. 

Humbarger, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, out June 7,1865. 

Hively, Jesse, mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps, mustered out June 5, 1865. 

Hamon, Daniel F., mustered in Aug. 6, 1S62, discharged April 
16, 1863. 

Hamman, Simeon F., mustered in Aug. 8, 1S62, out as Corporal 
June 7; 1865. 

Hale, John P., mustered in July 18, 1862, deserted Aug. 1, 1S64. 

Johnson, Allen, mustered in July 30, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Jan. 2, 1S63. 

Ingle, Levi, mustered in July 20, 1862, discharged April 2, 1863. 
Keller, Daniel B., mustered in July 18, 1S62, out as Quarter 
master-Sergeant June 7, 1865. 

Kester, Alonzo A., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, deserted Dec. 4, 


Krontz, William, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Kester, John P., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out May 17, 1865. 

Link, George J., mustered in Aug. 7, 1S62, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., Jan. 5, 1864. 

Lower, Amos, mustered in Aug. 8,1862, discharged Jan. 18, 1863. 

Lykins, Isaiah, mustered in July 24, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 7, 1S65. 

Lidy, Daniel, mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, discharged March 18, 

Matthews, Robert A., mustered in July 25, 1862, out June 7, 

Mott, Sheridan E., mustered in July 18, 1862, died March 18, 
1865, of wounds. 

Mudge, Elijah, mustered in July 22, 1862, deserted Aug. 31, 1862. 

Morrow, James G., mustered in Aug. 1, 1862, out as Sergeant 
June 7, 1865. 

McAdams, John T., mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Mills, Francis, mustered in July 25, 1862, out June 30, 1865. 

Martin, Joseph T., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, deserted June 
15, 1S65. 

North, Jacob, mustered in July 21, 1862, discharged April 16, 

Nugen, Christopher, mustered in Aug. 4, 1862, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., Dec. 29, 1862. 

Nodine, Seneca, mustered in Aug. 3, 1862, deserted March 1, 1863. 

Needham, Truman J., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, died at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn., Nov. 16,1863. 

Packer, John, mustered in Aug. 18, 1862, died at Tyree Springs, 
Tenn., Dec. 6, 1S62. 

Reynolds, Thomas J., mustered in July 30, 1862, ou" May 29, 

Railing, Frank W., mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, deserted March 1, 

Steward, Jonathan, mustered in July 30, 1S62, died at Lebanon, 
'Ky., Nov. 10, 1862. 

Steward, John M., mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 7, 1865. 

Smith, Uriah, mustered in Aug. 3, 1862, deserted in May, 1863. 

Seberts, Park, mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, out May 26, 1865. . 

Smith, George R., mustered in July 25, 1S62, discharged April 
15, 1863. 


Showalter, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out June 10, 1865. 
Shoup, Wm., mustered in July 25, 1862, discharged May 18, 1863. 
Sinn, John K., mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, discharged Feb. 

6, 1863. 

Tomlinson, Thomas, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 7, 1865. 

Tentsch, George, mustered in Aug. 3, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Willard, Lemonsky E., mustered in Aug. 16, 1862, out June 7, 

Willian.s, Henry L., mustered in Aug. 1, 1862, discharged Feb. 

7, 1863. 

Woods, James D., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 7, 1865. 

Willard, Henry W., mustered in Aug. 8, 1S62, promoted Hos- 
pital Steward. 

Toh, Israel, mustered in Aug. 2, 1862, died at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., March 20, 1863. 

Zimmerman, John A., mustered in Aug. 6, 1862,out June 7, 1865. 

Brown, Jacob, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Bruner, John, mustered in Jan. S, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Burns, George W., mustered in March 9, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Bryan, William A., mustered in April 6, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Carver, Oscar P., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to Thir- 
ty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865, as Sergeant. 

Corill, Charles C, mustered in March 9, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865, as Corporal. 

DeLong, James C, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Dickson, Joseph C, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to 
Veteran Keserve Corps, Jan. 10, 1865. 

Fountain, Alexander, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Hammond, Daniel F., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865, as Corporal. 

Hoose, Marcus L., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, died at Indianapolis, 
Feb. 1, 1864. 

Leasure, Benjamin F., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, discharged. 


Miller, Noah, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Reese, John H., mustered in March 11, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Sholtze, Emile, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry Jane 7, 1865. 

Shirts, Albert B., mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, transferred to Thir- 
ty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Shanks, Andrew E., mustered in Feb. 11, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Sinclair, Silas K., mustered in March 9, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Smith, John H., mustered in March 9, 1864, died at Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., March 26, 1864. 

Woods, David, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, killed at Bentonville, 
K C, March 19, 1865. 

Company C. 

Silver, Philip W., commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 7, 1862, 
Captain Feb. 18, 1863, resigned Oct. 23, 1863. 

Company D. 

Horn, Milton, mustered in Aug. 11, 186#, put as Corporal June 
7, 1865. 

Johnson. William, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 10, 1865. 

Keith, George, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Stafford, John C, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Stafford, Joseph, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out as Corporal, 
June 7, 1865. 

Company E. 

Lyon, John R., mustered in Aug. 8, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 
Company O. 

Goodrich, William A., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 

Company H. 

Blair, Lewis J., commissioned Captain Aug. 16, 1862, promoted 
Major, then Lieutenant-Colonel, and Breveted Brigadier-General. 

Thomas, Dexter L., mustered in as First Sergeant Aug. 29, 1862, 
commissioned First Lieutenant Jan . 26, 1863, Captain Oct. 30, 1863, 
mustered out with regiment June 7, 1865. 


Smith, Philander, commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 16, 1862, 
resigned Jan. 25, 1863. 

Rainer, Joseph, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 29, 1862, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Jan. 26,1863, First Lieutenant Oct. 30, 1863, re- 
signed Dec. 15, 1861, because of disability. 

Dillworth, William, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, commissioned 
First Lieutenant Jan. 27, 1865, mustered out with regiment June 
7, 1865. 

Teagley, Andrew, commissioned Second Lieutenant Aug. 16, 
1862, resigned Jan. 25, 1863. 

DeLong, George F., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, promoted "First 
Sergeant, commissioned Second Lieutenant, May 1, 1S65, mustered 
out as First Sergeant June 7, 1865. 

Hatch, Hiram W., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 29, 1862, died 
at Louisville, By., Dec. 16, 1862. 

Headley, Samuel, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 29, 1862, dis- 
charged Nov. 27, 1862. 

Rex, William A., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 29, 1862, dis- 
charged Jan. 25, 1863. 

Bailey, Alexander, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, died 
at home Aug. 4, 1864. 

Testison, Washington, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, 
discharged Jan. 14, 1863. 

Platter, Harvey C, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, died 
at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 30, 1862. 

Coats, Joseph A., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1S62, dis- 
charged Oct. 21, 1862. 

Eobertson, William, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, out 
as Sergeant June 7, 1865. . 

Conklin, Alonzo, mustered in as Corporal, Aug. 29, 1862, dis- 
charged Jan. 12, 1863. 

Hull, John, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, killed at 
Stone River, Ky., Jan. 3, 1863. 

Thomas, Benjamin F., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 29, 1862, 
died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 14, 1863, of wounds. 

Smurr, Edwin M., mustered in as Musician Aug. 29, 1862, out 
May 27, 1865. 

Danor, Jacob, mustered in as Musician Aug. 29, 1862, deserted 
March 15, 1862. 

May, Henry, mustered in as Wagoner, Aug. 29, 1862, discharged 
Jan. 23, 1863. 



Armstrong, James, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Camp 
Chase, Ohio, Feb. 21, 1863. 

Akins, Stillman, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, deserted from hos- 

Boyer,Wni. A., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Beggs, Alvin D., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Nov. 
9, 1863, 

Brownlee, Wml, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Louisville, 
Ky.,Dec. 6,1862. 

Blood, Leroy, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Feb. 3, 

Blood, Elias, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Nashville, Tenn., 
Dec. 17, 1862. 

Conklin, Austin, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, out June 7, 1865. 

Cosper, Wesley V., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Galli- 
polis, Ohio, Jan. 19, 1863. 

Cole, Andrew, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, out June 7, 1865. 

Crooks, William, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Dec. 22, 

Deemes, William, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 7, 1865. 

Deemes, George, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Diehl. Daniel D., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1S65. 

Duck, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Oct. 15, 

Emminger, Abraham, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out as Cor- 
poral June 7, 1865. 

Evey, Wm., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Fusselman, Michael, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, deserted from 

Franks, David, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps Sept. 30, 1863. 

Goodwin, Robert, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Louisville, 
Ky., Jan. 6, 1863. 

Gibson, Lawrence, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 186L 

Hamilton, John, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Hart, Joseph M., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Feb. 3, 

Hart, Isaac, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, out as Sergeant June 7, 


Henry, Albert, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Murfreesboro, 
Term., Feb. 3, 1863. 

Henry, George, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Sept. 
17, 1863. 

Johnson, Michael, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Feb. 27, 1863. 

Krise, Thomas, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Krise, Daniel, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, died at Gallatin, Tenn.. 
Jan. 19, 1863. 

Lee, David, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged April 18, 

Lawrence, Henry K., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, supposed to 
have been lost on the Sultana. 

Meese, Isaac, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Melton, Albin, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged March 21, 

Mathews, Dyer R, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out as Sergeant, 
June 7, 1865. 

Meek, William, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Melton, John, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Chattanooga 
Nov. 1, 1863, of wounds. 

Oshorn, Samuel C, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, transferred to 
Engineer Corps July 29, 1S64. 

Packer, John, mustered in Aug. 29, 1864, out June 7, 1865. 

Packer, William O., mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, transferred to 
Veteran Eeserve Corps Dec. 29, 1864. 

Pryor, Charles S., mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, out as Corporal, 
June 7, 1865. 

Pryor, Ira W., mustered in Aug. 29, 1861, killed at Stone Eiver, 
Jan. 3, 1863. 

Pressler, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Kose, Simeon, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., Nov. 27, 1863. 

Stanfer, Samuel P., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Jan. 17, 1863, of wounds. 

Stout, Jacob S., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, deserted Dec. 17, 

Suly, Benjamin, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Feb/20, 1863. 

Sawyer, William, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Louisville, 
Ky., in November, 1862. 


Savior, Henry, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862. 

Shrull, Francis, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, out June 7, 1865. 

Swangood, John, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Feb 
22. 1863. 

Stoy, Levi, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged March 30, 

Snively, Jonathan, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 10, 1865. 

Seely, Isaac, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Chattanooga. 
Tenn., Nov. 21, 1863. 

Smith, Levi, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged March 8, 1S63 

Stout, Franklin, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Dec 
31, 1862. 

Thomas, Chockly W., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, killed at Nash 
ville, Tenn., Dec. 10, 1862. 

Vestel. Henry S., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps April 10, 1864. 

Watkins, Walter T., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Widney, Oliver H., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged Dec. 
15, 1862. 

Wineland, Jacob, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged April 
10, 1863. 

Widney, Joseph, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., Nov. 25, 1862. 

White, Edwin D., mustered in Aug. 29. 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Welch, Eli M., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862. died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Feb. 16, 1S63. 

Wyatt, Elmore, mustered in Aug. 29, 1S62, discharged Aug. S, 

Yarnell, Philip, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps Sept. 1, 1863. 

Yader, Christopher, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Yohe, John H., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, died fit Bowling 
Green, Ky., Jan. 12, 1863. 

Yeagley, William, mustered in Aug/ 29, 1862, discharged March 
28, 1865. 

Yocum, John, mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, out June 7, 1865. 

Zigler, Benjamin F., mustered in Aug. 29, 1862, discharged 
March 26, 1863. 

Bills, John, mustered in March 29, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1S65. 


Conklin, Alonzo, mustered in March 19, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Cochran, Robert, mustered in March 27, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1S65. 

Crooks, Henry, mustered in March 26, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Delano, George, mustered in March 22, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Dohner, Isaac C, mustered in March 28, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Erehart, mustered in Dec. 17, 1863, transferred to Thirty-eighth 
Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Hose, Joseph, mustered in March 19, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Hose, Solomon, mustered in March 29, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Headley, Dewitt C, mustered in March 17, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Imhof, Elijah, mustered in March 28, 1864, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Jones, Thomas I., mustered in March 22, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Likens, Stephen, mustered in Dec. 4, 1863, transferred to Thirty- 
eighth Indiana Infautry June 7, 1865. 

Milliman, Henry, mustered in Feb. 26, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Iudiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

McNabb, Daniel S., mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, discharged Feb. 
22, 1863. 

Rockwell, Henry M., mustered in Aug. 22, 1864, discharged 
May 30, 1865. 

Penicks, Joseph, mustered in March 28, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Sandy, Frank B., mustered in Feb. 26, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Sandy, Henry J., mustered in March 18, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1S65. 

Stout, Francis M., mustered in March 2S, 1S64, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Smith, Luther, mustered in March 30, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 




Stafford, Thomas, mustered in March 10, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Treman, John, mustered in March 29, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 

Woods, John W., mustered in March 29, 1864, transferred to 
Thirty-eighth Indiana Infantry June 7, 1865. 


Company H. 
Conley, Zyra H., mustered in Nov. 11, 1864, out Aug. 31, 1865. 


Munn, Charles A., commissioned Chaplain Nov. 8, 1862, re- 
signed Aug. 10, 1863. 

Swartz, David J., commissioned Assistant Surgeon Oct. 3, 1862, 
mustered out with regiment June 8, 1865. 
Company A. 

Rhodes, Marquis L.. commissioned Captain Aug. 13, 1S62, died 
Dec. 10, 1862, of disease. 

Hartman, Ezra D., commissioned Second Lieutenant Aug. 13, 
1862, First Lieutenant Oct. 4, 1862, Captain Dec. 11, 1862, 
honorably discharged Nov. 6, 1863. 

Barney, Lucius, mustered in as First Sergeant Aug. 10, 1862, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant Oct. 4, 1862, First Lieutenant 
Dec. 11, 1S62, Captain Nov. 7, 1863, honorably discharged Aug. 
12, 1864. 

Moore, John H., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 6, 1862, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Dec. 11, 1862, First Lieutenant Nov. 
7, 1863, Captain Aug. 13, 1864, died as First Lieutenant Oct. 1, 
1864, of wounds received in action. 

Sherlock, Eli J., mustered in as Sergeant Ang. 6, 1862, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant Ang. 13, 1864, Captain Oct. 2, 1864, 
mustered out with regiment June 8, 1865. 

Swartz, David J., commissioned First Lieutenant Aug. 13, 1862, 
promoted Assistant Surgeon. 

Waters, Albert A., mustered in Aug. 13, 1S62, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant Nov. 22, 1864, mustered out as Sergeant with 
regiment June 8, 1865. 

Kindell, John S., mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 13, 1862, died 
at LaGrange, Tenn., Jan. 11, 1863. 


Lockhart, William C, mustered in as Sergeant Aug. 13, 1S62, 
discharged Oct. 23, 1S63. 

Klien, Cleveland A., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 6, 1862, died at 
Colliersville, Tenn., April 2, 1863, as Sergeant. 

DeWitt, Daniel, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 13, 1862, dis- 
charged as Sergeant Oct. 24, 1863. 

Hall, John M., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 19, 1S62, out June 
8, 1865. 

Robbins, Albert, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 11, 1862, dis- 
charged Nov. 11, 1862. 

Devilbiss, Allen, mustered in as Corporal Aug. 10, 1862, dis- 
charged Aug. 10, 1863. 

Walker, James P., mustered in as Corporal Aug. 10, 1862, died 
at Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1863. 

Bodine, David O, mustered in as Musician Aug. 6, 1S62, mus- 
tered out as Sergeant June 8, 1865. 

Shnman, George, mustered in as Musician Aug. 9, 1862, out 
May 19, 1865. 

Durbin, Joseph O, mustered in as Wagoner Aug. 13, 1862, out 
June 8, 1865. 

Anthony, Abraham, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Holly 
Springs, Miss., Jan. 8, 1863, 

Arthur, Martin, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out as Corporal June 
8, 1865. 

Beams, George, mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Nov. 24, 1862. 

Boren, John W., mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, died at Atlanta, Ga., 
Oct. 24, 1864. 

Butler, Irving, mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, died at Snyder's Bluff, 
Miss., July 24, 1863. 

Boyles, Artemas, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Grand 
Junction, Tenn., Feb. 20, 1S63. 

Buchanan, Reason, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., Jan. 24, 1864. 

Buchanan, George, mustered in Aug. 13, 1S62, out June 
8, 1865. 

Buchanan, John A., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out as Sergeant 
June 8, 1S65. 

Culver, Harrison, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. 

Critchet, Jonathan, mustered in Aug. 9, 1S62, out June 8, 1865. 


Diminitt, William H., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Abbe- 
ville, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1863. 

Davis, James, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Mo., Dec. 22, 1864. 

Davis, John, mustered in Aug. 10, 1S62, out June 8, 1865. 

Fair, William H., mustered in Aug. 10. 1862, on>t as Sergeant 
June 8, 1865. 

Frees, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Frees, Hammond, mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Fiant, John, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Friedt, Henry, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, discharged Jan. 30, 

Farver, Lemuel, mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Graham, William R., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Guthrie, Simeon, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out May 26, 1865. 

Goodenough, Abel R., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, discharged 
Jan. 28, 1863. 

Grubb, John, mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, died at Colliersville, 
Tenn., March 18, 1S63. 

Haines, Napoleon A., mustered in Aug. 8, 1S62, transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps, mustered out July 8, 1865. 

Houser, Jonathan, mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 8, 1S65. 

Houser, Gideon, mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, died at Colliersville, 
Tenn., May 1, 1863. 

Hursh, John, mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Feb. 8, 1863. 

Hursh, Benjamin, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, transferred to Com- 
pany F. 

Hammond, James, mustered in Aug. 13, 1S62, died as Corporal 
at Grand Junction, Tenn., Feb. 22, 1863. 

Holden, Samuel, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, Nov. 25, 1862. 

Jones, Wesley J., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, discharged May 
26, 1863. 

Long, Harrison, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Likens, William, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, discharged Aug. 
21, 1863. 

McNabb, John, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, died at Holly Springs, 
Miss., Jan. 6, 1863. 

Maxwell,William B., mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out May 13, 1865. 


Melvin, George "W., mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Melvin, Wallace J., mustered in Aug. 11, 1S62, died at Holly 
Springs, Miss., Dec. 2, 1862. 

Mohler, John R., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, discharged Juue 
17, 1864. 

McGoon, Benjamin P., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out June 

8, 1865. 

McConnell, John, mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, died at home Jan. 
1, 1864. 

Miller, Silas C, mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, mustered out July 14, 1865. 

Noel, George, mustered in Aug. 11, 1S62, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Nov. 5, 1863. 

Osburn, Enos, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., June 3, 1864. 

Olinger, John S., mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, discharged May 26, 

Olinger, Anthony, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, transferred to 
Company F. 

Olinger, Daniel, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, transferred to 
Company F. 

Penry, Lewis F., mustered in Aug. 7, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Nov. 24, 1864. 

Piffer, Daniel, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, discharged May 

9, 1863. 

Piffer, Joseph, mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out as Corporal June 
8, 1865. 

Powell, Levi B., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Palmer, Hiram, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out as Corporal June 
8, 1865. 

Prosser, Joseph O, mustered in Aug. 13, 1S62, out June 8, 1865. 

Rogers, Charles T., mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Raub, John B., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out June 10, 1865. 

Symonds, John O, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out July 7, 1S65. 

Sevander, John, mustered in Aug. 9, 1S62, discharged Nov. 11, 

Squires, Asher, mustered in Aug. 10,1862, died at Paducah,Ky., 
Aug. 17, 1S63. 

Squires, Nathan, mustered in Aug. 11, 1862, out June 8, 1S65. 

Shaw, Ansel M., mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, out as Corporal 
June 8, 1865. 


Smith, Isaac, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Skinner, Orlander, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Nov. 17, 1862. 

Ulm, Jeremiah, mustered in Aug. 9, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 

Vanlier, John D., mustered in Aug. 13, 1S62, out June 8, 1865. 

Wiltrout, Benjamin S., mustered in Aug. S, 1862, out June 8, 

Wearley, Calvin J., mustered in Aug. 12, 1S62, transferred to 
Marine Brigade. 

Wolf, Henry, mustered in Aug. 6, 1862, out as Corporal June 

22, 1865. 

Wyatt, Richard, mustered in Aug. 10, 1862, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., Oct. 16, 1863. 

Cordery, Walter, mustered in Oct. 29, 1862, discharged March 

23, 1863. 

JSickerson, Alden, mustered in May 5, 1863, died at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., Nov. 24, 1863. 

Company Ek 
Whitcomb, Moses, mustered in Aug. 12, 1862, out June 8, 1865. 
Company K. 

Bnrdick, Louis B., mustered in Aug. 21, 1862, discharged May 
16, 1865. 

Haswell, George J., mustered in Aug. 13, 1862, out May 30, 1865. 

Haynes, Andrew, mustered in Aug. 21, 1S62, out as Corporal 
June 29, 1865. 

Haynes, Frank, mustered in Aug. 21, 1862, out June 29, 1865. 

Jackson, Jacob D., mustered in Aug. 21, 1862, out June 29, 

Phillips, Benjamin, mustered in Aug. 22, 1862, died at home 
Dec. 24, 1864. 

Stouffer, John T., mustered in Aug. 22, 1862, out June 29, 

Yanwonner, William A., mustered in Aug. 20, 1S62, out as Cor- 
poral June 29, 1865. 

Barntrager, George, mustered in Oct. 22, 1862, transferred to 
Forty-eighth Indiana Infantry, mustered out July 15, 1865. 

Haswell, Lewis R., mustered in March 30, 1864, transferred to 
Forty-eighth Indiaua Volunteer Infantry June 27, 1865. 

Simons, George, mustered in Nov. 5, 1862, discharged Oct. 29, 



a ^ — e 





Company F. 

Buchanan, Manius, commissioned Captain Sept. 5, 1863, mus- 
tered out March 1, 1864. 

Mosier, Cyrus F., commissioned First Lieutenant Sept. 5, 1863, 
mustered out March 1, 1864. 

Farnum, George L., commissioned Second Lieutenant Sept. 5, 
1863, mustered out March 1, 1S64. 

Cogswell, Chalon D., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, as First Ser- 
geant, out March 1, 1864. 

Widney, Oliver EL, mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Cornell, G-eorge N., mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Hartley, Henry S., mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Walters, Amos Ft., mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Pyle, Erastus, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out as 
Sergeant March 1, 1864. 

Fickas, John T., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Tanner, Samuel, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1S63, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Beckley, G-eorge, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out 
as private March 1, 1864. 

Campbell, Alvin, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1S63, out 
March 1, 1864. 

McNabb, Howard S., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Alton, Albert M., mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Finney, Erastus, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Diehl, Leander J., mustered in as Musician Sept. 5, 1863, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Woods, John W., mustered in as Wagoner Sept. 5, 1S63, out 
March 1, 1864. 

Anderson, Ethan, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 






' ■? 




Admire, Squire, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out as Corporal 
March 1, 1864. 

Atclieson, Jesse F., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, transferred. 

Andrews, Elzy, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, died on Eock Castle 
Kiver, Nov. 29, 1863. 

Brown, William B., mustered in Aug. 13, 1863. 

Bohn, Benjamin C, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 

Bohn, Charles, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Baker, Thomas W., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Barmour, Jasper, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Castletnan, Martin, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Cherry, Robert E., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, transferred to 
Seventh Cavalry Sept. 7, 1863. 

Cronk, Loudon, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Crain, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Campbell, Thomas, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Campbell, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Chilcoat, Humphrey E., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 
1, 1864. 

Crooks, Henry, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Chasey, John E., never mustered. 

Cochran, Bobert, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Carver, Oscar P., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, discharged Sept. 
7, 1863, by civil authority. 

Delong, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Emery, Philip E., mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, transferred. 

Franklin, Joseph W., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 

Fike, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Fike, Abraham, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Fisher, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Fisher, Augustus C, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, transferred. 

Finch, Franklin C, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 

Fry, David, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Goodwell, Jeremiah, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1 

Guirer, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Grite, Anthony, enlisted. 

Hardin, David E., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Hillis, John, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 


Higby, Ami, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 

Huffman, Jacob, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out Marcli 1, 1864. 

Hefflinger, Thomas, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Hughey, Stephen, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Hartman, Solomon, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Hart, Francis, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Imhof, Lewis, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 

Jacques, David, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 

Johnson, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, transferred. 

Jarvis, Alexander, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Kreger, George, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Kreger, John. 

Kane, Augustus C, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, died at Camp 
Nelson, Ky., Dec. 7, 1863. 

Kane, John W., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Louthan, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

McCool, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 

McClure, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Moore, Thomas, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Oliver, Josephus, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

dinger, Cyrus, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Kawson, Thomas, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1S64. 

Eitch, Henry, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, discharged Sept. 12, 
1863, being a minor. 

Kemington, Francis M., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 
1, 1864. 

Bobbins, Wallace, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Richardson, William H., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 
1, 1864. 

Shull, Elias, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Shull, Leonard, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Smith, Isaiah, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Stafford, William, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Sandy, James H., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Stone, David A. 

Taylor, Rufus, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, deserted Sept. 30, 1863. 

Totten, Jonathan J., mustered in Aug. 13, 1S63. 

Walters, Amos R, mustered in Aug. 13, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 

Williams, David K., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 

Wright, Emanuel, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 


Woods, James, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, out March 1, 1864. 
Welch, Sidney, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 
Woodward, Alson, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 
Waters, Irvin, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 
Wallace, John, mustered in Sept. 5, 1S63, transferred. 
Wilkinson, Almond, mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 
Young, John T., mustered in Sept. 5, 1863, out March 1, 1864. 


Company D. 

Dahuff, Eli, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, transferred to Seventh 
Indiana Cavalry, reorganized. 

Fostnaucht, Moses, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, deserted July 
31, 1865. 

Fitch, John, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, transferred to Seventh 
Indiana Cavalry, reorganized. 

Guthrie, Richard, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, transferred to 
Seventh Indiana Cavalry, reorganized. 

Hoffman, Samuel D., mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, transferred to 
Seventh Indiana Cavalry, reorganized. 

Hamlin, George, mustered in Sept. 3, 1863, died May 14, 1864. 

Company K. 

Cherry, Robert E., mustered in Sept. 11, 1863, transferred to 
Company E, Seventh Indiana Cavalry, reorganized. 


Company B. 

Austin, George, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 6, 1865, 
as Corporal. 

Bailey, Alexander, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 6, 1865. 

Boley, John H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Louisville, 
Ky., Dec. 19, 1864. 

Church, Israel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Deetz, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Griffith, John W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as First Ser- 
geant Nov. 10, 1865. 

Jones, Sidney P., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out as Sergeant 
Nov. 10, 1865. 



Johnson, Franklin T., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, promoted 
Second Lieutenant Oct. 16, 1864, First Lieutenant March 1, 1865, 
mustered out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Jones, Milton O, mustered in Dec. 16, 1S63, out as Sergeant 
Nov. 10, 1865. 

Kirkendall, George, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 7, 1865. 

Myers, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at home April 
7, 1864. 

Nounnem, David, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Oct. 4, 1865. 

Eoberts, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Shaw, John, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Werrich, Joseph, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Company C. 

Cramer, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, transferred to Vet- 
eran Reserve Corps, mustered out Nov. 1, 1865. 

Dirrim, Isaac C, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out July 21, 1865. 

Duck, Samuel, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out May 20, 1865 . 

Gondy, Henry W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Gondy, Albert J., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Nov. 27, 1865. 

Gillespie, Clement, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Hunts- 
ville, Ala., July 20, 1864. 

"Wilkins, "William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out July 21, 1865. 

Britton, Alfred J., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, deserted Feb. 12, 

Carpenter, Alva N., mustered in Jan. 10, 1864; discharged Aug. 
31, 1864, as First Sergeant. 

Finch, Jacob, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, deserted Feb. 12,1864. 

Haywood, Charles H, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, deserted Nov. 
16, 1864. 

McClellan, Hugh, mustered in Jan. 10, 1S64, out May 28, 1865. 

Pulver, Joseph, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Nov. 10, 1865. 

Swan, Charles, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Jefferson- 
ville, Iud. s Feb. 12, 1865. 

Story, Willard G., mustered in Jan. 10, 1S64, out Aug. 2, 1865. 


DeLong, Solomon, commissioned Major March 1, 1S64, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel June 15, 1864, resigned Dec. 10, 1864. 


Company A. 

Dunn, Lewis, mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant June 1, 1865, mustered out as First 
Sergeant Aug. 29, 1865. 

Bonney, Thaddeus S., commissioned Second Lieutenant Jan. 5, 
1S64, discharged Dec. 24, 1864, for absence without leave. 

Mason, John A., mustered in as Corporal Jan. 10, 1864, out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Brown, William, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Casebeer, George, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Enzer, Ephraim, mustered in Jan. 10, 1S64, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Fisher, William, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., June 8, 1864. 

Lower, Alonzo, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Myers, James, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Nelson, Ira, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Nelson, Charles, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, died at Newbern, 
N. C, April 31, 1865. 

Nelson, Daniel, mustered in Jan. 10, 1864, out Aug. 4, 1865. 

Steeley, John C, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out June 8, 1865. 

Taylor, Wm. H., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Veley, Josiah B., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Company C. 

Baer, Hiram, mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Cordry, John W., mustered in Dec. 16, 1863, died at Marietta, 
Ga., July S, 1864. 

Hively, Noah, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Marietta, Ga., 
July 27, 1864. 

Martin, Cyrus, mustered in March 6, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Swartz, Jacob, mustered in Jan. 6, 1864, deserted March 12, 1864. 

Swartz, Amos, mustered in March 6, 1864, deserted March 12, 
IS 64. 

Company F. 

DeLong, Solomon, commissioned Captain Dec. 31, 1863, pro- 
moted Major and Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Baer, Obadiah, commissioned First Lieutenant Dec. 31, 1863, 
Captain March 2, 1864, resigned Dec. 26, 1864. 

Smith, Philander, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant March 2, 1864, First Lieutenant Jan. 1, 1865, 
mustered out Aug. 29, 1865. 


Beckley, Henry C, mustered in as Sergeant Jan. 11, 1864, com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Jan. 1, 1865, mustered out as First 
Sergeant Aug. 29, 1865. 

McNabb, John O., mustered in as First Sergeant Jan. 11, 1864, 
out as private Aug. 29, 1S65. 

Cogsdill, Gideon, mustered in as Sergeant Jan. 11, 1864, out Sept'. 
2, 1865. 

Williams, Samuel, mustered in as Sergeant Jan. 11, 1864, out, 
as First Sergeant, Aug. 29, 1865. 

Brown, Alva, mustered in as Sergeant Jan. 11, 1S64, killed at 
Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. 

Sloan, Thomas O., mustered in as Corporal Jan. 11, 1864, out 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Clark, John, mustered in as Corporal Jan. 11, 1864, died at 
Marietta, Ga., Sept. 20, 1864. 

Shirts, Uriah J., mustered in as Corporal Jan. 11, 1S64, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Dowell, Alexander B., mustered in as Corporal June 11, 1864, 
died at Knoxville, Tenn., June 20, 1864. 

Adams, Newton M., mustered in as Corporal June 11, 1864, out 
May 19, 1865. 

Rupert, Edward, mustered in as Corporal Jan. 11, 1864, killed at 
Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. 

Calkins, Milo F., mustered in as Musician Jan. 11, 1864, out as 
Fife-Major Aug. 29, 1865. 

Knaff, Leslie, mustered in as Musician Jan. 11, 1864, out June 
9, 1865. 

Abel, Walter, mustered in March 7, 1864, out as Corporal Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Adams, David W., mustered in Jan, 11, 1864, discharged May 
8, 1865. 

Amrine, John M., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Sept. 14, 1865. 

Bishop, George A., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Beard, Cyrus, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Marietta, Ga., 
July 28, 1864. 

Brnbaker, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Crouse, John, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Chilson, Madison I., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 

Cogsdill, Chalon D., mustered in March 19, 1864, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 


Cole, George, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Chilcoat, Daniel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Delong, David, mustered in Jan. 11, 1861, out as Hospital 
Steward Aug. 29, 1S65. 

Delong, Henry, mustered in Jan. 11, 1S64, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Delong, Alfred, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, discharged Aug. 
29, 1864. 

Depew, Samuel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Dyke, Manlius E., mustered in Jan. 11, 1S64, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., May 8, 1864. 

Erl, Abraham, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Faurot, ¥m. N., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Sept. 15, 1865. 

Fusselman, Nelson, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out June 21, 1865. 

Fowler, Samuel A., mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., June 1, 1864. 

Flint, Gustin, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Griffith, Clark W., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Haynes, Lorenzo, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1S65. 

Hively, David J., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Herman, Henry, mustered in March 7, 1864, deserted May 20, 

Hawkins, John B., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out June 7, 1865. 

Headley, Wilson S., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hosier, Joseph, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, discharged Dec. 26, 

Hosier, Daniel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hosier, John, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Hosier, Samuel, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, deserted March 12, 

Hosier, Lewis D., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, deserted March 
12, 1864. 

Hobnic, Henry W., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, deserted March 
31, 1864. 

Hart, Alexander, mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Houser, John H., mustered in March 19, 1864, out June 8, 1865. 

Joray, Paul A., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Kimes, Andrew I., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Kroh, David, mustered in Jan. 11, 1S64, died at Madison, Ind., 
Aug. 14, 1864. 

Loomis, Drayton, mustered in Jan. 11, 1S64, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 


Luttman, Martin, mustered in Jan. 11, 1364, deserted March 
12, 1864. 

McConnell, Henry P., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 

Moody, Judson S., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Camp 
Dennison, Ohio, Nov. 30, 1864. 

Morrow, Jacob S., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, deserted May 21, 

Milliman, Joel A., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Mathews, Edward, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Mathews, Yolney F., mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Proctor, Charles, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, deserted Nov. 18, 

Kawson, Edward, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Peed, Isaac, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, killed at Atlanta, Ga., 
Aug. 6. 1864. 

Revert, Henry, mustered in Dec. 28, 1863, deserted Oct. 28, 1864. 

Revert, Jacob, mustered in Dec. 16, 1893, out Sept. 11, 1865. 

Smith, George, mustered in Dec. 1, 1863, discharged June 15, 

Sloan, David A., mustered in Dec. 28, 1863, died at Marietta, 
Ga., Aug. 10, 1864. 

Staley, Abraham, mustered in Dec. 14, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1863. 

Squires, John W., mustered in Dec. 19, 1863, out Aug. 29, 1863. 

Shook, Samuel G., mustered in Dec. 19,1863, out Aug. 29, 1863. 

Shoemaker, Horace, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, discharged April 
5, 1864. 

Shirey, Peter, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, deserted March 12, 1864. 

Williams, David, mustered in Jan. 8, 1864, deserted May 21, 

Weir, James, mustered in Dec. 18, 1863, discharged March 
18, 1865. 

Wilson, John C, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, died at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., April 25, 1864. 

Whirley, Abraham H., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 
29, 1865. 

Wiley, David A., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out as Corporal 
Aug. 29, 1865. 

Wendell, John R., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Nashville, 
Tenn., April 8, 1864. 


Wert, William, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 

Willtrout, William R., mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Wash- 
ington, D. O, Feb. 6, 1865. 

Whiffle, Newman, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, discharged Jan. 
27, 1865. 

Yater, Moses, mustered in Jan. 11, 1864, died at Beanford, N. C, 
April 8, 1865. 

Zubrook, Frederick, mustered in Jan. 5, 1864, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., June 8, 1864. 

Company H. 

North, Jacob, mustered in as Corporal March 19, 1864, out June 
8, 1865. 

Freeby, John H., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Sept. 2, 1865. 

Sleutz, John K., mustered in March 7, 1864, out Aug. 29, 1865. 
Company 1. 

Lockwood, Delos, mustered in March 7, 1864, died at Knoxville, 
Tenn., June 12. 1864. 

Shaver, Francis B., mustered in March 19, 1864, died in Ander- 
sonville Prison Aug. 30, 1864. 

Wellington. Harrison, mustered in as Wagoner March 7, 1864, 
died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 21, 1864. 


Company C. 
Wright, Isaac, mustered in Sept. 10, 1864, died at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Jan. 24, 1865. 


Company A. 

Frick, Henry, mustered in as Sergeant Sept. 17, 1864, out June 
28, 1865. 

Mills, James C, mustered in as Corporal Sept. 14, 1864, out 
as private June 28, 1865. 

Baxter, Emmett, mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, deserted Oct. 4, 

Baxter, George, mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, deserted Oct. 8, 1864. 

Campbell, Wm., mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Gindlesparger, Abraham, mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, out as 
Corporal June 28, 1865. 


Gindlesparger, William, mustered in Sept. 14, 1864, out June 
28, 1865. 

Kreger, George, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Kreger, John, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Kigby, Aaron, mustered in Sept. 25, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 

Rigby, David, mustered in Oct. 14, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 

Eigbv, Eli, mustered in Sept. 17, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Speer, Elzie, mustered in Sept. 20, 1864, out as Corporal June 
28, 1865. 

Speer, Robinson E., mustered in Sept. 20, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Treesb, Isaac, mustered in Sept. 13, 1S64, out June 28, 1865. 

Treesh, Levi, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Vail, Jacob, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Widener, Albertus, mustered in Sept. 13, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 
Company D. 

Bowman, Jobn W., mustered in Oct. 13, 1864, out July 12, 1865. 

Balenline, James, mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 

Debelbus, John, mustered in Oct. 28, 18 # 64, out July 14, 1865. 

Funk, Benjamin H., mustered in Oct. 13*1864, out July 12, 1865. 

Palmer, Anthony, mustered in Sept. 28, 1864, out June 28, 1865. 

Pifer, John, mustered in Oct. 13, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 

Worden, John, mustered in Oct. 13, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 
Company F. 

Oberholtzer, Samuel, mustered in Nov. 10, 1864, out July 
14, 1865. 

Company G. 

Hettinger, John, mustered in Oct. 22, 1864, out July 14, 1865. 
Points, George H., mustered in Oct. 20, 1864, out July 4, 1865. 


Griswold, Whedon W., commissioned Colonel March 9, 1865, 
mustered out with regiment. 

Chamberlain, James N., commissioned Surgeon April 17, 1865, 
mustered out with regiment. 

Mercer, William M., commissioned Assistant Surgeon March 9, 
1865, mustered out with regiment. 

Company B. 

Casebeer, J. O., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Casebeer, Jacob W., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 


Casebeer, Albert M., mustered in-Feb. 17, 1865, died at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., March 10, 1865. 

Fuller, Andrew C, mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out May 25, 1865. 

Fuller, William M., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, discharged 
March 15, 1865. 

McClellan, John G., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out May 17, 1865. 

Company C. 

Lemasters, William, mustered in as Sergeant Feb. 22, 1861, out 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

Chilcoat, Humphrey E., mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, out Aug. 
30, 1865. 

Bair, Loami C, mustered in Feb. 19, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Coats, William H., mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, died at Columbus, 
Ohio, March 24, 1865. 

Drowley, Edward C, mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Jennings, David, mustered in Feb. 20, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

McGrady, David, mustered in Feb. 20, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Kheineohl, Henry H., mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Swager, Uriah, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, died at Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., March 6, 1865. 

Wycoff, James W., mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Wycoff, William, mustered in Feb. 24, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Wanemaker, George, mustered in Feb. 22, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Company H. 

Moss, Holland K., mustered in as Sergeant March 3, 1865, out 
Aug. 30, 1865. 

Kickets, Riley, mustered in as Corporal March 7, 1S65, out Aug. 
30, 1865. 

Boyles, Newton, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Sept. 29, 1865. 

Bryan, James, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Crooks, Albert, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Fike, Abraham, mustered in March 2, 1865, out June 29, 1865. 

Furney, Jacob, mustered in March 2, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1S65. 

Houser, Calvin P., mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Jones, Edward, mustered in March 7, 1865, out May 16, 1865. 

Johnson, Uriah E., mustered in March 4, 1865, out July 31, 1865. 



Knight, James, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Michaels, George, mustered in March 2, 1865, out Oct. 28, 1865. 
Nussdorfer, Philip, mustered in March 3, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Rummell, Owen W., mustered in Feb. 17, 1865, out Aug. 30, 

Summerlot, Hiram, mustered in March 7, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 
Shore, John W., mustered in March 2, 1865, out Aug. 30, 1865. 

Company K. 
Squires, Orville, mustered in March 15, 1865, out May 21, 1865. 



Auburn Observer. — Democratic Messenger. — De Kalb Demo- 
crat. — Auburn Republican. — De Kalb County Times. — "Wa- 
terloo Press. — Sketch of Frank W. Willis. — The New- 
Era. — Observer and Reporter. — De Kalb Democrat. — The 
Democrat. — The Air Line. — Auburn Courier. — Sketch of 
James A. Barns. — Butler Herald. — Banner of Liberty. 
— Auburn Times. — Butler News. — De Kalb County Repub- 
lican. — Sketch of C. P. Houser. — Sketch of Myron H. 
Hoisington. — Garrett News. — Garrett Herald. — Sketch 
of Otho J. Powell.— Butler Record. — Sketch of W.F. Gar- 
rison. — Butler Review. — Sketch of Edmund Calkins. — Sketch 
of J. J. Higgins. 

No agency is a more effective help to modern progress than that 
of the press. Any county which possesses one or more newspapers 
and sustains them will in due time show its superiority to less 
favored localities. Prior to 1850 whatever les;al printing was re- 
quired by De Kalb County was done at Fort Wayne. Later S. E. 
Alvord established the Observer at Albion, and obtained some of 
the local patronage from this direction. For a year or so his paper 
received the limited legal printing from De Kalb County, and early 
in 1852 he announced by prospectus his intention to issue, at Au- 
burn, a paper to be styled the Auburn Observer. This was not ac- 
complished, however, for lack of encouragement. Later, the press 
was sold to Messrs. Berry & Pierce, who at once removed it to Au- 
burn, and started the Democratic Messenger, the first paper in the 
county. It had a precarious existence. Within a year Mr. Berry 
retired, and Mr. Pierce was soon after elected Auditor. The office 
was destroyed by fire in December, 1855. In 1856 two papers were 
started at the county seat, the De Kalb Democrat, by W. C. Mc- 
Gonigal, and the Auburn Republican, by J. M. Bromagem. At 
the close of the exciting Presidential campaign of that year, the 
latter removed his establishment to Angola and there began the 
issue of the Steuben Republican. In 1859 Mr. McGonigal moved 
his press to Wabash, and established the Wabash Plaindealer. 


Just before the fall election of 1858, W. T. & J. M. Kinney began 
at Auburn the publication of the DeKalb County Times. Within 
three months the proprietors found that to continue was to lose, 
and sold out to T. Y. Dickinson, who removed the office to "Water- 
loo and on the first Thursday in February, 1S59, issued the 


the first paper printed in De Kalb County, outside of Auburn. 
During the year 1860, Mr. 0. K. Baxter was associated with him 
as partner. Mr. Baxter was a printer in the office when the first 
number of the Press was issued. Beginning with Jan. 1, 1861, 
Mr. Dickinson was once more sole proprietor, and he owned the 
paper until September, 1864, although during 1863 it was leased 
by John F. Kadcliffe. Mr. Dickinson was commissioned Consul at 
Leipsic by Abraham Lincoln April 13, 1865 (the day before his as- 
sassination), and this position he held for two years, after which he 
returned to Waterloo. He was for a time a clerk in the Pension 
Office at Washington, and then entered the railway mail service. 
His health failed and he died in the State Asylum for the Insane 
after an active useful life. 

In September, 1864, Mr. Dickinson was bought out by Charles 
K. Baxter, who retained control six months, and then sold to 
Messrs. Radcliffe & Long. After a time Henry J. Long sold his 
interest to Benjamin F. Kennedy. He is now at Kendallville, the 
publisher of The Coming Times. Mr. Kennedy is still living at 
Waterloo, though broken down in health. In September, 1868, 
Mr. Baxter purchased the half interest owned by Mr. Radcliffe. 
The latter gentleman is now publisher of the Hersey Outline, at 
Hersey, Osceola Co., Mich. The firm of Baxter & Kennedy 
subsisted until October, 1865, when the first named became sole 
proprietor. Mr. Baxter remained in control until Jan. 1, 1884, 
since when he has lived at Waterloo, not actively engaged in busi- 
ness. His successors are Dickinson & Willis, the present publish- 
ers. Edward P. Dickinson, the son of the founder of the Press, is 
employed in the railway mail service. The Press is a staunch 
Bepublican paper, issued Thursday of each week. In size, it a six- 
column quarto; previous to 1S80 it was an eight-column folio. 
Sept. 1, 1884, began its twenty -seventh year, and it is accordingly 
twice the age of any other paper in the county. 

Frank W. Willis, editor and part proprietor of the Press, was 
born in the city of Syracuse, N. Y., June 12, 1842, the son of 


Henry and Emeline (Hewitt) Willis. Henry Willis followed canal- 
boating and other occupations in New York State, and in 1844 
came to DeKalb County, settling on a tract of land in Richland 
Township. Here he resided, engaged in farming, until 1864, when, 
being elected Sheriff of the county, he removed to Waterloo. He 
held the office four years, or two terms, and then purchased the in- 
terest of C. K. Baxter in the book-store owned by that gentleman 
and Frank W. Willis. He has since continued in partnership with 
his son. His wife died at Waterloo, Aug. 10, 1875. 

The subject of tbis sketch was reared on the farm and attended 
the common schools. He also studied at Orland Seminary, and 
at the Auburn and Waterloo High Schools. In 1861 he offered his 
services to his country, enlisting in the Forty-fourth Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantrj', Company K, and remained in the army a little 
over three years. Returning home after his discharge, he was ap- 
pointed Assistant Assessor and Deputy Collector for the Tenth Con- 
gressional District, by William Pitt Fessender, Secretary of the 
Treasury under Audrew Johnson. He satisfactorily discharged 
the duties thus assumed, for four years. In January, 1867, he 
purchased the book-store of H. K. Davis, and C. K. Baxter pur- 
chasing that of T. Y. Dickinson, the two then consolidated their 
business under the firm name of Baxter & Willis. In December, 
1868, as before stated, his father purchased Mr. Baxter's interest. 
He is now interested in both the paper and the store. 

Sept. 27, 1868, at Waterloo, Mr. Willis was married to Josephine 
Dickinson, daughter of T. Y. and Mary (Youngman) Dickinson. 
Of the children given to Mr. and Mrs. Willis, Mary Gertrude was 
born Oct. 31, 1869; Herbert Clyde, Dec. 15, 1871; Fred I., Sept. 27, 
1873; Raymond E., Aug. 11, 1875; Edward D., Nov. 9, 1877; 
Dora E., Sept. 13, 1880; Frank B., Oct. 13, 1882. Mr. Willis and 
wife are members of the Presbyterian church, in which organiza- 
tion he is an Elder. He is politically a Republican, and he is a 
member of the G. A. R. He is also a Notary Public, and a Claim 

The JVew Era was founded in the fall of 1859, at Auburn, by 
George Kuhlman. It passed into the hands of J. C. Loveland, by 
whom it was continued until 1865, when Loveland removed the 
office to Clyde, Ohio. He had entitled his paper the Observer and 
Reporter, but on removal it was christened the Clyde Times. The 
second, De Kalo Democrat, was started by William H. Dills, in 
1S64, at Auburn. Later, it was managed by Howard Coe. Afire 


destroyed the office during the winter of 1S67. H. D. Carroll pub- 
lished a paper called the Democrat during 1867, and discontinued 
it tbe year following. 

The Air Line was started in December, 1868, at Waterloo, by 
J. F. Radeliffe. James A. Barns purchased the paper soon after, 
and published the same for a time. In December, 1870, the Air 
Line was discontinued, and the press and material sold to Tom C. 
Mays, who then removed it to Auburn and originated the 


The first number of this paper appeared in January, 1871, as a 
seven-column folio. In a few months this was increased to an 
eight-column folio, and Jau. 1, 1877, the present size, that of a six- 
column quarto, was adopted. Mr. Mays was a genial, popular 
editor, and, when he chose, could write an able article. He made 
some enemies, however, during his seven years and a half at the 
head of tlie Courier. He formerly came from Ohio, and previous 
to locating at Auburn was connected with the Fort Wayne Senti- 
nel. July 1, 1878, he sold out to Theodore Reed, and announced 
himself a candidate for the office of County Clerk. He was de- 
feated by George H. K. Moss, Republican candidate, by 600 
majority. Shortly after, Mr. Mays went to Silver Cliff, Col., for a 
company of gentlemen interested in that mining town, and started 
the Silver Cliff Miner. After a few months he left; and drifting 
around in various places, he went to Hot Springs in 1881, where 
he was for a time connected with the Hot Springs Daily Star. He 
is now traveling. 

Theodore Reed, the next proprietor, came hither from Columbia 
City, Whitley County, where he had been Deputy Auditor. He 
shortly sold an interest in the paper to Robert J. Lowry, son of 
Judge Robert Lowry, who is now in Congress from this district. 
The firm of Reed & Lowry continued until the spring of 1880, 
when Mr. Lowry purchased Mr. Reed's interest. The latter weni 
into the employ of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company as book- 
keeper in the construction department, and in this capacity he is 
now, residing at St. Paul, Minn. Mr. Lowry, who had followed 
printing in various places, and was fully competent to carry on a 
paper, conducted the Courier until his death, a few months later. 

In December, 1880, the office was purchased by James A. Barns 
and D. Y. Husselman, who conducted the paper during 1881. Jan. 
1, 1882, F. B. Blair bought the interest of Mr. Husselman, who 




thereupon resumed the practice of the law. He was elected County 
Clerk in the fall of 1882 , and assumed the duties of that position 
in November, 18S4. For a biography of Mr. Husselmau, see the 
chapter devoted to the bar. Mr. Blair, a son of General Lewis J. 
Blair, of Waterloo, remained with the Courier but a short time, 
disposing of his interest to Mr. Barns in March, 1882. He is now 
day operator for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad 
Company, at La Porte. 

James A. Barns, proprietor and editor of the Courier, was born 
in Onondaga County, N. Y., near Memphis, June 7, 1832, the son 
of Cyrus and Eliza (Elliott) Barns. He was reared to farm life, his 
father removing to La Porte County, this State, and taking up a 
tract of land there, in 1839. He profited by the advantages of the 
district schools, and on arriving at years of maturity taught two 
winters in Berrien County, Mich., but a few miles from his home. 
He then, in 1855, entered Hillsdale College, where he for three 
years attended the fall and winter terms, teaching in the winters 
and working at whatever offered itself in the summers. He lacked 
but two terms of graduation at the college, and during his contest 
with stern problems of life he has found time to acquire vastty 
more book knowledge than was comprised in the regular course of 
study for those two terms. Adopting the vocation of a teacher, 
Mr. Barns then conducted schools in Berrien and La Porte counties; 
was for two years principal of the High School at Wolf Lake, Noble 
County; two years principal at Pierceton, Kosciusko County; two 
years principal at Ligonier, Noble County; and coming to Water- 
loo, this county, in August, 1869, he taught there for one year. 
Purchasing the Air Line, he conducted that paper for six months, 
after which he was for another year principal of the school at 
Waterloo. Commencing with 1S71, he was School Examiner for 
two years; and that office being changed by law to County Super- 
intendent, he held the latter position for the ensuing six years, 
consecutively, and also from 1881 to 18S3. From 1879 to 1883 he 
was engaged in the ice business at Syracuse, Kosciusko County. 
In December, 18S0, he became interested in the Courier, as before 
stated. Mr. Barns was married at Pierceton, Ind., Dec. 8, 1867, 
to Miss Alicia H. Lamson, daughter of Lafayette and Phebe (Scott) 
Lamson. One daughter has been born — Nellie L., Nov. 9, 1874. 
Mr. Barns is politically a staunch Democrat. Mrs. Barns is a 
member of the Presbyterian church. 

The Herald was the first paper published at Butler. It began 


its brief but creditable career in 1866, under the management of 
W. T. Kinney, who, a year after, removed his material to Ligonier, 
and there started another paper. The Herald was succeeded at 
Butler, in 1868, by the Banner of Liberty, published by Emory 
Higley. He soon removed to Auburn, where he continued it 
under the caption of the Auburn Times, for a brief period. The 
Butler News was commenced in the town designated, in 1874, by 
K. EL Weamer, who, after a few months, removed the office to 
Auburn, and started the 


Mr. Weamer afterward received, as a partner, George Weamer, a 
nephew; and in March, 1878, R. H. Weamer's interest was pur- 
chased by C. B. Houser. This partnership continued until May 
following, when the latter disposed of his share to George Weamer, 
who then became sole proprietor. In March, 1881, the Republican 
office became the property of C. B. Houser and Joseph Rainier, 
the latter of whom sold to Mr. Houser in November following. In 
June, 1884, Mr. Houser received, as a partner, Myron H. Hois- 
ington. The Republican was a five-column quarto until Mr. 
Houser came into the business, since which date it has been a six- 
column quarto. It was printed on the co-operative plan until July 
10, 1884, when the present policy was adopted of printing all eight 
pages at home. The new Potter press purchased in September, 
1883, was the first cvlinder press in the county. 

C B. Houser, the senior proprietor of the Republican, was born 
in Holmes County, Ohio, Jan. 11, 1844, the son of Samuel and 
Julia Ann (Wortsbaugh) Houser. Samuel Houser was for many 
years a teacher, and he also followed agriculture a portion of his 
life. In 1857 he removed with his family to Fairfield Township, 
this county, where he cleared a tract of land, and carried on farm- 
ing for eight years. He then exchanged his farm for a stock of 
dry-goods at Corunna, shortly afterward removing the same to Se- 
dan. He then sold out and removed to Kendallville, in 1872. 
From this time on he traveled for various school-furnishing com- 
panies, among them being A. H. Andrews & Co., of Chicago; 
George H. Grant & Co., of Richmond; the Noble School Furnish- 
ing Company, of Goshen; the Sidney School Furnishing Company, 
of Sidney, Ohio, and one at Battle Creek, Mich. He was ac- 
cidentally run over Sept. 17, 1884, and died seven days later, on 
the 24th. The subject of this sketch received a good common 


English education, and early in 1865 enlisted in the army, serving 
eight months. Returning home, he taught school several terms 
in Fairfield Township, one year at Corunna, and several years at 
Sedan. In 1870 he entered the Indiana State Normal School at 
Terre Haute, remaining from spring to fall, after which he taught 
a term one mile south of Corunna, in Richland Township. In the 
spring of 1871 he entered the county auditor's office as deputy, 
remaining the summer following. He then taught one year at 
Auburn, and in 1872, just before his father commenced traveling 
for school-supply companies, he engaged in the same business. He 
was first in the employ of A. H. Andrews & Co., of Chicago, for 
eight years. In the mean time, from 1874 to 1877, he conducted 
the first bookstore in Auburn, selling the same in the latter year to 
M. B. Willis. In May, 1878, he engaged on salary (having pre- 
viously worked on commission) with C. E. Dickinson & Co., branch 
house of A. H. Andrews & Co., and in 1880 he made an engage- 
ment direct with the latter firm. Commencing in February, 1883, 
he was for six months Gener al School-Book Agent for Indiana, for 
D. Appleton & Co. In 1880 he became connected with the Repub- 
lican, as before related, and he still carries on the paper, besides 
devoting a portion of his time to the school-supply trade. He was 
married March 28, 1872, to Miss Amanda E. Hoisington, daughter 
of H. H. and Malinda (Hart) Hoi sington, of Newville, this county. 
Mr. Houser is a member of the Legion of Honor and the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and he and Mrs. Houser are members of the 
Presbyterian church. 

Mybon H. Hoisington, junior proprietor of the Republican, was 
born in "Wyandotte County, Ohio, Feb. 3, 1860, the son of Albert 
and Emily (Mulholland) Hoisington. The father followed agri- 
culture. He enlisted in the One Hundred and Forty-fourth Ohio, 
was captured in August, 1864, and starved in Danville, Va., in the 
rebel prison, dying Nov. 19, 1864. His widow resides now at 
Adrian, Mich. Myron H., the subject of this notice, lived in Wy- 
andotte County, Ohio, till the fall of 1S79, when he removed with 
his mother to Adrian, Mich. Here he attended Adrian College for 
four years, completing the Sophomore year of the course. In the 
fall of 1883 he visited Illinois, and in January, 1884, he came to 
Auburn. During April and May, 18S4, he traveled in Ohio for 
the Union School Furnishing Company, and June 1, 1884, he pur- 
chased a one-third interest in the Republican. 

In October, 1875, C. W. Wing & Co. started the Garrett News, 


with Thomas Malony as editor. This paper was of short duration, 
and the town was for some time dependent upon Auburn for its 
newspapers. In August, 1877, however, the 


was established by Otho J. Powell. It was first a seven-column 
folio, then an eight-column folio, and since Feb. 7, 1884, it has 
appeared as a five-column quarto. The Herald is Republican in 
politics, and is pronounced in its advocacy of temperance. Con- 
siderable space is also given to the religious department. 

Otho J. Powell, editor and proprietor, was born in Washington 
County, Md., Oct. 8, 183S, the son of Moses G. and Maria (Price) 
Powell. The former was by occu pation a cooper, but also followed 
carpentering for some years. He died in his native county in 1859. 
Otho was reared one mile west of the village of Boonesboro, where 
he lived until twenty-two years old. He received but limited school 
advantages, being early set at work at the cooper's trade. He first 
worked at this when ten years old, and so small that he had to stand 
on a box while putting the hoops on the flour barrels. At the age 
of twenty-two he spent six months as a student under the instruc- 
tion of a Mr. James Brown. This gentleman was a skillful teacher, 
and had taught for twenty -five years, Mr. Powell's father having 
studied under him. He was next employed in the printing office 
of Isaiah Wolfei-sberger, at Boonesboro, publisher of the Boones- 
boro Odd Fellow, a Whig newspaper. Wolfersberger selling to 
Messrs. Irwin & Bruner, Mr. Powell worked for those gentlemen 
as foreman about three months, at the expiration of which time he 
followed coopering for a summer, with his father. On the approach 
of troops toward Antietam, a few miles distant, he formed a part- 
nership with one Daniel Thomas, to act as sutler to the Union 
soldi irs. This he followed for two months. Nov. 13, 1862, he came 
to Upper Sandusky, Ohio, and until May 2, 1864, he acted as fore- 
man in the office of the Wyandotte ^County Pioneer, published by 
Lewis A. Bruner. He then enlisted in the One Hundred aud 
Forty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company A, and served 
about four months, during which time he was stationed at the 
Relay House, nine miles below Baltimore. Returning to Upper 
Sandusky in September, he was offered anjinterest in the Pio?iee?', 
by Mr. Bruner, aud the paper was published for nine months under 
the name of Bruner & Powell. In August, 1865, Mr. Powell was 
paid, by his partner, $50, to annul a three years' contract. He 


purchased an office at Bucyrus, Ohio, and moved it to Wapakoneta, 
Auglaize County, where he started the Wapakoneta Union, Sept. 
13, 1865. This was the first Republican paper in that county, and 
after many changes and vicissitudes, it has become a permanent 
success, though under a changed name. 

In June, 1S70, he sold to E. B. Walkup, and with the proceeds 
went into the sewing-machine business. This he followed for 
nearly two years, dealing first in the Davis, and latterly in the 
Elias Howe machine. Mr. Walkup having moved his office to 
Marysville, in the same county, and started a neutral paper, leav- 
ing no Republican paper in the county, in September, 1872, Mr. 
Powell started at Wapakoneta the Auglaize County Republican 
which he published until December, 1875. Removing to Chicago 
Junction, Ohio, he started the Chicago Herald. Here he did a 
good business until a disastrous fire caused a decline in the town's 
prosperity. He then, in August, 1S77, moved his material to Gar- 
rett, as before mentioned, and commenced the publication of the 
Garrett Herald. 

Mr. Powell was married at Upper Sandusky, Ohio, Feb. 11, 
1864, to Miss Sophia Smith, daughter of Samuel and Catherine 
Smith, of that city. To Mr. and Mrs. Powell have been given five 
children, four of whom survive — Ella M. was born July 6, 1866; 
Willis B., April 12, 1868; Clarence, Jan. 20, 1870 (died when ten 
months old); Mary A., Nov. 23, 1872; and Florence L., Sept. 28, 
1881. Mr. Powell and wife are members of the English Lutheran 
church, but attend the Episcopal church, their own denomination 
having no organization at Garrett. 


The Butler Record was established in March, 1877, by W. M. 
Kist. Mr. Kist's home was in Warsaw, Kosciusko County, but for 
a year previous to coming here he had conducted the Manchester 
Journal, at Manchester, Ind. He published the Record until the 
fall of 1880, when failing health compelled him to give up his work. 
He leased the paper to R. H. Weamer for one year, and died six 
months later, at Warsaw. In the fall of 18S1, at the expiration of 
Mr. Weamer's lease, Mrs. Kist sold the office to her brother, W. F. 
Garrison, who has since conducted the Record with good success. 
It is a Republican sheet published on Friday. In size, it is an 
eight-column folio. Before Mr. Garrison's proprietorship it was a 
six-column folio. 


W. F. Gaeeison, editor and proprietor, was born in "Washing- 
ton Township, Elkhart County, Dec. 1, 1855, the son of Alfred and 
Mary (Jaques) Garrison. The latter was a native of Ohio. The 
father, a native of the Empire State, followed farming until the last 
ten or twelve years of his life, when he retired from active work, 
and made his home in the village of Bristol, Elkhart County. He 
died in 1881, and his widow now lives at Butler with her son. The 
grandfather of W. F. Garrison was a Baptist minister, was one of 
the first settlers in Elkhart County, and preached the first funeral 
sermon in the same. The subject of this notice lived on the pa- 
rental farm until sixteen years old (except two years in Bristol), 
and then made his home in Bristol. He attended the common 
schools, and received a good English education. At the age of 
seventeen he commenced teaching, which he followed for seven 
winters, working during the summer seasons at whatever offered 
itself. He was then married and managed his father's farm until 
the fall of 1881, when he came to Butler. His marriage occurred 
at Bristol, March 19, 187S, to Miss Emma Virgil, daughter of Jacob 
and Fidelia (Wade) Virgil. Mr. Garrison is a zealous Republican. 
Mrs. Garrison is connected with the Baptist church. 


The Butler Review is the youngest newspaper in De Kalb County. 
It was established in February, 1882, by R. H. Weamer, who was 
formerly publisher of the Record, and before that, of the De Kalb 
Republican. The Review is Democratic in political aim. It is a 
six-column quarto in size, though formerly much smaller. Oct. 1, 

1884, Mr. Weamer disposed of the paper, and it was edited by 
Edmund Calkins until March, 1885. From March until May, 

1885, the Review was edited by George Lautzenheiser, when it 
was purchased by John J. Higgins, who is now editor and sole 

Edmund Calkins was born April 25, 1S36, in "West Corn- 
wallis, N. S., the son of Elias and Hannah Calkins. The father 
was a farmer the greater part of his life, but now resides in Hali- 
fax. Edmund was reared on his father's farm until the age of 
eighteen, attending school winters, and then for three years attended 
Arcadia Colle ge. Attaining his majority, he worked for a sum- 
mer in New York State, and then for two years in Wisconsin suc- 
cessively on the La Crosse & Milwaukee, the Baraboo Valley, and 
the Transit (of Minnesota) railroads. Coming next to Indiana, he 


was for a time interested in contracts for the Pan Handle Bail- 
road. He then followed farming until 1882, when he purchased 
the Roann Clarion, and became publisher of the same. This he 
sold on account of sickness. In the fall of 1 884 he purchased his 
interest in the Review. He was married in 1860 to Hattie 
Barron, by whom he had a son and a daughter. 

John J. Higgins, editor of the Butler Review, was born in 
the city of New York, April 9, 1853, a son of James Higgins, a 
native of Blackburn, Lancashire, England, who was lost in a 
shipwreck when our subject was eighteen months old. He at- 
tended the schools of New York till January, 1864, and then 
accompanied his mother to St. Johns, Mich., where his education 
was completed. In 1872 he went to Newport, Mich., and re- 
mained till the summer of 1875, when he returned to St. Johns. 
The following fall he went to Windsor, Canada, and in the spring 
of 1876 was ; employed on the lakes as Steward of the schooner 
H. C. Winslow, J. H. Francis, Captain. From July till Novem- 
ber, 1876, he bought grain at Gaines, Mich., for C. Loranger & 
Co., of Detroit, and from that time till the fall of 18S2 bought 
staves for the West India market. In January, 1882, he moved 
to Butler, Ind. He engaged in the grocery business in Butler 
about ten months, and then for a short time was employed as col- 
lector for J. H. Morrow, dealer in bankrupt stocks of boots and 
shoes, leaving the latter position to take charge of the Review. 
Mr. Higgins was married Nov. 25, 1S77, to Lottie E. Barrett, 
daughter of Henry J. Barrett, of Oakley, Mich. They have one 
child — John C. 


Eaelt Members of the Legal Profession. — Others Who have 
Come and Gone. — Present Bar. — First Grand and Petit Ju- 
rors. — First Circuit Court. 

Fast treading upon the heels of the first settlers in any commu- 
nity come the lawyers. They often become the leading men of the 
county from their first arrival, whether they deserve it or not. 
Whatever may be said against courts and litigation and lawyers, 
we know that we have them, and cannot get rid of them ; and after 
all, we are probably better off with than without them. The De 
Kalb County Bar embraces a number of gentlemen of respectabil- 
ity, integrity and intellectual vigor, of whom any community might 
well be proud. A few who have practiced law in years gone by 
should be mentioned before giving a list of the present bar. 

The first lawyer in the county was one W. Smith, who came to 
Auburn in the early part of 1842, and remained about a year and 
a half. But little is known of him, even by those who were then 

Judge Egbert B. Mott came in the summer of 1843, from Ohio. 
He was then about forty years old, and had had considerable prac- 
tice. He held the office of Common Pleas Judge in this county 
for four years, and died about the close of the war. His widow (a 
sister of the well-known authoress, Mrs. Ann S. Stevens) yet lives 
at Auburn. His son, Egbert B. Mott, Jr., was an attorney, en- 
tered the army during the late civil war, was wounded, and died 
at Louisville. He was brought home and he lies buried beside 
his father. 

With regard to the early years of Judge Mott's life in Auburn, 
Mr. Widney says in his " Pioneer Sketches:" 

" At that early day clients were rather scarce. People generally 
had little or nothing to go to law about, and still less to pay law- 
yers' fees, and very little time to spare from their strenuous efforts 
to get the necessaries of life, to spend in court. A few of late 


years seem disposed to make ample amends for this neglect of the 
members of the bar. Judge Mott informs me that his first winter 
in town was spent in the honorable employment of village school- 
master. The following anecdote of Judge Morris comes second- 
handed from the Judge himself. He was at home, rather hard up 
for funds, as was fashionable in that day, and his wife being in 
rather poor health, he was scrubbing the house, with coat off, 
sleeves and pants rolled up, and in a perfect deluge of sand and 
suds, when up stepped a gentleman from the vicinity of Enter- 
prise and inquired where ' Lawyer Morris' was to be found? The 
man with the mop modestly replied that Morris was his name, 
when the stranger, eyeing him askance, told him that he had a 
case before Esquire somebody, in which ' old Doc Ladue' was his 
antagonist, and that he wanted to get two good lawyers on his side, 
' being as the old Doc was rather crafty.' During this short speech, 
Morris was a deeply interested auditor, and when it was finished. 
he quickly laid aside his broom and mop, rolled down his sleeves 
and pants, put on his ' fix-ups,' dressing his lower extremities with 
one boot and one shoe, for want of mates, and in a very short time 
he and Mott were on the trail for Esquire somebody's, away up in 
Franklin Township. Ten dollars was the fee received and perhaps 
never did an 'X' come more opportunely." 

Judge John Moeeis came from Auglaize County, Ohio (born in 
Columbiana County), in the fall of 1844. He was then about twen- 
ty-five years old and of Quaker parentage. He practiced at 
Auburn until 1857, then removed to Fort Wayne. He was Com- 
mon Pleas Judge of this county for four years, from 1852 to 1856. 
For the last few years he has been a member of the Supreme Court 
Commission at Indianapolis, though his home is still at Fort 
Wayne. He is justly regarded as one of the most prominent law- 
yers in Northern Indiana. He is a gentleman and a scholar. His 
son, Samuel L. Morris, is a prominent young attorney at Fort 
Wayne, a member of the firm of Coombs, Bell & Morris. 

Hon. T. Y. Dickinson, another pioneer, came from Portage 
County, Ohio, in the Tall of 1845, being then about thirty years 
old. He was a successful lawyer, and something of a politician. 
Was in the State Senate four years. During the war he was the 
first draft commissioner and enrolling officer appointed for DeKalb 
County. The last few years of his life he was a pension and bounty 
agent. His death occurred in 1880. 

Reuben J. Dawson, of Spencerville, resided in this county for 


twenty years before his death, which occurred in 1859, at the age 
of forty-eight. He was as prominent a man as any that figures in 
the history of Northeastern Indiana. He was prosecuting Attor- 
ney, served a term in each brauch of the Legislature, was nomi- 
nated for Common Pleas Judge in 1852 against Judge Morris, was 
appointed Circuit Judge in 1857 holding the position one year, 
and was a candidate for Congress in 1858, but was defeated by C- 
Case. At the time of his death he was worth $150,000, and was 
the wealthiest man in the county. A man of limited early educa- 
tion, he was yet of decided ability. He had a wonderful power of 
sarcasm which he wielded at times. As a lawyer he was not tech- 
nically learned, but he was distinguished for his great good sense 
in applying the law to the business transactions of life. More is 
said of Mr. Dawson in other chapters of this work. Of his three 
sons, the second is now Prosecuting Attorney in Allen County. 

J. B. Beers came to "Waterloo in 1861, and practiced for two or 
three years, then removin g to Stanton, Mich. He was considered 
as an able lawyer. 

C. P. Hodge practiced at Auburn for about five years during 
and after the war. He is a finely educated man and has taught 
school since withdrawing from practice. 

James B. Morrison resided at the county seat and practiced from 
1858 to 1866. He was an able lawyer and accumulated a goodly 
property and is now banking and farming in the State of Iowa. 

Isaac E. Kniselt was a successful attorney at Waterloo for some 
years subsequent to 1862. He then resided at Ligonier until 1S80, 
when he removed to Toledo. 

Joseph L. Morlan came from Columbiana County, Ohio, in 
1864, settled at Waterloo and practiced until 1880. At the time 
of his death he was a partner of Hon. R. Wes. McBride. He had 
previously been connected with E. D. Hartman. He was a noted 
wit, very eccentric and sharp at repartee. He has been called the 
John Kandolph of the bar. 

Of the present bar, the oldest practitioner is L. Covell, of Gar- 
rett. Next in seniority come W. H. Dills and A. F. Pinchin, who 
were admitted on the same day, in April, 1855. Others who have 
seen long service are General L. J. Blair, C. A. O. McClellan, 
E. D. Hartman, J. E. Rose and E. W. Fosdick. The following is 
a complete list of the De Kalb County bar, arranged in the order of 
their admission to practice: L. Covell, W. H. Dills, A. F. Pin- 
chin, L. J. Blair, C. A. O. McClellan, E. D. Hartman, J. E. Rose, 


E. W. Fosdick, Guy Plum, D. D. Moody, P. J. Lockwood, D. Y. 
Husselman, W. L. Penfield, H. 0. Peterson, A. J. Baxter, P. V. 
Hoffman, R. D. Tefft, C. M. Phillips, W. H. Leas, C. Emanuel, 
O. L. Young, J. B. Boyle, T. H. Sprott, J. M. Somers, C. J. Coats, 

F. A. Brink, Frank S. Roby, H. J .Shafler, Don A. Garwood, F. 
M. Bacon, B. Green, F. K. Blake. 

The following non-resident attorneys also practice here: A. A. 
Chapin, J. A. Woodhull, J. H. Baker. J. A. S. Mitchell, J. Strat- 
ton and H. Y. Zimmerman. 


March 7, 1S38, the Board of Commissioners selected the follow- 
ing list of grand jurors for service at the spring term of the Circuit 
Court: John Rose, Daniel Rhodes, William Miller, John Watson, 
Ira Allen, Jacob Platter, Cornelius Woodcock, John Smith, Benja- 
min Alton, John Holton, Solomon Showers, Henry Miller, Collin 
Robertson, John Blair, Nathan Wyatt, James Stanley, John F. 
Rhodes and Samuel Eakright. The panel of petit jurors was: Will- 
iam Munroe, Jesse Jackson, John P. Widney, Francis A. Wilber, 
Jeremiah Rhodes, Samuel Johnson, William Mathews, Dudley 
Thorp, James Hadsel, Ezra Dickinson, John J. Gunsenhouser, 
Henry Robertson, George H. Abbott, Leonard Boice, Elmer French, 
Peter Draggoo, Joseph Miller, Joseph Vandoler, Henry Bricker, 
Levi Lockwood, Stephen W. Headley, Jacob Miller, Samuel Head- 
ley and Christopher Hull. 

At the same time a list of grand jurors for the fall term of court 
was chosen, comprising Daniel Strong, Daniel Moody, Andrew 
Surface, Samuel Henderson, Daniel Webber, Joseph Stroup, Charles 
D. Hendy, Peter Boyer, William Rogers, John Clemmer, George 
DeLong, Jacob Weinid, Peter Day, RufusR. Lounsbury, Kneeland 
Abbott, John Webster, Luther Keep and Asher W. Coburn. The 
petit jurors for the fall term were: Michael Boyer, William Means, 
Alonzo Hill, Eli Welch, Roger Aldrich, Hector Blake, Frazier 
Bartlett, George W. Weeks, David Knight, John Miller, Henry 
Dove, George Babcock, Robert Work, Samuel Terney, Lot B. Coe, 
Solomon Woodcock, James Means, William Day, Hazzard Web- 
ster, Michael Knight, Levin us Abell, Joshua Feagler, Willis Bishop 
and David Butler. 


The first term of the De Kalb Circuit Court began May 9, 1838, 
at the house of Wesley Park. Hon. Charles W. Ewing, of the 


Eighth Indiana Circuit, was President Judge; and Arial "Walden 
and Thomas L. Yates were his associates. John F. Coburn was 
Clerk; Wesley Park, Sheriff, and Thomas Johnson, Prosecuting At- 
torney. Messrs. Woodcox, Alton, Houghton, Mil ler and Ehodes 
not appearing, the panel of eighteen grand jurors was filled by se- 
lecting from the bystanders J. P. "Widney, Levi Lockwood, Lot P. 
Coe, Jacob Miller and Jeremiah Rhodes. The only business trans- 
acted after the organization of court was to order bail in the sum 
of $300 from persons indicted for grand larceny; and $25 for illegal 
retailing of liquor. Luther Keep was appointed County Commis- 
sioner in place of A. F. Beecher; Anthony Max was allowed $1.00 
for services as bailiff of the grand jury, and T. J. Freeman, Joseph 
Miller and L. Ingman were appointed School Examiners. 



De Kat.b County Backward in this Matter. — Society Organized 
in 1878. — First Meeting. — September Meeting, 1878. — First 
Officers and Constitution.— Second Annual Meeting.— Fourth 
Annual Meeting. — Address of Secretary Dills. — Early Pio- 
neer Families Arranged by Townships. — Early Incidents and 
Allusions. — Contrasts. — Fifth Annual Meeting.— Address of 
James E. Rose.— A Pioneer School-house and How it Was 
Built. — Text- books. — Appa ratus . — Religious Meetings. — Pio- 
neer Ministers.— Merchants. — " Old Jack." — Pioneer Cus- 
toms. — Travel and Communication. — Tribute to the Old 
Settlers. — Semi-Centennial Celebration of the County. — 
Poem by Rev. A. H. Widney, '' The Woods of the St. Joseph." 
— Meeting at Waterloo, in 1884. 

In most of the counties in the Northwestern States, the old set- 
tlers have effected organizations for the purpose of holding frequent 
reunions, renewing the ties of friendship, collecting historical 
mementoes, and recording reminiscences, details of early history, 
etc. There can be but one opinion as to the certain benefits inur- 
ing from such meetings. De Kalb County has been a little back- 
ward in this particular, but it is to be hoped that a growing interest 
will be felt in the association which has been in existence for the 
past few years. After frequent suggestions and occasional discus- 
sions the 

first meeting 

was appointed for July 4, 1878, at the celebration of Independence 
Day, at Auburn. The committee of arrangements for this day 
comprised G. W. Gordon, R. H. Weamer, Henry Bashelier, John 
Leasure, L. J. Hopkins and T. Mills. Dr. Ford was chosen Presi- 
dent; T. C. Mays, Officer of the Day; and the following committee 
of old settlers was chosen to arouse the appropriate interest in their 
respective localities : Butler, Peter Simmons; Jackson, Alexander 
Provines and Henry Feagler; Concord, J. F. Coburn; .Newville, B. 


F. Blair; Stafford, Henry Dickerhoof; Wilmington, Samuel Head- 
ley; Union, John Butt, S. Bassett, S. W. Ralston, Major S. W. 
Sprott, D. Altenburg, J. O. P. Sherlock and George En sley; Rich- 
land, James Goetschius; Fairfield, George Emerick; Smithtield, E. 
R. Shoemaker; Franklin, George P. Firestone; Troy, Samuel 
Learned; Keyser, O. C. Clark. T. D. Gross was named as Super- 

A very good representation of the old settlers was present on the 
appointed day, and after the celebration exercises, met in the grove 
to organize. The meeting was called to order by T. D. Gross. 
James R. Cosper was chosen President, and T. D. Gross, Secretary. 
The following resolution was adopted: 

"Resolved, That when this meeting adjourn, it will adjourn to 
meet at Auburn, Sept. 12, 187S; and that all who were citizens of 
the county prior to Jan. 1, 1S46, are cordially invited to attend and 
participate in the meeting." 

On motion, a committee of two from each township was ap- 
pointed, to ascertain the number of old settlers in their respective 
townships, and notify and induce them to attend the next meeting, 
and perform such other duties as in their judgment would be for 
the best interests of the meeting. The following were appointed: 
Butler, Peter Simmons and J. A. Miller; Jackson, A. D. Goet- 
schius and Henry Brown; New ville, B. F. Blair and John Plattner; 
Concord, Samuel "Wasson and J. Rhodes; Stafford, C. B. "Wane- 
maker and C. L. Thomas; Wilmington, George Egnew and Nathan 
Mathews; Union, T. D. Gross and Miles Waterman; Keyser, O. C. 
Clark and William Embra; Richland, G. Showers and Thomas 
Dailey; Fairfield, W. Childs and P. Gushwa; Smithfield, R. J. 
Daniels and Jerry Hemstreet; Franklin, John N. Clark and John 
Hammond; Troy, Wm. Emerson and John Stearns. 


The adjourned meeting was duly held on the 12th of September, 
at Auburn. Major S. W. Sprott was appointed Chairman, and T. 
C. Mays, Secretary. Nelson Prentiss, Esq.," of Noble County, being 
present was called upon to suggest a way to proceed to organize 
an old settlers' association, which he did after the manner followed 
in Noble County. He read a synopsis of the by-laws of the Noble 
County Old Settlers' Association, which were amended and 
adopted. The following persons were in attendance, and the dates 
of their settlement are also given: 



William Smith May, 1836 

Samuel Wasson Dec, 1833 

S. D. Long March, 1845 

J. E. Rose Oct., 1836 

Samuel Headly Sept., 1836 

Philip Gushwa March, 1845 

S. B.Ward Jan., 1842 

William Carr Feb., 1839 

J. D. McAnnally Sept., 1840 

N. H. Matthews Oct., 1S39 

C. P. Coleman Dec, 1842 

R. Culbertson Oct., 1843 

R. G. Daniels Jan., 1837 

P. B. Nimmons Aug., 1844 

N. Griffith April, 1839 

James Draggoo Oct., 1841 

A. D. Goetschius .June, 1836 

Paul Long Feb., 1841 

John Hogue June, 1842 

D. McDaniel June, 1S43 

Isaac Deihl June, 1843 

A. J. Ralston Dec, 1842 

James Johnson Aug., 1844 

N.Ensley Oct., 1841 

J. E. Shilling April, 1845 

G. W. Gordon Oct., 1841 

Henry Clark Oct., 1842 

O. C. Clark Oct., 1842 

J. C. Wells June, 1844 

D. Altenburg Nov., 1837 

R. B. Showers Feb., 1839 

W.Jacques Oct., 1845 

Thomas D. Daily March, 1841 

Levi J. Walsworth Nov., 1837 

C. Bowman Oct., 1839 

Henry Feagler Sept., 183g 

M. Whetsel May, 1837 

John McClellan Oct., 1844 

J. H. Ford Nov., 1844 

A. Blodgett Aug., 1842 

Peter Treesh Oct., 1842 

Henry A. Shull Sept., 1844 

David Weaver Aug., 1838 

A. S. Casebeer i.Sept., 1837 

G. W. Husselman May, 1845 

Abraham Eakright Sept., 1836 

D.Z.Hoffman May, 1845 

J. C. Somers Aug., 1841 

S. W. Sprott July, 1840 

T. D. Gross March, 1841 

Guy Plum June, 1843 

Henry Willis Oct., 1843 

Charles Gillett Oct., 1843 

Cornelia P. Cole June, 1842 

Sarah Bowman March, 1841 

Eliza Wason Sept., 1837 

Caroline Whetsel Sept.. 1841 

M. J. Husselman Oct., 1845 

Anna McDaniel May, 1843 

Mary Siebert Aug., 1836 

Maria Ing-man Aug., 1836 

Almira Martin May, 1836 

8. A.Griffith Nov., 1839 

Anna Kline Aug., 1841 

Mary McClellan Aug., 1841 

Rachel T.eesh Oct., 1842 


The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Presi- 
dent, Elder S. B. "Ward; Vice-President, P. B. Nimmons; Secre- 
tary, W. H. Dills; Treasurer, Gyrus Bowman; Biographer and Li- 
brarian, J. E. Pose. An executive committee was chosen consisting 
of one from each township: Butler, John Hogue; Keyser, O. C. 
Clark; Jackson, William Carr; Concord, R. Culbertson; Newville, 
B. F. Blair; Wilmington, Samuel Headley; Auburn, T. D. Gross; 
Waterloo, John Butt; Richland, N. Griffith; Fairfield, Philip 
Gushwa; Smithfield, R. G. Daniels; Franklin, R. N. Keep; Troy, 
William Emerson; Stafford, Henry Wanemaker. 

The following articles of association were adopted: 

" I. This association shall be called the Pioneers' Association of 
De Kalb County, Ind. 

'' II. The officers shall be a President, Vice-President, Secretary, 
Treasurer, Biographer and Librarian, and an executive committee, 
consisting of one from each township, who shall hold their offices 
for one year and until their successors are elected. 

" III. It shall be the duty of the President to preside at all meet- 


ings of the society, and in his absence the Vice-President shall 
preside, and in the absence of both the society shall elect a Presi- 
dent fro tern. 

"IV". The Secretary shall procure at the expense of the society a 
substantial book in which he shall record these articles of associ- 
ation, and the proceedings of all meetings, annual and special, to- 
gether with all written and printed addresses, delivered before the 
annual meetings, and all biographical sketches of such members as 
shall die during each year, and shall conduct all correspondence of 
the society, and perform such other duties appertaining to his office 
as the society may direct. 

"V. It shall be the duty of the Biographer to present to the 
society at each annual meeting the names of all such members as 
have died since the last annual meeting, together with sketches of 
their lives. 

" VI. The Librarian shall take charge of all relics and memen- 
toes of the early settlement of DeKalb County, and of all books and 
papers deposited with him, and shall carefully preserve the same; 
and shall record in a book kept for that purpose all such relics, the 
name and residence of each donor and the date of the gift. 

"VII. The executive committee shall have a general super- 
vision of the affairs of the society, seven of whom shall constitute 
a quorum. They shall have power to call special meetings when 
in their opinion the interest of the society shall demand, and ar- 
range the programme of proceedings of regular meetings, procure 
speakers, and see that a suitable place is provided for holding the 
meetings; and in addition to their general duties it shall be the 
duty of each member for his respective township to report to the 
biographer the names of such members as shall die during each 
year within ten days after each death; such information to give the 
name, date and place of birth, time of settlement in Indiana, date 
of death, and such other facts as he shall deem of importance. 

"VIII. The annual meetings of the society shall be held on 
the third Thursday in June in each year. 

"IX. All persons who were residents of Northern Indiana 
prior to Jan. 1, 1846, and who are residents of De Kalb County, 
shall be considered members of this society. 

"X. Amendments to these regulations may be made at any 
regular or called meeting, by a vote of a majority of the members 
present, provided that no change shall be made at a special meet- 
ing, unless notice of such proposed change be given in one or more 


of the newspapers of De Kalb County, not less than thirty days 
before such meeting." 

It was decided to hold the next meeting at Auburn; and each 
member of the executive committee was requested to take the 
names of all old settlers in their respective townships, who settled 
in De Kalb County prior to January, 1846, and report them, with 
the date of their arrival, to the secretary of this association. 


The first regular meeting under the constitution was held on 
Thursday, June 19, 1879, in the grove on Ensley avenue, between 
Auburn and Auburn Junction. All the officers of the association 
were present, and there were between 3,000 and 4,000 citizens of 
De Kalb and adjoining counties. After a call to order by President 
S. B. Ward, and prayer by Rev. John McCurdy, of Troy Town- 
ship, Hon. John Morris, now of Fort Wayne, but formerly a resi- 
dent of this county, was introduced and addressed the meeting in 
an eloquent, entertaining and pleasant manner for an hour. This 
was followed by a recess until half past one, for refreshments, which 
interval was most agreeably occupied by nearly all in social greet- 
ings, pleasant renewal of old acquaintances, the formation of new 
ones, and in the partaking of the abundant supply of provisions 
which nearly every family present brought with them, while a 
large number retired to the village to partake of the hospitalities 
of the citizens of Auburn. 

After reassembling, Hon. Andrew Ellison, of Lagrange County, 
agreeably entertained the meeting for half an hour. The reports 
of the secretary were then read and approved. The biographer 
then read the list of names of the old settlers who had died since 
the meeting of September previous, as follows : Hannah Flint, born 
Sept. 7, 1807, became a resident of De Kalb County in March, 1839, 
died Oct. 25, 1878. Lewis Tiffany, born in 1806, became a resident 
Feb. 17, 1842, died Oct. 21, 1878. Charles H. Wanemaker, born 
June 14, 1827, became a resident in October, 1844, died Jan. 1, 
1879. Henry Brown, born in 1811, became a resident in Septem- 
ber, 1837, died March IS, 1879. Peter Simon became a resident 
in March, 1835, died Nov. 3, 1878. Jane Jones, born May 26, 
1839, became a resident in 1844, died Jan. 22, 1879. Hannah M. 
Hathaway, born in 1802, became a resident in 1844, died Jan. 25, 
1879. Richard Parnell, born June 23, 1790, became a resident in 
October, 1842, died Aug. 28, 1878. John Parnell, born April 6, 


1826, became a resident in October, 1842, died Jan. 31, 1879. 
James Campbell, born Oct. 2, 1S10, became a resident in 1842, 
died Feb. 28, 1879. Hannab Campbell, born Sept. 23, 1814, be- 
came a resident in 1842, died Feb. 20, 1879. John F. Coburn (first 
County Clerk), born July 26, 1S06, became a resident in March, 
1836, died April 8, 1879. Jesse Hadley became a resident in 1837, 
died in February, 1879. Jane Barney became a resident in 1840, 
died April 22, 1879. Arial Eude, born Jan. 7, 1810, became a 
resident in 1836, died May 3, 1879. 

Short addresses were then listened to from Colonel I. B. Mc- 
Donald, of Whitley County; Major S. W. Sprott, of Auburn; 
Samuel Wasson, of Concord, and J. W. Jeffords, of Waterloo. 
For the ensuing year, the officers chosen were : President, S. B. 
Ward ; Vice-President, P. B. JSTimmons; Secretary, W. H. Dills; 
Treasurer, Cyrus Bowman; Biographer and Librarian, J. E. Bose. 

As a part of the proceedings of the day, there were called to the 
stand and introduced to the audience the following persons : Mrs. 
Margaret Cammins (a daughter of the late John Houlton, first 
settler of the county), the first white child born in the county, 
April 7, 1836; Mrs. J. R. Moody (daughter of the late Abraham 
Fair), the second white female child born in the county, April 17, 
1S36, and James Platter, the first white male child born in the 
county, in October, 1836. There was also presented to view the 
surveyor's compass and chain, used and owned by the late Hon. E. 
J. Dawson, in the original survey of the public lands in North- 
eastern Indiana, which were recognized by Samuel Wasson, then a 
chainman. Mr. Wasson is the oldest living settler in the county 
at present. J. W. Jeffords, in his remarks, exhibited the ax used 
in chopping the timber for the first house erected in the county, 
which was John Houlton 's, of Franklin Township. The ax now 
weighs six and a half pounds, but originally its weight was between 
eioht and nine pounds. He also showed a field hoe which he made 
forty-two years before, at Hamilton, Steuben County. 

The association adjourned to meet at such place as the executive 
committee might appoint, in 1S80, but no meeting was held that 
year. The presidential campaign and two soldiers' reunions seemed 
to prevent sufficient interest on the part of the leading citizens. 


The association met June 16, 1S81, in the private grove of Mrs. 
O. C. Houghton, at Auburn. There was a reasonable attendance 


of old settlers, who, with others present, made a very respectable 
meeting in point of numbers. Under General Blair, of Waterloo, 
as Marshal, and headed by the Corunna Band, the old settlers 
formed in line at 10:30 a. m., at the court-house square, and 
marched to the grove, where, after vocal and instrumental music, 
an address was delivered by W. H. Dills, Secretary of the associ- 
ation, so replete with interest that certain portions are here given: 

"Between thirty -five and forty years ago, the period in which 
the people we recognize and designate as ' old settlers' first settled 
in Northern Indiana, during that time when we met and became 
acquainted, that meeting was had and acquaintances made almost 
invariably, not as we meet to-day, under the beautiful trees set out 
and cultivated by the hand of man for his profit, but it was be- 
neath the towering forms and broad branches of the giant trees of 
the native forest, planted, nurtured and reared by the hand of God 
for his Divine purpose. Instead of enjoying the sweet perfume of 
domestic plants and flowers placed around us by hands of youth 
and innocence, we met amid the aroma of the wild flowers of the 
forest. Then we met by twos and threes; now by the thousand — 
a fitting and beautiful contrast of this country to-day and as it was 
then. * * * 

" It is sad, very sad, my friends, to reflect that many of the noble 
souls who have heretofore attended our meetings will not be pres- 
ent to-day or at any of our future meetings. Their bodies have 
returned to mother earth. Their work and toil and labor is past. 
They cleared away the heavy forests, they built for us homes, 
planted orchards, built school-houses, churches, highways, bridges; 
raised children and devised unto them honorable names; and per- 
formed every duty toward their country and their race. They 
have passed away forever, and we know them now only by the 
kindly remembrances that are placed upon the tablets of our 
memories. * * * 

" These persons to whom I have just called your attention, and 
yon who are here to-day, members of this society, are heroes in 
the true sense of the term. Not military chieftains, nor those who 
from ambitious motives for place and power are overturning poli- 
cies and dynasties; but they and yon sought and determined to 
and did conquer and subdue a wilderness to found a colony which 
to-day smiles with civilization and enterprise, peace and plenty, 
nurtured and fostered by your and their hands, and those who fol- 
lowed in the track which you and they had broken. 


" We can very well remember seeing these early settlers and 
their families, with their white-covered wagons, the wife or daughter 
driving, the father and boys following, and driving, with the aid of 
a dog, a cow or two, sometimes a few sheep — all wending their way 
toward the setting sun or plunging into the forest, and hauling up 
or stopping upon a tract of land upon which not a tree had been 
cut, and where for ages the rays of the orb of day had not pene- 
trated, amidst the chorus of the feathered songsters of the grove and 
the silence of the night, disturbed only by the hootings of the owl, 
or the indescribable bowlings of hungry wolves. There you, or 
the fathers of you who came in early times, halted their wagons, 
which contained all they had on earth; and there to-day you will 
find comfort, luxury and ease. 

"Before reaching that final resting pi; ce weeks and months had 
passed in reaching the goal, following Indian trails scarcely wide 
enough to admit of the passage of a wagou, no bridges, dangers to 
be encompassed on every side, the early settler was of necessity 
his own sentinel, and upon himself relied tor protection and safety. 
The trails would sometimes seem to run out — come to an end. 
Sometimes they would divide and create doubt as to the course 
that should be pursued. He had no compass and could not tell 
the cardinal points, but by an examination of trees he could tell 
the north side of them by the heaviest growth of moss or bark, and 
therebv determine his course. When night came ere he reached 
his destination, by the side of the trail, where water and grass were 
sufficient, he would build a fire, without the aid of matches, by the 
side of some huge log, and there prepare their meal, his wife and 
little ones retiring to sleep in the wagon, and he, wrapped in a 
blanket, on the leaves under it, with his faithful dog on one side 
and his trusty rifle on the other, there seek repose and rest, with as 
much confidence of safety and exemption from injury as you did 
last evening upon your downy couches, within bolted doors. 

"After reaching his land, purchased of the Government at 
$1.25 per acre, or from some speculator for $2.00, $3.00 or $4.00 
per acre, the pioneer finds for a time that his neighbors are few 
and far between, like angels' visits. There he could not hear his 
neighbors' chickens crow, their dogs bark, or their dinner bell or 
horn. With difficulty he at last succeeds in building his rude little 
cabin and in clearing off a few acres, by cutting down all the trees 
eighteen inches or less in diameter, and girdling all the others, 
which will give him a short supply of corn and vegetables. As for 



meats, he has none, except as he depends upon the chances of tak- 
ing game from the forest, and then eat it, very often, without even 
salt or bread. 

"The privations of the early settler were great, but often their 
perils were still greater. Diseases, indigenous to a new country, 
of which he had previously no knowledge or experience, and gener- 
ally malarial in their character, were certain to overtake him and 
his family. The massive foliage of the giant trees through which 
the sun scarcely penetrated, and the black soil vegetatioi , and the 
decayed vegetable matter everywhere abounding, generated vast 
volumes and columns of miasma. No physician or drug store was 
probably within twenty miles, and himself and family were racked 
almost to death with the shakes, or scorched with raging fevers. 
Until acclimated by a residence of from two to five years, and 
sometimes longer, the early settler was yearly visited with attacks 
of fever and ague, and felt thankful, indeed, if in the fall seasons he 
did not have an attack of bilious or intermittent fever. Snake 
bites, broken or cut limbs, and rheumatism from his frequent ex- 
posure were of frequent occurrence, and no medical aid at hand. 
Indeed the hearts of these men and women were brave. 

"A man may stand unmoved at\the mouth of a cannon, yet the 
pitiful moans of a sick wife, the delirious tossing and crying of his 
children with consuming fevers, without medicine or a doctor, or 
even sympathizing friends or neighbors within miles, would, no 
doubt, draw a tear, that would rush down the sunburned face, and 
would fill his very soul with the deepest sorrow and solicitude. So, 
too, it would be, if it were possible, tenfold more sorrowful to the 
wife should the husband and protector be stricken down. Even in 
health their privations seem almost incredible to us. Lumber was 
not to be had at any price; mills were distant, and what roads there 
were, were almost impassable. A journey of weeks, sometimes, 
leaving the wife and children, was necessary to obtain the neces 
saries of life. Families were almost driven to the verge of starva 
tion, living for weeks on potatoes, wheat bran, and I have he 
on beach-bark and milk. The private history of the sufferings 
privations and heroic endurance of many families iu early times in 
this county has not been, nor will it ever be, written. Many, nearly 
all, of those who have suffered and endured as I have stated, have 
gone where the weary are at rest, and there is no land to clear, no 
cabins to raise, no sufferings, no solicitude; the grave has put its 
seal on their history. Peace be to their ashes. * * * 


" In early days we asked not whether the new comer was a "Whig 
or a Democrat, Jew or Gentile, Methodist or Baptist, rich or poor; 
all we wanted to know was that he was a neighbor and a man. 
These inquiries as to a man's religious or political opinions were 
not thought of. Was he a good fellow, truthful, honest and chari- 
table ? If he had not these qualities, he did not stay long enough 
in onr midst to become an old settler. Those who did not come up 
to that standard either returned to their old homes or sought other 
localities long years ago. * * * 

"At the risk of wearying you, I will name a few of those vet- 
erans who were the foremost men of the county in 1845, but who 
have gone to their long homes. Let us speak reverently of them. 
Their faults were human, but their good qualities and manly virtues 
will commend them to our consideration. I will give them by 
townships in the usual order, leaving out Keyser, which was not 
then formed : 

"Butler — The Brooks, Henry Clark and sons, George Delong, 
the Embrys, Abraham and Charles Fair, INathaniel Fitch, the 
Greggs, the Bells, father and son, the Hoffmans, Hogues, Hol- 
brooks, Jacksons, Lungs, Millers, Rodenbaughs, Reeves, Shulls, 
Simons, Surfaces, Natts and "Wellers. 

" Jackson — The Bishops, Cools, Cobblers, Komeskys, Daves, 
Draggoos, Essigs, Georges, Hurshes, Hendersons, Hartles, John- 
sons, Lawheads, Means, Moores, Mowries, Osburns, Sugars, Staf- 
fords, Squiers, Stewards, Tarneys, "Watsons, "Wyatts, "Williams and 

" Concord — The Aliens, Altons, Burleys, Blairs, Balls, Carrs, 
Culbertsons, Coburns, Catlins, Draggoos, Dawsons, Fales, Head- 
leys, Johnsons, Knights, McNabbs, Nichols, Owens, Robinsons, 
Rhodes, Sechlers, "Widneys, Woodcoxes, Williams and Whites. 

" JVewville —The Bartletts, Dodges, Delongs, Ellises, Lewises, 
Lawrences, Murphys, Rogers, Platters, Strongs, Steeles, Thomases 
and "Waldons. 

" Stafford— The Barbers, Coats, Christoffels, De Forrests, Deihls, 
Headleys, McDaniels, Roses, Strohls, Shoubs, Schofields, Websters 
and "Wanemakers. 

"Wilmington — The Armstrongs, Babcocks, Coes, Crooks, Eak- 
rights, Egnews, Fosdicks, Finneys, Helwigs, Hackleys, Handys, 
Imhofs, Jackmans, Kreutzes, Maxwells, Mullenixes, Meeses, Nor- 
rises, Nelsons, Nodines, Packers, Rutledges, Roberts, Robes, 


Sawyers, Tremans, Tomlinsons, Totteus, Veeleys, Widneys, Woods 
and Weeks. 

"Union — The Ashelmans, Altenburgs, Abbotts, Bidlers, Baugh- 
mans, Browns, Cospers, Clays, Fishers, Fulks, Gingriches, Hussel- 
mans, Kruuis, Lutzes, Latsons, McEndefers, Misers, Summers, 
Strohs, Weavers, Weeks, Walworths, Whetsels, Parks and Ing- 

"Richland — -The Bangs, Cowleys, Clays, Calkins, Daileys, De- 
witts, Feaglers, Greens, Hardys, Moodys, McMillens, Pennells, 
Rogers, Shulls, Showers, Treshes and Weiricks. 

" Fairfield— -The Chaffees, McNabbs, Powells, Storys, Gushwas 
and Wells. 

" Smithfield — The Baxters, Boyers, Blakers, Corwins, Danks, 
Daniels, Hemstreets, Holmes, Krums, Kelleys, McCoshes, Smiths 
and Walkers. 

" Franklin — The Aldriches, Balls, Bowmans, Bucks, Beards, 
Crains, Dirrims, Ducks, Firestones, Houltons, Holmes, Hammonds, 
Jones, Jackmans, Jeffords, Keeps, Lewes, Manns, McQueens, Mc- 
Curdys, McAllisters, Myers, ISTidigs, Nelsons, Olds, Porters, Pack- 
ers, Rudes, Stambaughs, Shulls, Snooks, Thurstons, Watermans 
and Wilsons. 

" Troy — The Burdicks, Cathers, Casebeers, Colls, Emersons, 
Eddys, Helwigs, Jennings, Kniselys, Larneds, McClures, McClel- 
lans, McDaniels, Stearns, Willards, Waydleichs and Zimmermans. 

"Those still living I do not mention. They, or at least a great 
many of them, are here to-day to speak for themselves. The men 
I have named were actively identified with the material interests 
of our county; their houses were ever the center of a liberal hospi- 
tality, and many brought to bear upon the difficulties and pri- 
vations of pioneer life more than ordinary good judgment and 
natural ability. Many of them were thoroughly well educated, 
and had the energy and perseverance so highly necessan r in a 
pioneer. Many led lives of devout Christianity, and the Sunday- 
schools and churches they established are all over our county as 
lasting monuments to their memories and the foundations of our 
moral and social society to-day. 

" The men whom I have named, who came here prior to Jan. 1, 
1846, came before the period of railroads, before canals were dug, 
and many of them before the roads were cut and bridges built. Just 
think of it, that thirty-five years ago the residents of our county 
had never seen a railroad car, and we have over a hundred miles of 


railroad track in the county to-day, and 200 trains daily through 
it. There was not then in the county a steam engine; there was 
not one cook-stove in a dozen families. What kind of a dinner do 
you suppose the cooks of to-day would get up without a cook-stove? 
They had never even heard of kerosene oil for illuminating pur- 
poses. Matches, do you recollect the name? lucifer matches, were 
hard to obtain, and only a few could afford the luxury. Why, the 
old-fashioned grain cradle, now out of use, was then just intro- 
duced. We had no such reapers and mowers and machinery for 
threshing and agricultural purposes that is now stacked on almost 
every forty-acre farm in the county. 

" I recollect very distinctly the first threshing machine. It in- 
deed was a beauty. It did not even separate the grain from the 
chaff and straw. It was brought into the county by John Zimmer- 
man, who then resided on the Houk farm, in Jackson Township. 
He was the father of Mr. Elias Zimmerman, of this place. In 
fact, it would now be a novelty, and, as it did then, would now 
draw crowds when set to work; and, to use a homely expression, it 
was the 'biggest thing out.' Instead of being several weeks in 
flailing, tramping and winnowing out a hundred bushels of wheat, 
the farmer, with that threshing machine, could thresh out that 
quantity in a day, and then take his time to run it through the 
fanning mill. And when he had the wheat ready for market, then 
he would have to take about three days to carry a load of twenty- 
five or thirty bushels to Fort Wayne and sell it for 50 or 60 cents 
a bushel. This, of course, was after they had been here ten or 
twelve years. My friends, just think that to-day there is not a 
farmer in the county but who can market from his farm a load of 
forty bushels in an hour and a half's time in some railroad elevator. 
Corn had a value then proportioned to wheat, the same as now. 
Pork then ranged at $1.50 to $2.00 per hundred pounds. * * 

" In about two months it will be thirty-seven years since I was 
brought to this county by my parents, settling in Spencerville, 
then the most wealthy and populous part of the county. Having 
a grist and saw mill, postofflce, stores, ashery and other insignia of 
a new town in a new country, Spencerville commanded the trade 
of a large territory. In those times we knew all the people who 
made their appearance in a town, and if we did not know their 
names we soon found out by asking. Let us look at the citizens 
of Spencerville to-day. I have carefully thought of and looked for 
all I then knew so well, and to-day there are but two persons alive 


and residing in that town who lived there in 1844, and they are 
'Squire Barney and Dr. Emanuel. Their wives, and noble wo- 
men they were, have long since been gathered to their rest. 

"Now let ns go among the farmers of Concord Township and 
6ee if we can find some old, familiar faces who were on the same 
farms thirty-seven years ago. Of those who then owned and still 
reside on the same farms, I am able to find only eight men — 
Robert Culbertson, Sol. Woodcox, Henry Robinson, Jonathan 
Boyle, Samuel "Wasson, David Sliull, John Shutt and William 
Henderson. But there are some who still reside on the same farm 
as then, having succeeded their parents. Some of these are John 
Widney, Erastus White, Jackson Moody, Daniel and David Butler, 
Mort. Milliman, Milas Rhodes and mother, and R. G. Coburn. 

"Now, my friends, let me change the scene. Let the curtain 
exhibit this village of Auburn in December, 1856, now nearly 
twenty-five years ago, when I located here. Upon inquiry you 
will find only ten families occupying the same homes as then, viz.: 
Dr. Ford, Mrs. Leasure, Mrs. Mott, George Brandt, G. W. Stahl, 
Major Sprott, James Brinkerhoff, Mrs. H. Jones and Mrs. Hough- 
ton, upon whose grounds we are now assembled — ten in all. Besides 
those named, the following families still reside in town, as in 
December, 1856 : S. W. Ralston, S. B. Ward, J. W. Case, Lewis 
Bowers, James and Hiram Griswold, Mrs. Puffenberger, Mrs. 
Stephen Latson, George Wagoner, Mrs. C. S. Hare and Mrs. W. 
A. Sawrey, eleven; in all, twenty-one families. But of these 
twenty-one families, death has entered and carried away a husband 
or a wife in all but eight. 

" Let us go out on the streets and ramble among the business 
men and houses, about the mills, shops and in the professional 
ranks; examine the faces of these active men and see if any are here 
to-day still engaged in the same business as twenty-five years ago. 
I look carefully and find but three. Not counting Dr. Ford, who 
has retired from active practice, I find James W. Case, then and 
now a mechanic. I see also G. W. Stahl still cutting out pants and 
cooking the same old goose he did of yore, laughing just as joy- 
ously, but not so vigorously. The third, myself, an humble fol- 
lower of Blackstone and Kent. Those of my profession, where 
are they? Judge Mott, good old soul, who never by word or action 
intended a wrong, and his son Sheridan, bright, brilliant and 
promising, father and son lie side by side and fill honored graves 
at their old homestead. T. R. Dickinson, though eccentric, yet 


abounding in enterprise and integrity, as good a neighbor and citi- 
zen as ever lived, is buried in Waterloo. His son Timothy, of 
many rare qualities, is now only a breathing corpse, dying a slow 
death of softening of the brain, induced by over mental and physi- 
cal labor. A. S. Blake is in Denver, Col. ; S. J. Stoughton and S. 
W. Dickinson, I believe, are dead. James Erinkerhoff is and has 
been an invalid for years, and out of practice. And last of all, 
Judge Morris, a name honored and spoken off with reverence by 
all old settlers, resides at Fort "Wayne, and is now the peer if not 
the superior in legal lore, in varied and enlarged intellectual at- 
tainments, and in unsullied integrity, of any of his distinguished 
associates upon our supreme bench. Indeed 

" ' I feel like one who treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted, 
Whose lights are fled, whose garlands dead, 
And all but me departed.' 

"Twenty-five years ago we thought we had a 'staving' nice 
town here. There was not a steam or flouring mill in it; not a 
wheel turned by steam-power; not a bakery, meat shop, family 
grocery store, nor even a millinery or barber shop here. Of the 
young men of our town on whom devolved the responsibility of 
taking care of the social affairs, I now recall Philip Fluke, then 
tanning leather, making money and gadding all over the country. 
Judge_ McClellan was shoving a pen in the auditor's office. Our 
present good-looking sheriff, 'Gust. Leas, Ame Park, now of Ken- 
dallville, and Lewis Ochs, a brother of Simon and Isaac Ochs, were 
all clerks in dry-goods stores. The two "Weaver boys, Eli and 
Enos, were running drug stores, and sometimes horses, but always 
after the girls. Steve Ford, "Whead. Griswold and Tom Gross, 
who were born tired, were not permanently engaged at anything, 
but were ready to snap up any good offer that presented itself. Ex- 
Auditor Hague and Thad. Meese were taking their first lessons in 
making boots and shoes, under the lynx eyes of Isaac Brandt. 
John Somers was then, as now, temporarily absent in the Western 
mountains, engaged in the pleasant pastime of killing Indians and 
picking up nuggets of gold. At the same time, we claimed as be- 
longing to our crowd two others (still veterans in the cause), Uncles 
Jacob Somers and Moses Brandon, then just as desirable 'catches' 
as they are to-day. I do believe they are engaged in the fatal game 
of wearing each other out by seeing which can outlive the other in 
the state of ' single blessedness. ' 


"We had a young class coming on, then just in their ' teens,' 
who were neither man nor beast, the liveliest set of miscreants you 
ever knew. If you would catch out at night Dick and Guy Plumb, 
Jack and Coop. Ralston, Sam and Clark Ford, the Mott boys, Joe 
Loveland, Bill Finney, Dry Houghton, Harry "Ward, Sam Puff and 
a few others I could mentiou, you would, next morning, find there 
had been done more gilt-edged, clear-cut, mischievous devilment 
than could have been accomplished in a week by a regiment of old 
settlers, all of whom to-day are good business men and citizens, 
and alive, except poor Clark Ford and Sheridan Mott, who sacri- 
ficed their young lives upon their country's altar. * * * 

" Even in early days, when the pioneers were undergoing the 
privations I have spoken of, they had a very large amount of the 
real pleasures of life; and when an opportunity afforded, it was 
enjoyed with a relish equally as well as now. It certainly was 
true enjoyment to help a neighbor raise a house or a barn, do his 
logging, have quilting and sewing bees, dance on the puncheons 
in the cabins, take your girl up behind you on horseback and carry 
her through the woods six, eight or ten miles to some gathering; 
and she would have to hold on awfully tight or she would be 
brushed off the horse by the limbs or trunks of the trees. Think 
of the making of sugar, hunting bee trees, gathering cranberries, 
wild plums, cherries, grapes, crab-apples, all kinds of nuts and 
ginseng. Think of the excellent hunting and fishing there wa6 
here then ; all kinds and in large quantities were the fish, wild 
fowls and wild animals. 

"They had other pleasures; and were as keen then to devise 
and play off some joke, prank or sport at each other's expense as 
their sons and daughters are of to-day. For the purpose of show- 
ing by its sequel the good heart of one of its actors, of the many I 
have heard I will mention only one. I take the now oldest settler 
in the county; and because he is such I take the liberty of using 
his name, he feeling well assured that I would not set aught down 
in malice. It seems that long years ago, at least forty, Samuel 
Wasson unsuspectingly entered into a contract with that ever-prac- 
tical joker, shrewd lawyer and afterward honored judge, R. J. 
Dawson, whereby Wasson agreed to let Dawson strike Wa6son 
three strokes with a raw-hide — then Wasson was to strike Dawson 
five strokes with the same instrument, Wasson agreeing before- 
hand that he would not touch Dawson until he had given him all 
his three strokes. Dawson was a strong and powerful man, and 


probably struck harder than he intended; but after striking Was- 
son only twice he hurriedly put away the raw-hide and concluded 
to postpone indefinitely the giving to Wasson of the last stroke. 
He felt safe because he had Wasson's word, which then, as now, 
was as good as a bond, that Wasson would not strike. "Wasson 
demanded the other lick and to have the contract fulfilled at once. 
Dawson argued that by the contract he could take all the time he 
wanted to finish up his work. Wasson begged and demanded, and 
Dawson was equally stubborn and determined in his way. The 
truth was that thereafter on that day it was not very quiet on the 
St. Joseph. Dawson always thereafter kept postponing the exe- 
cution of his contract, and Wasson ever waiting, watching and wish- 
ing to have Dawson strike him. Wasson nursed his ire (and I 
have heard him nurse it) because he was such a fool as to enter 
into such a foolish scheme. They lived within a mile of each 
other for twenty years, but were not as friendly as they ought to 
have been and be neighbors. 

" Twenty-two years ago the 15th of last month, a man at Spencer- 
ville, with his weeping wife and three little boys by his side, and 
other mourning friends around, lay dying. Many of his neighbors 
were there to take their last look and render assistance. A few 
moments after midnight, after a few gasps, and Reuben J. Dawson 
was dead. Wasson was not present, but Dawson had not been 
dead five minutes before the tall, bent form and shaggy beard of 
Samuel Wasson came into that house of mourning from the dark- 
ness outside, where he had been silently and alone awaiting the 
crisis. As tenderly as a sister would, he gently carried the little 
boys and weeping widow to their rooms, and with his own hands 
shaved, dressed and fitted for sepulture the body of that neighbor. 
The next day, solitary and alone, with his shovel and mattock, 
Wasson wended his way to the village grave-yard, and, with his 
own hands and strength, dug and prepared the grave of one whom 
he had thought had so grievously wronged him. And there in 
that grave, that day, Samuel Wasson buried all the ill will, hatred 
or malice he ever had against Dawson. My friends, such is only 
one of many of the great big, noble hearts of the old settlers. And 
when such men or women die, there are more bitter tears shed and 
sadder hearts around their graves than there was around the bier of 
that railroad magnate and millionaire, Thomas A. Scott, a few 
days ago. * * * 

"My address has been somewhat sombre and solemn; I cannot 



leave you in that frame of mind. Excuse me a moment while I 
bother you with a little more poetry. It is not old, nor Scottish, 
nor Irish, as that which I have read. It is quite modern; it is 
American, too; and to make it still better and refine it down, it is 
American, of African descent. It is an address to the members of 
the Lime Kiln Club, and published in the Detroit Free Press. 
Here it is : 

" 'the lime kiln glee club chorus. 

" ' Yes, we am passin' down de lane, 
An' haltin' by de way, 
Jist long 'nuff to rest our limbs, 
An' fur de chil'en pray ; 
Las' Sunday preacher Gordon sa.d : 
"De march will soon be o'er, 
An' all de ole folks safely cross 
Upon dat shinin' shore. 
Chorus. — But old folks am jolly folks, 
An' while we wait to go, 
Let's gin de fiddle lots of work, 
An' rush de ole banjo. 

" ' Dar s Uncle Daniel, he am lame, 

An' Peter White am bald, 

An' Diana Rock an' ole Aunt Chlo' 

Am waitin' to be called; 

An' Trustee Pullback says to me : 

" De summons soon mus' come, 

For you an' me an' us ole folks 

To tote our baggage home. 

" ' Dar's Pickles Smith an' Daddy Toots 

A-nearin' of dar end, 

An' Deacon Spooner an' his wife 

Am crutchin' round de bend ; 

Aye ! us ole folks am hangin' on, 

An' kinder waitin' round, 

To let de chil'en grow a bit , 

Po' we go under ground. 
Chorus.— But old folks am jolly folks, 

An' while we wait to go, 

Let's gin de fiddle lots o' work 

An' rush de ole banjo.' " 

At the conclusion of this address 'a recess of an hour and a half 
was occupied in hand-shaking, hearing greetings, and in partaking 
of dinner from well-filled baskets of the old settlers and others. 
After some routine business, the following officers were chosen: 

President, Dr. J. H. Ford; Vice-President, John Butt; Treasurer, 


Cyrus Bowman; Biographer, J. E. Rose; Secretary, W. H. Dills. 
As Executive Committee: Butler, Philip Noel; Concord, R. Cul- 
bertson ; Jackson, "William Carr; Newville, S. H. Bar tlett; Stafford, 
C. R. Wanemaker; Wilmington, E. W. Fosdick; Keyser, O. C. 
Clark; Richland, T. D. Daily; Fairfield, Josiah Wells; Smithfield, 
J. E. Thompson ; Franklin, Miles Waterman; Troy, W. R. Emerson; 
Auburn Precinct, J. R. Cosper; Waterloo, H. Willis. Speeches 
were made by S. B. Ward, S. H. Bartlett, S. W. Sprott, John Mc- 
Curdy and Lewis Holbrook. Relics were exhibited by Mrs. Bur- 
dick and William Smith ; after which Rev. Mr. McCurdy entertained 
the assembly with an old-fashioned Methodist hymn. The Biog- 
rapher reported the following deaths of old settlers: Catharine 
Jennings, born Jan. 14, 1806, became a resident in 1843, died Feb. 
20, 1881. Enos Smith, born June 22, 1821, became a resident in 
1842, died Aug. 8, 1880. Rebecca Coats, born Aug. 10, 1827, be- 
came a resident in 1845, died April 18, 1881. Alice Egnew, born 
in 1815, became a resident of Lagrange County in 1832, of this 
county in 1840, died March 6, 1879. James W. Jeffords, born 
Aug. 22, 1S09, came to Steuben County in 1837, to this county in 
1842, died Oct. 3, 18S0. 


In 1882, the association held its reunion in the grove at the north 
end of Auburn, June 15, and over 3,000 people were estimated to 
be present. After a call to order and the usual opening exercises, 
an address of an hour's length was delivered by J. E. Rose. Por- 
tions of his interesting article are here given: 

"The first school-house built in the county was, I think, in the 
Handy settlement, three miles south of the place where the town 
of Butler now is. It would be a curiosity now. Permit me to de- 
scribe it to-day as it stood more than forty years ago. It was built 
of round logs, that is of unhewn logs, and sixteen feet wide and 
twenty-four long, with a puncheon floor and a sled-runner chimney; 
a fireplace extending across one end of the building, and a door 
near the corner in the side. The chimney was made of mud and 
sticks, and was so large at the top that much of the light that il- 
luminated the literary path of the students during the weeks, or 
the spiritual path of the church-goer on Sunday, came down the 
chimney through the smoke. At the end of the room- opposite the 
fireplace, was the window which consisted of a row of ' seven by 
nine ' glass, occupying the place of a log that had been left out 


when the building was raised. The window was nine inches high 
and sixteen feet long, and when a snowball passing through the 
air without the aid of human agency (for no boy ever threw a snow- 
ball that hit a window), and a pane of glass was broken, its place 
was supplied by a piece of oiled paper. 

"These were usually supplanted with glass at the commence- 
ment of a term; the number of accidents of that mysterious nature 
that transpired during the term could be determined by the num- 
ber of greased papers in the window, and as these unprovided panes 
of glass became numerous in the window and were not exceedingly 
translucent during cold cloudy days, when the door must be kept 
shut, the whole school literally groped in darkness. The writing 
desk was a hewo. puncheon placed against the wall, at an angle of 
forty-five degrees, in front of the window, and a seat at the writing 
desk was a post of honor enjoyed only by the large scholars, and 
those who occupied it were envied as bitterly by the balance of 
the school as the senior class in college is by the freshmen. The 
cracks between the logs were chinked with pieces of wood and 
daubed with mud outside and in. The ceiling was made of round 
poles extending from one side of the room to the other, the ends 
resting in cracks made large for that purpose in each side. 

"Over the poles mud was spread in copious profusion, which, 
when dried, formed a ceiling that bid defiance alike to piercing 
winds of winter and scorching heat of the summer sun. The roof 
was made of clapboards held to their place by logs laid on top of 
them, called weight-poles. The seats were made of sassafras poles 
about six inches in diameter, split in two, the heart side up, and 
wooden pins or legs in the bottom or oval sides. These were 
made to suit the comfort of full-grown men, and hence were so 
high from the floor that the aid of the teacher was necessary to 
place the small scholars on the seat; and when there, no little care 
was required on their part to avoid falling off. 

" The text-books used were the "Western spelling-book, the New 
Testament, and for advanced scholars the old English reader. The 
scholars who ciphered used such arithmetics as they could procure, 
but Dabold's predominated; and when an industrious and studious 
scholar had reached the ' rule of three ' (now called proportion), the 
teacher, to avoid an exposition of his ignorance of the mysteries 
beyond, prudently required a review, and the mathematical ardor 
of the ambitious youth was cooled by being turned back to notation 
and compelled to memorize the fine print and foot-notes. As there 


was not a uniformity of books, there were no classes except spelling 
and reading classes, and each student studied arithmetic ' on his 
own hook.' The advent of such a man as my friend Houser or 
Keeran into the neighborhood at that time, with their sample desks 
and ink wells, slate blackboards and crayon pencils, terrestrial 
and celestial globes, Spencerian copy-books, and a trunk full of 
eclectic spellers, readers, mental and practical arithmetics, grammars, 
geographies, histories, steel pens and pointers would have attracted 
more attention and created more excitement among the pioneers 
than did the Rev. Lewis Hickman, lecturing on Millerism, with 
his illustrated map, as large as a bed blanket, on which were 
pictures of the great dragon that John the revelator saw, with its 
crowned heads and ten horns; with its glowing mouth and red-hot 
fangs through which blue, sickening and sulphurous flames seeth- 
ingly issued; with its serpentine caudal appendage drawing in its 
train one-third of the stars of heaven. 

"There, too, was the fair woman standing on the moon, clothed 
with the sun and crowned with stars. There, too, was Michael and 
his angels, chafing for a fight with his dragoDship as soon as orders 
could be obtained from headquarters to open out on the enemy. 
And last but not least of the hideous things on that chart was the 
devil with his cloven foot. There are many here to-day who heard 
these lectures in the log-cabin school -houses, and yet remember 
that horrid chart, and the blood-curdling harangue of the reverend 
gentleman as he tried to terrify men, womeu and children into re- 
pentance, on the same principle that the bee-keeper scares an out- 
going swarm of bees into a new hive, by the hideous noise produced 
by the united efforts of his entire family on tin pans, cow-bells and 
dinner-horns. One could almost hear the approaching echoes of 
Gabriel's trumpet while looking at that chart and listening to the 
speaker's terrifying portraitures of the horrors of the 'last day.' 

" None of the modern improvements and discoveries to aid in 
the cause of a practical education were then known in this county. 
No graded reading books or spellers, no blackboards, steel pens or 
mathematical frames, no globes or varnished pointers. Then, we 
had pointers, fresh hickories cut from the adjacent thicket with 
the jack-knife of the teacher. But they were not used as the orna- 
mented pointers now are, to demonstrate mathematical problems on 
the blackboard, and to trace out the course of rivers and mountains, 
and the most practical and direct route across the continent, or 
around the globe, upon an outline map suspended on the wall, but 

JO uJtJ /?jL^/C^ 


they were applied to the backs of the wayward youth to demon- 
strate the propriety of searching for the most direct route to 

"And these pointers were effective, too. Two of the qualifica- 
tions for teaching that were indispensable then are now entirely 
obsolete; the applicant for the position of school teacher must then 
be able to make a goose-quill pen, and possess the muscular power 
to wield a hickory whip. But the educational facilities of this 
country have changed since then. The old log-cabin school-house 
has disappeared, and now beautiful structures of frame or brick 
dot our country thickly over. The sassafras benches have given 
place to easy and convenient seats and desks, and apparatus by 
which the intelligent teacher may illustrate the sciences adorn the 
school-room in abundance. 

" A little of the rough-and-tumble life such as the pioneer ex- 
perienced is requisite to develop the courage, the moral back-bone, 
the self-reliance and industry, the patience and perseverance neces- 
sary to usefulness in life. The meetings in the old log-cabin school- 
house were conducted with a zeaPand pathos that we do not wit- 
ness now in the fashionable church. The average congregation 
then did not comprise more than twenty-rive or thirty persons on 
ordinary occasions, but their earnestness and zeal would exceed the 
aggregate zeal of an ordinary congregation of 300 persons of the 
present day. There is many a gray-haired and sun-browned pio- 
neer before me to-day who, near half a century ago, has assisted in 
the singing of ' Old Hundred,' ' Lenox,'. or the long-meter doxology 
in those old-time meetings until the very atmosphere around them 
was filled with such a spirit of goodness that every one who in- 
haled it was made to feel that it was good for him to be there. 

"There was more real, solid, soul-stirring hallelujahs in one of 
those log-cabin protracted meetings on a cold winter night, under 
the management of some of the pioneer preachers, than Moody and 
Sankey ever produced, when at the acme of their fame as revivalists. 
The early preachers have nearly all gone to their reward. Gabriel 
Williams, Lewis Hicklin, Henry Kunler, Ladd Thomas, Cyrus 
Alton and James Hadsell are numbered with those who have passed 
through the chilly waters of the mysterious river. Jonathan Thomas, 
Elder Ward, John McCurdy and James Cather, who were among 
the pioneer preachers, are yet with us, and continue their life work 
in trying to better the condition of those around them by both 
precept and example. 


"The pioneer merchants (store-keepers we then called them) 
were N. L. Thomas, of Eewville, whom we familiarly called 
'Uncle Ladd,' and Thomas J. Freeman, of Auburn; both men, of 
some consequence in their time, have long since gone to that 
country from which no traveler returns. * * * The pioneer 
store in the eastern part of the county, the one kept by Ladd 
Thomas, occupied a room about fifteen feet square, and $200 would 
have purchased every article he had to sell. He made his regular 
trips to Fort "Wayne at stated periods, riding an old black horse, 
familiarly known as ' old Jack' by all the early settlers, and carry- 
ing with him his purchases of produce, consisting of deer and coon 
skins, beeswax and ginseng roots. These he exchanged for such 
articles as he kept for sale, and freighted old Jack with his pur- 
chases on his return trip. 

"I said old Jack was familiarly known to the settlers. Uncle 
Ladd, as he was called, was a Methodist preacher, and, in addition 
to his business as a merchant and his services in the pulpit, he 
preached the funerals and solemnized the marriages for all the 
settlers in the east part of the county, and when he went from home 
to attend to these duties old Jack was his only mode of convey- 
ance. The old horse seemed to have the ability to determine the 
difference between a funeral and a wedding, and it is not strange 
that he had, when we consider the fact that when Uncle Ladd at- 
tended a funeral he went alone; but when called to officiate at a 
wedding the whole family went with him, and old Jack's burden, 
like Job's, was grievous to be borne; and like one of olden times, 
he might have exclaimed : ' It is better to go to the house of 
mourning than to the house of feasting.' I have often seen old 
Jack, on Sunday mornings, passing my father's cabin home, on his 
way to a wedding, with the whole family, consisting of Uncle Ladd, 
his wife, two sons (David, who died at early manhood, and Newton, 
now a prominent lawyer in a Western city), all perched upon his 
back. Pardon this digression, but as the old horse will be remem- 
bered by so many persons, he deserves a passing notice. 

" The storekeepers in the pioneer days were required to procure 
a license from the county commissioners before commencing 
business, and in their applications for the license they were re- 
quired to enumerate the articles they proposed to sell, and state 
the amount of capital invested in the business. And in compli- 
ance with the law, Thomas J. Freeman, the first merchant of Au- 
burn, on March 7, 1838, applied for a license to sell foreign 


merchandise and domestic groceries, with a capital of $175; and 
was required to pay for that privilege the sum of $5.00; and his 
traffic in time-pieces was restricted to one dozen for the year. The 
opinions of the people have changed greatly since then, for at that 
time Mr. Freeman was permitted to sell intoxicating liquor without 
a license, hut was not allowed to sell tea, coffee and sugar without 
a permit. JNow the dealer may sell the latter without a license, 
but must pay for the privilege of engaging in the liquor traffic. 

"Then the shoemaker, following the example of the itinerant 
preacher, went from house to house with his kit of tools and made 
the shoes for the several families comprising his list of patrons. 
The ladies had not then acquired the habit of crowding a number 
four foot into a number three French kid shoe; but the shoes were 
manufactured to fit the foot and not the eye, and were made of 
substantial material, impervious to wet and cold. And equipped 
with a pair of these shoes, the pioneer's wife could walk a mile 
through the snow without being placed under the doctor's care for 
weeks following. But these pioneer customs, together with the 
log-cabin homes, and log school-houses, have passed away and now 
live only in the fond recollections of the few old settlers who sur- 
vive. The wilderness we then loved for its native grandeur has 
disappeared, and in its stead the cultivated field with its waving 
grain, the beautiful homes and pleasant little towns have sprung up. 

"The winding wagon road, meandering around the swamps and 
creeks through the woods, can no longer be traced by the ' oldest 
inhabitant.' The old Indian trail can no longer be found, but the 
commodious highways permeating every part of the county fur- 
nish a comfortable route for every man to travel upon. The mail 
carrier, with his horn and saddle-bags, bringing us the news of 
important events, at the rate of three miles per hour, has been 
supplanted by the elegantly equipped mail coach, carrying the 
news of the world at the rate of sixty miles per hour. And not 
oontented with even that rate of speed, science now supplies us 
with the telegraph; and later with the telephone, by which we may 
converse with our friends at a distance of what was, in pioneer 
days, a four-days journey. * * * 

"Yes, indeed, great changes have taken place since the pioneer 
days; angl we, too, who yet survive, of the early settlers, have 
changed. I well remember these old men and women here to-day, 
now with white hairs and trembling and uncertain step, when in 
the vigor of early manhood and womanhood, with a courage 


scarcely exceled by the man who braves the cannon's mouth, they 
left the tender associations of their early lives and came to this 
county, then a wilderness, cheerfully and uncomplainingly, endur- 
ing its dangers and its privations for a grand and noble purpose. 
A few of the old pioneers yet remain with us. They are the true 
heroes of this country, more deserving of adulation and more 
worthy of laudatory honors than the heroes of the battle-field. To 
them we owe a debt of gratitude that we can never pay. As they 
go down to the grave, one by one, we see the land-marks of the 
civilization of this country disappear. The civilization remains 
for us to enjoy, but the motive power that planted it is fast reced- 
ing from our midst. 

"Each year, as we meet, we notice the ranks are being thinned. 
Here and there we see vacancies, where the year before sat a pio- 
neer. To-day we will, no doubt, for the last ti me take the hand of 
some one of this noble band of heroes, and ere another annual re- 
union shall take place it may be said of some of these good old 
people present to-day, ' Their life work is done, and they have gone 
to their reward.' My friends, let us remember that we owe a duty 
to these old pioneers; that to them, to their sacrifices, and patient 
and unremitting industry, we are indebted for all there is of the 
blessings of civilization that surround us. Let us spare no pains 
to make the remainder of their paths through life pleasant and en- 
joyable. Let us imitate their industry and integrity, their virtue 
and frugality, laboring to make our lives as worthy of imitation by 
those who follow us when we are gone; and hoping that it may be 

I said of us, truthfully, when our life work has been finished, as it 
can now be said of the pioneers, that the world has been made 
better by our having lived in it." 

After a recess and refreshments, officers were chosen as follows : 
President, Dr. J. H. Ford; Vice-President, William Henderson; 
Secretary, W. H. Dills; Treasurer, Cyrus Bowman; Biographer, 
D. Z. Hoffman. As Executive Committee : Butler, P. Noel; 
Jackson, William Carr; Concord, B. Culbertson; Newville, James 
Platter ; Stafford, C B. Wanemaker ; Wilmington, south, P. B. 
Nimmons ; Wilmington, north, W. L. Blair ; Auburn, J. R. Cos- 
per ; Waterloo, John Butt ; Keyser, B. F. Moody; Richland, N. 
Griffith; Fairfield, G. W. Husselman; Smithfield, J. E. Thompson; 

I Franklin, M. Waterman; Troy, W. R. Emerson. 

Section 9 of the Constitution was amended so as to read as fol- 
lows: " All who were residents of Northern Indiana prior to any 


annual meeting of the society, aud who are residents of De Kalb 
County, shall be considered members of the society." It was also 
voted that the president and secretary be members of the executive 
committee, and that the president be chairman, and the secretary, 
clerk thereof. 

The Biographer reported the following deaths of pioneers: Henry 
Feagler, born May 24, 1816, died June 16, 18S1 ; John Platter, 
born Nov. 23, 1809, died Oct. 28, 1SS1 ; Aaron